School of Music
University of Nebraska--Lincoln
Lincoln, NE 68588-0100
(phone: [402] 472-2507; Internet: plefferts1@unl.edu)

Data entry: Peter M. Lefferts
Checked by: Peter Slemon
Approved by: Peter M. Lefferts

Author: Bartholomaeus Anglicus
Title: On the Properties of Things, Liber XIX, Cap. 134-149
Source: Bartholomaeus Anglicus, Batman vppon Bartholome His Booke De Proprietatibus Rerum, trans. John Trevisa and rev. Stephen Batman (London: Thomas East, 1582; reprint ed., Hildesheim: Olms, 1976) [STC 1538], ff. 421v-426r.

[-f.419v <recte f.421v>-] De Musica. capitulum 134.

AS Arte of numbers and measures, serueth to Diuinitie, so doth the Art of melodie: for Musicke by the which concord and melodie is knowen in sound and in song, it is needfull to know the secret meaning of holy writ, for it is said, that the world is compounded and made in a certaine proportion of harmonie, as Isidore saith libro 3. And it is said, that heauen goeth about, with consonance and accord of melodie: for musicke moueth affections, and exciteth the wits of diuers dispositions. Also in battaile the noyse of the trumpet comforteth warriours: and the more strong and couragious that the sounding is, the more strong and bold men be to fight: and comforteth shipmen to suffer all the diseases and trauayles.

[-f.422r-] And comfort of voyce, pleseth and comforteth the heart and inwits in all disease and trauaile of workes and weariness. And musicke abateth masterie of euill spirites in mankinde: as we read of David, that deliuered Saule of an vncleane spirite by crafte of melody. And musicke exciteth and comforteth beasts and serpents, foules and Dolphins to take heede thereto: and so veynes and sinews of the body and pulse thereof, and all the lims of the body be socied together, by vertue of harmony, as Isidore saith.

[Harmony in marg.] Of Musicke be three parts, Armonica, Rithmica, and Metrica. Armonica, diuideth the great and small in sounds, and high and low, and proportional chaunging of voice and sound. And Armonia is sweet accord of song, and commeth of due proportion in diuers voyces or blasts, touching and smiting sounds: for as Isidore saith, Sound commeth of voyce, as of mouth and iawes: or of blast, as of trumpes and pipes: or of touching and smiting of cymbale and harpe, and other such, and soundeth with smiting and strokes. Voyce commeth to one accord, as Hugution saieth, for in all melodie needeth many voyces or sounds, and that according: for whereas is but one voyce only, it pleaseth not the eares, as the voyce and sound of the Cuckoe: and if manie discord, the voyce pleaseth not, for of such discord commeth not song, but howling, iarring, or yelling: but in many voyces according in one, is proportion of harmony, and melody, or sweet Simphonia. [Simphonia, is a consent in tune, called harmony. in marg.] And so Isidore saith, that Simphonia is a temperate modulation and according in sounds high and low, and by this harmony, high voyce accordeth: so that if one discordeth the hearing. And such according of voice is called Euphonie, that is sweetnesse of voyce, and is called also Melodia, and hath that name of sweetenesse and of Mel, that is honie: and the contrary is Diophonia, foule voyce and discording.

To make melody of harmony, needeth Diacesma, Diesis, Tonus, Iperludius, Podorius, Arsis, Thesis, and sweete and temperate sound. Diacesma is a couenable space of two voyces, or of mo according. Diesis is the space of doing of melody, and chaunging out of one sound into another. Tonus is the sharpnesse of voyce, and is difference and quantitie of harmonie, and standeth in accent and Tenor of voyce: and Musitions make thereof fifteene parts. Iperludius is the last thereof and most sharpest. And Podorius is most heauy of all, as Isidore saith. Arsis is rearing of voyce, and is the beginning of song. Thesis is setting, and is the ende, as Isidore saith: and so Song is the bending of the voyce, for some passeth straight as he saith, and is before song. And euerye voyce is sounde, and not againward, for sound is the obiect of hering: for all that is perceiued by hearing, is called sound, as breking of trees, smiting together of stones, hurling and rushing of waues and of winde, chittering of birds, lowing of beasts, voyce and groning of men, and touching of organs. And a voyce is properly the sounde that commeth out of the mouth of a beast: and sound commeth of aire smit against an hard body, and the smiting is sooner seene than the sound is heard, and the lightening is sooner seene, than thunder is heard. A voyce is most thin aire, smitte with the wrest of the tongue: and some voyce signifieth and betokeneth by kind, as chirping of birds, and groning of sick men: and some betokeneth at will, as the voyce of a man that is ordained and shaped by heast of reason to tell out certaine words. The voyce beareth forthe the worde, and the worde that is in the thought may not come out but by help of voyce that bringeth it out: and so first the inwit gendereth a word in the thought, and putteth it afterwarde out at the mouth by the voyce, and so the word that is gendered and conteined by inwit, commeth out by the voice, as it were by an Instrument, and is knowen. The voice that is disposed to song and to melodie, hath these properties, as Isidore sayth. Voices he sayth be small, subtill, thicke, cleere, sharpe, and shrill. In subtill voyce the spirite is not strong, as in children and in women, and in other that haue not great sinewes, strong and thicke. For of smal strings commeth smal voice [-f.422v-] and subtill. The voyces be fat and thicke, when much spirite commeth out as the voyce of a man. The voyce is cleere that soundeth well, and ringeth without any hollownesse: sharpe voyces be full high: shrill voices be loud, and draweth a long and filleth soone all the place, as the noyse of trumpets. The harde voyce, hoarce, grim and grisly, is when the sound therof is vyolent, as the sound of thunder, and of an anuelde beaten with sledges: the rough voyce is hoarce and sparpled by small and diuers breathing: the blinde voyce stinteth soone, and is stuffed, and dureth not long, as the sound of an earthen vessell. The voyce Vinolenta is soft and plyant: that name Vinolenta, cometh of Vino, that is a lytle bell softly bent. The perfect voyce is high, sweete, and strong, and cleere: high to bee well heard, cleere to fill the eares, sweete to please and not to feare the hearing, and to comfort the heart to take heede therto: if ought heerof faileth, the voyce is not perfect, as Isidore saith. The first harmonie is of organs, that commeth of blast, when certain instruments be cunn[i]ngly made and duely blowen, and giueth by quantitie of the blast, and diuers qualyties, aptly diuers sounds, as it fareth of organs, trumpets and pipes, and other such that giueth diuers sounds, and noyse.

Organum is a generall name of all instruments of musicke, and is neuerthelesse specially appropriate to the instrument that is made of many pipes, and blowen with bellowes, and vsed onelye in churches, in Proses, Sequences, and Himnes.

[*Addition. in marg.] (*Or is for his loudnesse, neerest agreeing to the voyce of man.)

De Tuba. capitulum 135.

THe Turens found first the trumpet: Virgil speaketh of them and saith.

Tirrenusque tubae mugire per aethera clangor.

The voyce of the trumpet of Turene loweth in the aire. Men in olde time vsed trumpets in battaile, to feare and to affray their enemies, and to comforte their owne knights and fighting men, and to comfort horses of warre to fight, and to reese and smite in the battaile: and betokeneth worship with victory in the fighting, and to call them againe that flye: and vsed also trumpets in feasts, to call the people together: and for businesse in praising, and for crieng of wealth of ioy the Hebrewes wer commanded to blow trumpets in battaile in the beginning of the new Moone, and to cry and warn the comming of the Iubile the year of grace, [Consider by this yeare of grace, which was vsed in the time of superstition, that those wer the popes friendes, which brought him most mony, besides, the charges that was spent in going thether. in marg.] with noyse of trumpets, and to crye ioy and rest to all men, as Isidore saith. libro 18. A trumpet is properly an instrument ordeined for men that fight in battaile, to crye and to warne of the signes of battaile: and where the cryers voyce may not be heard for noyse, the noyse of the trumpet should be heard and knowen. And Tuba hath that name as it were Tona, that is holow within, and ful smooth for to take the more breath: and is round without and straight at the trumpeters mouth, and broad and large at the other end, and the trumpeter with his hande, putteth it to his mouth, and the trumpet is ruled vpward and downward, and held foorth right, and is diuers of noyse, as Isidore sayth: for it is somtime blowen to prepare battayles, and somtime for that battaile should ioine together, and somtime for the chase, and to take men into the hoast. [The onset: the alarum: the retrait in marg.]

De Buccina. capitulum 136.

BVccina hath that name, as it were, Vocina parua, and is a trumpet of horne, of tree, or of brasse, and was blowen against enimies in old time: for, as Isidore saith, libro .18. [Some vsed the greate wilke shell in steed of a trumpet, some hornes of beasts, and some the thighe bones of a man, as do the Indians. In ciuill discords, the flute, the Fieft and the Cornet, made winding like the Rammes horne. Iosua 6. Iudicum 7. 2. Regum 6. 3. Regum 1. in marg.] The wild Panims wer somtime gathered to all manner doing with the blowing of such a manner trumpet: and so Buccina was properly a token of wild men. Propertius speaketh heerof, and saith.

Buccina cogebat priscos, ad Arma Quirites.

Buccina made the old Quirites aray themselues, namelye in armour. The voyce of such a trumpet, is called Buccinum, as he sayth. And the Hebrewes vsed Trumpes of horne, namely in Kalendis, in remembrance of the deliuerance of Isaac, what time an horned Wether was offred, and made oblation of in his steede, as the Glose saith super Genesis.

De Tibia. capitulum 137.

[-f.419r <recte f.423r>-] TIbia is a pipe, and hath that name, for it was first made of legs of Hartes, young and old, as men suppose, and the noise of pipes was called Tibicen. Or els as Hugution saith, this name Tibia commeth of Tibin, that is a rush or a reede, for of certaine reedes, such an instrument was made in old time: and thereof is said hic Tibicen, nis, he that plaieth on such pipes And was somtime an instrument of sorow and lamentation, which men did vse in office and sepultures of dead men, as the Glose saith super Mattheum .9. Cum audisset tibicines, that is the singers of dole and of lamentation. [A shalme or flute. in marg.]

De Calamo. capitulum 138.

CAlamus hath the name of this worde Calando, sounding, and is the generall name of pipes. A pipe is called Fistula, for voyce commeth thereof: for voice is called Fos in Greeke, and send, is stolia in Greeke, and so the pipe is called Fistula, as it wer sending out voyce or sound. Hunters vse this instrument, for Harts loue the noyse thereof: But while the Hart taketh heed and liking in the piping of an hunter, another hunter which he hath no knowledge of, commeth and shooteth at the Hart, and slaieth him. Piping beguyleth birds and foules, therefore it is said.

Fistula dulce canit, volucrem dum decipit Auceps.

The pipe singeth sweetly, while the fowler beguyleth the birde. And sheepe loue piping, therefore shepheards vse pipes, when they walk with their sheep. Therefore one which was called Pan, was called God of Heards, for he ioyned diuers reedes, and arayed them to song slily and craftely. Virgil speaketh therof, and saith.

Pan primos calamos cera coniungere plures

Instituit, Pan curat oues, ouiumque magistros.

Pan, ordained first to ioyne with war manye Pipes in one, Pan hath cure of sheepe and of shepheards. [The common bleting musicke, is the Drone, Hobuis, and Curtoll. in marg.] And the same instrument of pipes is called Pandorium, for Pan was finder thereof, as Isidore saith. And with pipes, watching men pleaseth such men, as rest in beds, and maketh them sleepe the sooner and more sweetly, by melodie of pipes.

[*Addition. in marg.] (*Pan called the God of shepheards: he is thought to be Demogorgons son, and is thus described: in his forhead he hath hornes like the Sun beames, a long beard, his face red, like the cleere aire, in his brest the starre Nebris, the neather part of his body rough, his feete like a Goate, and alway is imagined to laugh. He was worshipped especiallye in Arcadia. When there grew betwixt Phoebus and Pan a contention, whether of them two should be iudged the best Musicion, Midas preferring the bagpipe, not respecting better skill, was given for his reward, a paire of Asse eares.)

De Sambuca. capitulum 139.

SAmbuca is an Elder tree brittle, and the boughs therof be hollow and voyd and smooth, and of those same boughs be pipes made, and also some manner Simphonie, as Isidore Saith.

De Symphonia. capitulum 140.

THe Simphonye is an instrument of Musicke, and is made of an hollowe tree closed in leather on either side, and minstralls beateth it with stickes, and by accord of high and low, thereof commeth full sweete notes, as Isidore saith: neuertheles the accord of all soundes be called Simphonia in like wise, as the accord of diuers voyces is called Chorus, as the Glose saith super Lucam 15.

De Armonia. capitulum 141.

ARmonia Rithmica, is a sounding melody, and commeth of smiting of strings, and of tinkling or ringing of mettall, and diuers instruments serue to this maner harmonie, as Taber and Timbrel, Harpe and Psalterie, and Nakyres, and also Sistrum.

De Timpano. capitulum 142.

TImpanum is layde straight to the tree in the one side: and is halfe a Taber, or halfe a Simphonie, and shapen as a siue, and beaten with a sticke, right as a Taber, as Isidore saith, and maketh the better melodie if there be a pipe therewith.

De cithera. capitulum 143.

THe Harpe is called cithera, and was first found of Apollo, as the Greeks [-f.419v <recte f.423v>-] deeme. And the harpe is like to a mans brest, for likwise, as the voyce commeth of the brest, so the notes come of the harp, and hath therefore that name Cithara, for the breast is called Cithara, in Dorica lingua, and afterward some and some came foorth many maner instruments therof, and had the name Cithara, as the harp and psalterie, and other such and some be foure cornered, and some three cornered: the strings be many, and speciall manner thereof is diuers. Men in olde time called the harpe Fidicula, and also Fidicen, for the strings thereof accord, as well as some men accordeth in faith. And the harpe had seauen strings, and so Virgil saith.

Septem sunt soni, septem discrimina vocum.

There be VII. soundes, and VII. differences of voyces: and are therefore called Discrimina, for one string next to another, maketh like sound: and strings be seauen, either for they fill all the note, or for because heauen soundeth in VII. mouings. A string is called Corda, and hath that name of Corde, the heart: for as the pulse of the heart, is in the brest, so the pulse of the strings is in the harpe. Mercurius founde out first such strings: for he strained first strings, and made them to sound, as Isidore saith. The more dry the strings be, and the more strained, the more they sound: and the wrest is called Plectrum.

De Psalterio. capitulum 144.

THe Psalterie is called Psalterium, and hath that name of Psallendo, singing: for the consonant answereth to the note therof in singing. The harp is like to the Psalterie in sound, but this is the diuersitie and discord betweene the harpe and the psaltery, in the psaltery is an holow tree, and of that same tree the sound commeth vpward: and the strings be smit downward, and soundeth vpward: and in the harpe, the hollownesse of the tree is beneath. The Hebrewes calleth the Psalterie Decacordes, an instrument hauing ten strings, by number of the ten Commaundements. Strings for the Psaltery be best made of laton, or els those are good that be made of siluer.

De Lira. capitulum 145.

LIra [An harpe in marg.] hath that name for diuersitye of sounds: for Lira giueth diuers sounds, as Isidore saith. And some people suppose, that Mercurius first found out this instrument Lyra in this wise. The river Nilus was flowen and arisen, and afterward was auailed and withdrawen againe into his proper chanell, and lefte in the field many diuers beasts, and also a snayle, and when the snaile was rosted, the sinewes lefte and were strained in the snailes house, and Mercurius smote the sinewes, and of them came a sound: and Mercurius made a Lira to the likenesse of the Snailes house, and gaue the same Lyra to one that was named Orpheus, which was most busie about such things. And so it was sayd, that by the same craft not only wilde beasts drew to song and melody, but moreouer stones and also woodes. As fables do mean, this foresaid instrument Lyra is set among stars, for loue of study, and praising of song, as Isidore saith.

De Cymbalis. capitulum 146.

CImbales be instruments of musick, and be smit together, and soundeth and ringeth. [*Addition. in marg.] (*Compassed like a hoope, on the vpper compasse vnder a certain holownes, hangeth halfe bells, fiue or seauen.)

De Systro. capitulum 147.

SIstrum is an instrument of musicke, and hath the name of a Ladye that first brought it vp. For it is proued that Isis Queene of Egypt, was the first finder of Systrum, and Iuuenal speaketh thereof, and saith.

Isis et irato feriat mea lumina sistro

And women vse this instrument, for a woman was the first finder thereof. Therfore among the Amazons, the hoast of women is called to battaile with the instrument Systrum.

[*Addition. in marg.] (*An instrument like a horne, vsed in battaile in steed of a trumpet. Also a brasen Timbrell.)

De Tintinabulo. capitulum 148.

TIntinabulum is a bell or a Camparnole, and hath the name of Tiniendo tinckeling or ringing. Looke before De vasis, in lytera V. A bell hath this propertie, that while he profiteth to other in sounding, he is wasted ofte by smiting. These instruments and many other serueth [-f.424r-] to musicke, which science treateth of voyce and of sounds: and knoweth neuertheles disposition of kindly things and proportion of numbers, as Boetius sayeth, and setteth ensample of the number of 12. in comparison to .6. and to other numbers that be betweene, and saith in this wise: Heere we finde all the accords of musicke, for .8. to .6. and .9. to 12. make the proportion, and make together the consonancy Diatesseron. But .6. to .9. and .8. to 12. make the proportion Sesquialtera, and make together the consonancie Diapente. And .12. to 6. make double proportion, and singeth the accord Diapason. Then 8. to .9. in comparison be meane, and make Epogdonus, which is called Tonus in melody of Musick, and is a common measure of all the sounds. And so it is to vnderstand, that betweene Diatesseron and Diapente, Tonus is diuersitie of accordes, as betweene the proportions, Sesquitertia and Sesquialtera, onely Epogdolis is diuersitie. [Diatesseron of foure. Diapente of fiue. Diapason, a concord in musick. Diaphonia, a discord. in marg.] Huc vsque Boetius, in secundo Arsmetrice. capitulo vltimo G. And in the Prologue of the first booke Boetius sayth, that the rather is there vertue of numbers, thereby it may be proued, that those thinges which doe stande by themselues, be rather in kind, then those things which be in comparison to some other things. And the melody of Musick is taken and called by names of the numbers: Diatesseron, Diapente, and Diapason, haue names of the numbers, which precedeth and goeth before in the beginning of those sayde names. And the proportion of their sounds is found and had in those same numbers, and is not found nor had in any other numbers. For ye shall vnderstand that the sound and the accorde in Diapason, of proportion is of the same double number, and the melody of Diatesseron doth come of Epitrite colatione, that is, Sesquitertia proportio. And hee calleth the accorde Diapente. Hemiolia is ioyned in number Epogdonus, they be numbers that bee aboue .8. and is called Tonus in Musicke, as he sayeth. [Hemiolus a proportion in Arethmetik conteining the whole and halfe so much as 15. to .10. 3. to .1 in marg.] Sesquitertia proportio in Arsmetrike, is called Diatesseron in Musick, and Hemiolia, that is, Sesquialtera proportio in Arsmetrike, is Diapente in Musick, and Diapente and Diapason is consonante, the more voyce conteineth the lesse, and the halfe deale thereof. The number Sesquitertius conteineth the lesse number and the third part thereof, and if he conteyneth all the fourth parte, then he is Sesquiquartus. And Sesquiquintus conteineth the lesse, and the fifth part in this wise. Foure conteineth three, and the third part, that is one. And eight conteineth sixe, and the third part, that is two. And twelve conteineth nine, and the third parte, that is three, and so eighteene to twelue, and twentie to sixteene, and so of other alway thou shalt finde.

Numerus Sesquialter. capitulum 149.

SEsquialter is, when the greater number compared to the lesse, conteineth the whole number, the halfe, and the halfe part therof, as 3. conteineth .2. and the halfe part of two, that is one: so 9. conteineth 6. and the halfe of 6. that is 3. and so 12. to 8. and 15. to .10. and so of other. These words be in themselues deep and secret, and verye darke to vnderstanding. But to them that bee wise and cunning in Arethmetike and in Musicke, they bee more cleere and lyght, and be darke and all vnknowen to them which be vncunning, and haue no vsage in Arethmetike, Geometrye, and Musicke. Therefore he that will knowe the foresayde wordes and proportions of numbers, of voyce, and soundes, shall not despise to aske counsell, and to desire to haue knowledge by those which be wiser, and that haue more cunning in Arethmetike, in Geometrye, and in Musicke. And libro secundo Isidore sayth, that there is so great vertue in figures and accordes of Musicke, that the selfe man standeth not perfect there without: For perfect Musicke comprehendeth all things. And so then reuolue and consider heereof in thy minde, that Musicke and harmonye ioyneth and accordeth diuerse thinges that seeme contrary, and maketh the high sound to accord with the low, and the low with the high, and accordeth contrarye wills and desires, and refrayneth and abateth intentions and thoughts, and amendeth and comforteth feeble wits of feeling. And crieth namely and warneth vs of the vnity of the exempler of God in [-f.424v-] contrary workings: and diuersly manifesteth and sheweth, that earthly things may be ioyned in accord to heavenly things: and causeth and maketh glad and ioyfull harts more glad and ioyfull, and sorry harts and heauy, more sorrie and disquiet. For as Austen sayth, that by a priuie and secret likenesse of propertie of the soule and of harmony, melody comforteth it selfe to the affections and desires of the soule. And therfore Authors meane, the Instruments of Musicke make the glad more glad, and the sory more sory. Looke other properties of harmony before in the same booke, wheras other words of Isidore bee rehearsed and spoken of.

Addition. [Addition in marg.]

COncerning the straunge opinions in the world of Musicke, and the threefolde conceits of variable minds, I haue thought good (so farre as the eternall license shall permit or suffer) somewhat to speake thereof: The occasion is, that wheras many cannot away at all with Musick, as if it were some odious skill ranged from hell, rather stirred vp by Diuells, then reuealed by Angels: some are indifferent, and can abide it better in the chamber of Venus, then in the temple of Minerua, and some do so far dote in musicke, without the which they think ther is no religion, that betweene these vnindifferent iudgmentes, I am in doubt to speak, or so to frame a speech that might qualifie so foule a discord, concluding that if Musick be the ordinance of God, as al other gifts of nature are, then how commeth it to passe, that .7. artes, tearmed liberail, are allowed, wherof Musick hath ben account of that number one, except the late 8. art of Adulation, beeing placed in Musicks roome, be allowed for the seuenth, which if Curiositie, beeing made iudge, haue recorded the same in self-wils booke. I leaue to these three their owne, and yet proceed with those opinions, that maye stande with discreation, concerning the same.

In the first booke of Cronicles, called in Latine Verba Dierum, or after the Greekes Paralipomenon, which the Hebrues cal Dibre Haiamim, historical, capitulo 15. when the Prophet Dauid had prepared a house for the Arke of the Lord, he called all Israel together to Ierusalem, to fetch the Arke of the Lord vnto his place, which hee had ordeined for it, et cetera. And Dauid spake to the chiefe heads of the Leuites, that they should appoint certeine of their brethren, to sing with instruments of Musicke, Psalteries, Harps, and Cymbales, that they might make a sound, and to sing on high with ioyfulnes, et cetera. And Dauid and the elders of Israel, and the Captains ouer thousands, went to fetch the Arke of the appointment of the Lord, out of the house of Obed Edom with gladnesse. The Arke is brought forth of the house of Abinadab, that was in Gibeon, which was a high place of the citie of Baale, vnto the citie of Dauid, called Zion, lieng on the North side of Ierusalem. Samuel. 2. booke. capitulo 6. Cronicles .1. booke capitulo 15. 2. Cronicles capitulo 5. verse 13. These instruments and other ceremonies which they obserued, were instructions of their infancie, which continued to the comming of Christ: (the note of the later Church) if then there should haue been a finall end of Musicke, why is it not absolutely forbidden, or if it be tolerable why is not the abuse taken away (and not Musicke it selfe) because of abuse, if Musicke be but a sound, no more is the voice, it is better to heare good and godly Musicke, then ribaude and filthye talke, or a christian Psalme then a wicked sonet. Seeing that Musicke hath so behaued her selfe, that shee is not allowed by the old Testament, as many affirme, because, as they saye, she had her continuance but vntil the comming of Christ: yet from the time of Samuel, vntill the time of Jesus Christ, it largely appeareth she was in estimation, and although the superstitious pagans and Idolatrous Gentiles, hauing the same instruments that the godly had (with the which they committed their abhominations) this notwithstanding was no defiling nor disabling of that Musicke which the Prophet Dauid vsed, the Prophet Esay, capitulo 22 commended. Daniel. 3. 1 Maccabees capitulo 9. Apostles 18. haue expressed. Let vs see farther concerning musicke, what the newe Testament either liketh or alloweth: Wherefore be ye not vnwise, but vnderstand what the wil of [-f.425r-] the Lord is. And be not dronke with wine, wherin is excesse: but be filled with the spirite, speaking vnto your selues in Psalmes and Hymnes, and spirituall songs, singing and making melodie to the Lord in your heartes, et cetera. Ephesians 5. verse. 17. 18. 19. Give thanks alwayes for all things vnto to God, even the Father, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. Submitting your selues one to another, in the feare of God. Collossians 3. verse. 16. Let the word of Christ dwell in you plenteously in all wisedome, teaching and admonishing your selues in Psalmes and Hymnes, and spirituall songs. Singing with grace in your heartes to the Lord. Iames. 5. verse. 13. Is anye among you afflicted (or greeued in minde) let him pray: is any merrie: let him sing. Heerby the godly are allowed to sing, whose instruments are their bodyes, and whose stoppes or strings are good intents. Vnto the bodyes belong the foure Elements, the foure complections, and the fiue senses, if any of these abound or diminishe, the concord of the boydes is altered. Also the minde is tourned to discorde, no lesse by a crabbed imagination: But what canne we saye for Instrumentes, that our former discourse maye appeare vniforme, that is to saye, as well the instrument as the voice, and both together. 1. Epistle. Corinthians capitulo 14. verse 7. 8. Moreouer, thinges without lyfe which giue a sounde, whether it bee a Pipe or an Harpe, except they make a distinction in the soundes, howe shall it bee knowen what is piped or harped. And if the Trumpet giue an vncertaine sounde, who shall prepare himselfe to battayle. In the Reuealation, Saint Iohn sayth, Chapter 14. verse. 2. And I hearde the voyce of Harpers, harping with theyr Harpes. And they sung as it were a newe song before the Throne, et cetera. Seeing then that the holye Scriptures in the newe Testament condempne not Musicke, (but onelye the abusers thereof,) what reason, or what authoritye is there left why Musicke shoulde not bee vsed with song in anye place conuenient, if so bee it bee not hurtfull, in the Kinges presence, Chappell, or Oratorye, in Cathedrall Churches some where, or what offence, else where. It maye bee that some will aunswere vnto me, and saye, that Musicke in those places is Poperye. But I demaunde agayne, where was the knowledge of Poperye when Dauid praysed the Lorde with it, when the Apostle Paule knewe of it, and when Saint Iohn from heauen hearde it. If it bee so (that Musick, as it hath ben in very deede too much abused) in these our later times, shall it therefore for that abuse be vtterly banished and put aside, which wyll stand with as good a reason, as when a man hath stolen a horse, the Lawe shall hang his soule: yet who is so ignorant, the fact beeing committed, but that both bodye and soule is present. Nowe followeth the opinion of Saint Augustine, of Cornelius Agrippa, of Peter Martir, and of Lodowicke Lioide, Gentleman.

First Saint Augustine in his ninth Booke of Confessions, as Peter Martyr noteth in the fifth Chapter vppon the Booke of Judges, folio .103. testifieth, that it happened in the time of Ambrose (Bishippe of Milloine, aboute the yeare of Christ .377.) For when that holye man together with the people, watched euen in the Church, least hee should haue bene betrayed vnto the Arrians, hee brought in singing to auoyde tediousnesse, and to driue awaye the time: It seemeth that by meanes of sharpe persecutions, the godlye were scattered abroade, so that they hadde no leasure, scarcelye to praye, much lesse to sing, the tyrannye of theyr persecutors was so monstrous, from the time of Nero the sonne of Domitius, beeing about .66. yeare after Christ, vntyll the time of Constantine the greate, which was about the yere of Christ .333. the sayde godlye Emperour Constantine gaue greate and large giftes, and yeerelye reuenewes to the maintenance of the Cleargy and Preachers of the Gospell. Wherevpon the Bishoppes of Rome fathereth theyr foundation and head of Constantine, (a good pollycye to claime antiquitie, if that verytye [-f.425v-] which is eternitie, could not discerne the truth) thus, what with strange opinions, and what with persecutious, the space of 241. yeares, or neere there abouts, musick was laide a side, and although that S. Augustine repented him, and that he was sorrie, because he had sometime fallen, by giuing more attentiue heed vnto the measures and cords of musicke, then the words which were vnder them spoken, which thing heereby he proueth to be sinne, because measure and singing wer brought in for the words sake, and not words for Musicke. All this condempneth no musicke, but the abuse, for in allowing the Church of Alexandria, wherein was a little singing, et cetera. for this cause I say, hee consented that Musicke should bee retained in the Church, but yet in such manner, that he sayd, that he was ready to change his sentence, if a better reason could be assigned, and he added, that those doe sin deadly, as they were wont to speak, which giue greater heede to musicke, then vnto the word of God. It seemeth to me, that there is none so sencelesse, that wil be, or haue bene, in such sort rauished with the onely melodie of the instrument, that they haue so excepted of the same, forgetting theyr principall vertue of the true worshippping of God: those that haue bene such, are in the same dampnation, that the common Drunkards, Adulterers, Idolators, false speakers, vsurers, with all those and such wicked, that thinking to drinke, minde not on God, so according to the desire the soule is poisoned, and the gifts of God abused.

But why Musicke seemeth so to rap men in a manner wholye, the reason is plaine, for there are certeine pleasures, which onely fill the outward sences, and there are others also which perteine only to the mind or reason. But musicke is a delectation so put in the middest, that both by the sweetnesse of the sounds, it moueth the sences, and by the artificialnesse of the number and proportions, it delighteth reason it selfe. And it happeneth then chiefly when such words are added vnto it, whose sence is both excellent and learned, et cetera. Peter Martir in that discourse, whether singing may be receiued in the Church, sayth. In the East parts the holy assemblies euen from the beginning vsed singing. Read in his Commentarie folio .103. Cornelius Agrippa in his sixt booke of the vanitie of Sciences, capitulo 63. setteth forth the abuse of Musicke and the discord (from the which some supposed the rest condempned) verie curiouslye vnder tearmes or parts of Musicke, as Enharmonica, Chromatica, Diatonica, and others, with a nomination of names, as among the Lacedemonians, the stirring to armes, and Cretensians, which repetition of words seeme a great collection, and little matter, as the fable of the Musition, that by the onely vertue of the Dorian tune, the chastitie of Clitemnestra, wife vnto king Agamemnon was preserued, from the assault of Egistus, who to be reuenged slew the Musition. Horace dislyked the common fiddelers and stage pipers, calling them wanderers, and Cornelius tearmeth them the seruaunts of Baudery, but wheras he sayth (which no graue man, modest, honest, and valiant, euer professed,) heerin he shewed his idle conceit: and forgot that which was done and vsed in holy writ, altogether flourishing among the Poets, giuing an open contempt of that the Poets secretly scorned, declaring onely the abuse, as when he sayth, that the Aegyptians did forbid their young men to learne Musicke, I suppose it was, when Musicke was so common, as it is now in England in euery Alehouse and baudy corner, but not the principall Musicke, Anaxilas sayth, Musicke is euen lyke Affrike, it yeerely bringeth forth some straunge beast. Athanasius for the vanitie thereof, did forbid it in the Churches, thus he concludeth with the abuse, and not the thing it selfe.

Lodowicke Lioide, Pilgrimage of Princes, folio .113. setteth forth properly Musicke, and sayth, by a Methodical gathering together of authorities, that there is great controuersie for the antiquitie of Musicke, beginning with Orpheus, Amphion, and Dionisius of Greece. Polibius sayth, that Musicke was found first in Archadia, Tubal among the Hebrues, and Apollo finding a confused Chaos, [-f.426r-] setteth downe learners of Musicke, to be Socrates, Aelianus, Agesilaus, Architas, and the mightie Hercules, et cetera. And though some contemne Musick with Diogenes, and say, that it were more profitable to mend manners, then to learne musicke: what is manners, but a concord of honest intentes, which onelye is adorned with nothing but vertue. Alexander the great loued Musicke, so did the tyraunt Nero. Heereby may be perceiued concord and discord, Musicke is not the cause of disorder, but disordered mindes abuseth Musicke. Dircenus Captaine ouer the Spartanes, is sayd first to inuent the trumpet, and taught the Lacedemonians to sound against the Messena, in the field, therwithall to terrifie the courage of his enimies: for as Musicke is dolefull and pleasant, full of harmonie and melodie: so is Musicke terrible and fearefull of life and courage, for we read in the old age, both autenticall and prophane, that they vsed Instrumentes of sound of sundrye sortes, as among the Milesios, pipes: among the Cretensians instrumentes with strings, a kinde of Gittornes: among the Parthians ringing of Bells: among the Aethiopians lowd songs: among the Assirians, a kinde of skipping: among the Cimbrians little drums made of leather stretched about a whoope, broad, and narrow, hauing a kind of hollownesse, in the which they put dry Beanes and Pease, to make the instrument rattle, with many other vnaccustomed manners. But the absurdest thing of all, which passeth the abuse of Musicke, is, that as the Gentiles and Pagans called vpon Priapus, Pan, Ceres, Iuno, Hercules, Ianus, Bellephoron, Dagon, Rempham, Astaroth, and such like, to be their supporters at armes in the field: so at this day, those which wold be loth to be called otherwise then christians, are not ashamed to call Saint George, to borrowe, for the English, Saint Denis for Fraunce, Saint Andrew for Scotlande, Saint Iames for Spaine, and so forth in the Christian Kingdomes, they call as fast vppon their Saintes, as the Pagan Gentiles called on their tearmed Gods, when in verye deede this foule abuse ought to be reformed, which is a discord worse in the mind then is the dombe instrument, that can sound none otherwise then the Musition either can, or will. To conclude, let all be done to the edifieng one of another, and both in the Lorde, and as for those that cannot awaye with Musicke in the best parte, I leave them to the atonement maker, which is blessed for euer.

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