School of Music
University of Nebraska--Lincoln
Lincoln, NE 68588-0100
(phone: [402] 472-2507; Internet: plefferts1@unl.edu)

Data entry: Heidi Beckwith
Checked by: Peter Slemon
Approved by: Peter M. Lefferts

Author: Bathe, William
Title: A Briefe Introduction to the Skill of Song
Source: William Bathe, A Briefe Introduction to the Skill of Song (London: Thomas Este, n.d. [ca. 1596]; reprint ed., with intro. by Bernarr Rainbow, Kilkenny: Boethius Press, 1982) [STC 1589].

[-f.Air-] A BRIEFE INTROduction to the skill of SONG: Concerning the practise, set forth by William Bathe Gentleman.

In which work is set down X. sundry wayes of 2. parts in one vpon the plaine song. Also a Table newly added of the comparisons of Cleues, how one followeth another for the naming of Notes: with other necessarie examples, to further the learner.


Musica est honestum et iucundum oblectamentum, liberalibus ingenijs maxime dignum.


Printed by Thomas Este.

[-f.Aiv-] [blank.]

[-f.Aiir-] To the Reader.

IGnorance as Diuines doe testifie, is one of the plagues put vpon man the creature, for transgressing of the commaundements of God his creatour, from which we are to come, (as the patient from his disease) by degrees. Mans vnderstanding is likened by Aristotle to the eies of the Howlet in the day-light Salomon sayth: Dedi cor meum vt scirem prudentiam, doctrinam, erroresque, et stultitiam, et agnoui quod in his quoque est labor et afflictio spiritus.

The fame of our ancestours that diligently laboured to bring vs, and in many things brought vs, from ignorance to knowledge, shall neuer be forgotten so long as those things wherein they laboured, be in estimation, and (in mine opinion) so farre forth as we may, we should Imitate the steps of them, for this plague of ignorance is so great, that neither did they neither shall we finde so much: but that we must leaue sufficient, for our posteritie to be found.

Wherefore seeing sufficiently others to labour and trauell in other Sciences, I thought good to bestow my labour in Musicke, seeing that paines might so much preuaile, as by the fruit of my labour may plainly appeare. I tooke the matter in hand vpon this occasion, though it were far distant from my profession, being desired by a gentleman, to instruct him in song, I gaue him such rules as my Master gaue mee: Yet could I giue him no song so plaine, wherein there chanced not some one thing or other, to which none of those rules could directly leade him. Marking then how in minde, I did know what by rule I could not teach, I perceiued how [-f.Aiiv-] vnder the shade of rule, I attained to many things by rote: and how pleasant, speedie and sure it is to runne by rule, I tooke this labour in hand, and brought it to this passe. Olde Musitions laid downe for Song, manifold and crabbed, confuse, tedious rules, as for example: though there be in all but sixe names, Vt, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, hauing amongst them an easie order, yet could not they by rule declare, whether of these should bee attributed to euery Note, vnlesse they had first framed the long ladder or skale of Gam-vt, to which some added, thinking the ladder too short, some hewed off a peece, thinking it too long. Then would they haue the learner be as perfect in comming downe backward, as in going vp forward, least in his practise he should fall, and breake his neck. Then must he learne, Gam-vt, in rule, Are, in space, b my in rule, C faut in space, et cetera. Then must he know Gam vt, how many cleues, how many notes. Are, how many notes, et cetera. Then must he know b, quadrij, proper chant and bemul, re in Are, whereby vt in Cfaut, whereby mi, in Alamire, whereby, et cetera And when all haue done, after their long circumstances of time, whereby they should be often driuen to millibi, for Notes standing in diuerse places of Gam-vt, haue names that the place where they stand comprehend not. Touching all the prolixe circumstances, and needlesse difficulties, that they vse, it loathes me greatly that heere I should write them: and much more would it grieue the Reader to learne them. Also many things are vsed in Song, for which they giue no rules at all, but committed them to dodge at it, harke to it, aud harpe vpon it. Now (Reader) th'effect of my pretended purpose, and fruit of my finished labor is this, where they gaue prolixe [-f.Aiiir-] rules, I haue giuen briefe rules, where they gaue vncertaine rules, I haue giuen sure rules, and where they haue giuen no rules, I haue giuen rules. After all this that I haue said of their rules, I doe affirme that they deserued greater commendations aboue mee, for finding out the long way, then I aboue others for laying down the short way. For had not they opened the gappe, touching mee, it might very well hap that I should in no sort enter my selfe, and much lesse in any sort inuite others: nothing can at the beginning be perfected, and therefore are they to bee holden excused as the old verse hath:

But ere the Painter can sure his craft attaine,
Much froward facion transformeth hee in vayne,
By raysing superfluitie, and adding that doth want,
Rude Pictures are made both perfect and pleasant.
For such things by negligence are left vndone,
That by good diligence might be wonne.

There be sufficient, many, and firme prooues had of this that I say, which may by my rules be done, of which I will heere put downe some of them, though I get as little by being beleeued, as I should loose by being belyed.

In a moneth and lesse I instructed a child about the age of eight yeeres, to sing a good number of songs, difficult crabbed Songs, to sing at the first sight, to be so indifferent for all parts, alterations, Cleues, flats, and sharpes, that he could sing a part of that kinde, of which he neuer learned any song, which child for strangenesse was brought before the Lord Deputie of Ireland, to be heard sing: for there were none of his age, though he were longer at it, nor any of his time, (though he were elder) knowne beefore these [-f.Aiiiv-] rules to sing exactly.

There was another, that had before often handled Instruments, but neuer practised to sing (for hee could not name one Note) who hearing of these rules, obtayned in short time, such profit by them, that he could sing a difficult song of himselfe, without any Instructor.

There was another, who by dodging at it, hearkning to it, and harping vpon it, could neuer be brought to tune sharps aright, who so soone as hee heard these rules set downe for the same, could tune them sufficiently well. I haue taught diuerse others by these rules, in lesse then a moneth; what myselfe by the olde, obtained not in more then two yeeres. Diuerse other proofes I might recite, which heere as needlesse I doe omit, because the thing will shew it selfe. Diuerse haue repented in their age that they were not put to sing in their youth; but seeing that by these rules, a good skill may be had in a moneth: and the wayes learned in foure or fiue dayes: none commeth too late to learne, and specially if this saying be true: That no man is so olde but thinketh he may liue one yeere longer. As Aristotle in setting forth his predicaments, saw many things requisite to be entreated off: and yet vnfit to be mixed with his treatise: he therefore made ante predicaments, and post predicaments: so I for the same cause (desirous to abolish confusion) haue added to my rules, ante rules, and post rules. Vale.

[-f.Aiiijr-] The ante rules of Song.

To prepare for naming the Notes.

PRactise to sunder the Vowels and Consonants, distinctly pronouncing them according to the manner of the place.

To prepare for Quantitie.

PRactise to haue the breath long to continue, and the tongue at libertie to runne.

To prepare for Time.

PRactise in striking to keepe a iust proportion of one stroke to another.

To prepare for Tune.

PRactise to haue your voice cleere, which when thou hast done, learne the rules following.

The skill of song doth consist in foure things. Naming. Quantitie. Time. Tune.

[-f.Aiiijv-] Rules of Song.

The Scale of Musick, which is called Gam-vt, conteineth 10 rules, and as many spaces; and is set downe in letters and sillables, in which you must beegin at the lowest word, Gam-vt, and so go vpwards to the end still ascending, and learne it perfectly without booke, to say it forwards and backewards: to know, wherein euery key standeth, whether in rule or in space: and how many Cliefes, how many Notes is contayned in euery Key.

[Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Aiiijv,1; text: Hie. Middest. Low. vt, re, mi, fa sol, la, 1 Note, 2 Notes, 3 Notes, 2 Cliffes, [Gamma] A B C D E F G a b c d e f g aa bb cc dd ee b-mi] [BATHBISS 01GF]

For naming. Capitulum primo.

There bee sixe names, Vt, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La. The order of ascention and descention with them is thus.

[Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Aiiijv,2; text: vt, re, mi, fa, sol, la] [BATHBISS 01GF]

[-f.Avr-] Exceptions.

Change Vt, into Sol, change Re, into La, when the next remouing Note is vnder.

[Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Avr,1; text: sol, la, for, vt, re] [BATHBISS 01GF]

The Cleues whereby we know where the Vt standeth are thus marked as.

[Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Avr, 2] [BATHBISS 01GF]

The G: cliefe is the mark of the higher G sol re vt. In the scale: and the C: clefe of that place called C sol fa vt. And the F: cliefe of F fa vt the lower in the scale.

Now in this sort you may finde by the cliefe where euery note standeth: and least there should seeme any difficultie, I will begin from the first sight of the booke, that all things that doe belong to their knowledge, may bee the better vnderstoode. First when a man seeth the booke before him he may see certaine rules which goe along lineally by 5 and 5 which number of 5 is called a set of pricksong (for a set of plainesong hath commonly but 4. rules,) then he may see in the first of the set alwayes one of the foresayde cleifes vpon some rule, and whatsoeuer note standeth vpon the same rule with the cliefe, is said to be in that place wherof that cleife which [-f.Avv-] he seeth is the marke, and if any note stand in the next space aboue, it is said to stand in the next place aboue that place, whereof that cleife is the marke. And so vpward and downeward continually counting from the close as in this example.

[Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Avv] [BATHBISS 01GF]

The first note standeth in C sol fa vt, because it standeth vpon the same rule with the clief which is the mark of C sol fa vt, the second in D la sol re, because D la sol re is next aboue C sol fa vt in the scale of Gam vt: the third in B fa b mi, because it is in the next place beneath C sol fa vt: the fourth in E la mi, because E la mi is the next place saue one to C sol fa vt, and the said fourth note standeth in the next place saue one to the cliefe which is the mark of the place C sol fa vt. And so of all the other notes: then in the ende of the set, hee may see a thing thus [custos on staff 5] marked, which is called a direct, because it is alwayes put vpon the rule or space wherein the first of the next set standeth, and doth so direct a man, euen as in bookes the word that is lowest vpon euery side of the leafe doth direct a man to the word next following.

The rule of Vt.

The next thing necessary to be knowne for the right naming of notes, is the place where that note standeth which is named Vt. And as by counting vpward and downeward from the cliefe it is to bee knowne where euery note standeth, so it is to be knowne by counting vpward and downeward from that which is called Vt, what the right name of euery note is: but first let vs set downe how the place where the vt standeth is knowen, [-f.Avir-] which is thus. There be three places, in one of which the vt must alwais be: that is to say, in G. which is Gamvt and G sol re vt, when there is no flat in C, which is C fa vt, C sol fa vt, and C sol fa, when there is a flat in b mi, or b fa b mi. In F which is F fa vt, when there are two flats, one in b mi or b fa b mi, the other in E la mi, or E la.

As for example.

[Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Avir,1; text: Now the vt is in G. Now in C. Now in F.] [BATHBISS 02GF]

No b flat, the (vt) in G. The b flat in b onely, the (vt) in C. The b flat in b and E, the (vt) in F.

1 G putteth Vt to the same place.

2, 3 F. and B. to the next vp, as.

[Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Avir,2; text: ut, 1, 2, 3] [BATHBISS 02GF]

4 C putteth Vt to the fift place vp, and from C down to the fourth. B, taketh place of the rest.

B, is placed last to shew that it taketh place of the rest.

5 If there commeth two, b.b. being a fourth, the vpper taketh place.

6 And being a fift, the nether taketh place, as:

[Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Avir,3; text: vt, ut, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8] [BATHBISS 02GF]

[-f.Aviv-] 7 D. putteth Vt to the fift place downe, but it is seldome vsed.

8 If there commeth two b.b. being a second a sunder, the vpper taketh place, which chanceth very rare.

More shall be sayd of naming in the chapter of tuning.

When you haue in this sort found out the vt, you must vnderstand that euery note that standeth in the next place aboue it is named re, euery note that standeth in the next place to that is named mi, in the next to that fa, then sol, then la, then fa, ascending vp alwaies orderly, counting the rules, and spaces: then next aboue that againe is vt: for you shall finde that place, which is the eight place from that wherein your other vt stood, to begin with the same letter: So that if the rules and spaces were infinite, you might in this manner giue euery note his right name: and as you did count vpward Vt, re, mi, fa, sol, la, fa, and so come againe to vt: so must you come downeward from vt, the same way backward, by fa, la, sol, fa, mi, re, vt. And so come to fa, againe. And in this sort the right name of euery note is knowne. Two things from these rules are excepted, the one is, that euery re, should be named la, when you ascend to it, or descend from it: and that euery vt, should bee named sol, which two things are vsed euphoniae gratia, and yet this name of vt, is most proper to the base or lowest part in the first place.

Obiection against the latter exception.

In the latter exception it is said, that vt should be alwaies changed into sol, therefore seeing it is neuer vsed, [-f.Avijr-] it is in vaine placed in all this former tractation.

Solution. It is placed in all this former tractation for two causes, the one is, that it should be distinguished by that name from the other sol, and the other is, because it hath bene a name vsed from the beginning, and now commonly changed into sol, euphoniae gratia: it may sometimes neuerthelesse be vsed, for (as I sayd before) the cunning singing man keeping euery note in his right tune, may name it according to his pleasure, for these names be no necessary accidents, for you see daylie that when any song is lettred, these names be not attributed to them, though then they be sung in their owne order, according to the opinion of many, yea very many. I know I should adde a third exception, that is to say, to except also, that euery note hauing a sharpe beefore it, should be named mi, as in this example,

[Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Avijr] [BATHBISS 02GF]

the third note. And because that of that opinion there bee so many, I will for them shew a probable reason as by our principles may be shewed: then after by resoluing them, shewe what is most profitable, not refuting the opinion as an errour, beecause that looking to the matter, wee may finde that they may bee named as well mi, as fa, insomuch as the names (as I sayd before) are no necessary accidents, but neuerthelesse, because heere we seeke the most apt name, it were vnfit to passe it ouer. Wherefore the principall argument for them wee may in this sort forme.

Obiection. We should name all notes so neare as wee can, according as such notes are named in the gamvt, for it is certain, that these are the names which are most fit, [-f.Avijv-] for so in the beginning by the first inuentors of Musick they haue bene set downe: but no note that is sharp in the gamvt is named fa, therefore no note made sharp by a collaterall reason, should bee named fa. Secondly, throughout all the gam vt, from sol to fa. Next vnder it is a whole note, but from that sol to that fa, if we should call it fa, is but halfe a note, therefore if we call it fa, wee breake altogether the rule of gamvt, which wee should obserue: thirdly euery place in the gam vt that is sharp, is named either mi or la. Therefore this note (beecause not so aptly la) must be named mi. Before we fully satisfie these arguments, one thing must necessarily be knowen: that is to say, that in naming the notes in gam vt the first inuentors did obserue two things, whereof the one was, to name the notes according to the vt: the other, to name euery note which is sharpe (as the argument proueth) mi, or la: and it falleth out sometimes, when notes flat by collaterall reasons are made sharp, that one of these two must necessarily be violated, that is to say, that eyther the note must not bee named according to the vt, or a note sharp must bee named fa, so that the controuersie lyeth in knowing, whether of these two should soonest be obserued: so according to this we answere to their arguments. To the first, where they impute a fault in vs for naming a note sharp, fa, seeing that no sharp note in all the gam vt is named fa, we may impute an other absurditie to them, seeing they would haue the next note vnder sol, mi, which is not found in all gam vt, which is the more absurditie (as we will proue in the solution to the third argument) To the second, the solution [-f.Aviijr-] is easie, that euen as euery sol to fa, next vnder it is a whole note: so from euery sol to mi, next vnder it is more: so that according to the gam vt, in that respect none of them is true. To the third wee answere, that it may bee as well la, as mi, because that if ther were any reason why it should not be as well la, it might well be, to eschew this absurditie, that then in two places together there should bee one name, because the next vnder it is also la, but by naming it mi, the same absurditie commeth in another place, therfore the one is as absurd as the other, as in this example, where two

[Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Aviijr,1] [BATHBISS 02GF]

places together must according to them bee named mi, but to name two places together with one name, there is none but will think more dissonant, then to name them with diuers, whatsoeuer: for if a man did name mi, six times together in one place, beeing quauers, the one comming fast vpon the other, would make them seeme as though it were mim, mim, mim, as for example,

[Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Aviijr,2] [BATHBISS 02GF]

whereby it plainely appeareth that this is most absurd. But because that it were as good that our selues should bring that, which others may do, by sharp grating vpon our solutions, in this sort we may frame a reply. Let vs suppose, that in the middle of a song which had fa in C sol fa vt, there came two notes, one in C sol fa vt, and another in B fa b mi, hauing a flat before it, then if the latter note in B fa b mi, hauing the flat before it, be not called fa, it is against the order of the vt, which by the solutions should most be kept, if it be named fa, then commeth the absurditie proued in the [-f.Aviijv-] last example: that is, that two places together should haue one name, and likewise if sixe quauers did come in that sort, the fast comming of the one vpon the other, would make them seeme to be faf, faf, faf, which is as absurd and dissonant, as mim, mim, mim.

Resolution. Of the flat so comming, and of the sharp, there is not like reason, because that the flat so comming should alter the vt, so that as many notes as had come in C sol fa vt, after the flat, should be named sol, and not fa, but for the first note, and the second, they must be both fa, neuerthelesse because there may not be many of them together, as there may be of mi, and because that in quauers, twise fa, in that sort likely neuer chanceth, the one is not so absurd as the other.

Replication. It is graunted by the last solution, that the flat so coming should alter the vt, but to alter the vt, doth alter the key (which is in musick a great absurditie) therefore by the last solution, there is a great absurditie graunted.

Solution. It is graunted conditionally, that is to say, if the like happened (as in the argument obiected) though sometimes in the middest of a song, to change the key, and come into it againe, is allowed. Wherefore for the names, being the least necessary and most troublesome accident, let this suffice.

For Quantitie. Capitulum 2.

There be eight quantities whereof euery one hath his proper marke, and proper rest, as followeth.

[-f.Bir-] [Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Bir; text: Large. Longe. Breefe. Semibreefe, Minim. Cratchet. Quauer. semiquauer] [BATHBISS 02GF]

The proportion that these quantities hath one to another is that there should goe two of euery one to the next vpward as two semiquauers, to a quauer, two quauers to a cratchet, two cratchets to a minim, et cetera.

To these are reduced the quantities of proportions, as where there goeth three cratchets to a minim length of which the black semibreefe comprehendeth two, and ther the minim rest is but as long as one of these cratchets. [M,M,M,S,MP on staff5]

Heere note that the prick is in quantitie half so long as the note before it: as a prick after a large, is in quantitie as a long et cetera.

Prickes of diuision are vsed to seperate diuersitie of kindes in quantitie.

For Time. Capitulum 3.

There be 2. kindes of time, Semibreefe time, and three [-f.Biv-] minim time. Semibrefe time is striking vp and downe of the hand equally in length continuing. Three minim time is the striking downe and then vp of the hand equally in length, making each latter stroke, iust halfe the former.

The marke of the former kinde of time is. [Cdim]

The marke of the latter is. [Cd]

In tuning Songs of Semibreefe time, you must put of the notes, as much as maketh a minim length to euery mouing of the hand, likewise in the minim time, saue that to euery stroke there goeth but a minim length.

Heere note that these two kindes of time, may be deuided into minim time, by keeping all strokes equall in length, putting a minim length to euery whole stroke.

For Tune. Capitulum 4.

There be eight notes, whose ascention, and descention doe comprehend all tunes, as the roote doth the tree, be they neuer so difficult, with flats and Sharps, who so knew how to vse them, the notes are common, the vse is rare, or not yet found, which being knowen, will giue great light to Musitions, and breed great ease to Singing men, the eight notes are these that follow, as:

[Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Biv] [BATHBISS 03GF]

The tune of these eight Notes is to be learned by practise, and to be beleeued as a principle in Musicke.

Tune the first Note of any song as it serueth best for the voyce.

[-f.Biir-] If the Note from which and to which you goe, be both according to the Vt, of the Song, count according to the eight notes altogether.

If the note to which you goe bee altered by some intermingled flat, then for comptings sake name the Note from which you goe, as well as the note to which you goe, according to the Vt, of that intermingled flat, and in so doing take great care not to loose the tune of the note from which you compt, as

[Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Biir,1; text: sol, fa, First sing thus: then compt thus: and so proceede thus.] [BATHBISS 03GF]

If the Note to which you goe, be altered in tune by some intermingled sharp, obserue both in the note from which and to which you goe, this Rule.

Compt to the tune of sharps by the Vt, put down to the third place, when you haue thus compting by wrong names gotten the right tunes, giue the right names after, as:

[Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Biir,2; text: la, sol, fa, mi, First sing thus: then compt thus: and so proceede thus.] [BATHBISS 03GF]

The sharp may be put in the vpper fa, in the nether fa, and in Vt.

The sharp in the Vt, taketh place of the sharp in the vpper or nether fa, for by the Vt of it, the other two places should be sharp, the rest of the places remaining naturally:

[-f.Biiv-] as,

[Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Biiv,1; text: Vt for compting.] [BATHBISS 03GF]

Likewise the sharp in the nether fa, taketh place of the sharpe in the vpper fa, for by the Vt of the # in the nether fa, the vpper fa must bee sharp, the rest remaining naturally: as,

[Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Biiv,2; text: Vt for compting.] [BATHBISS 03GF]

The flat may be put in two places, in Mi, and in La, also it is common in Mi, but not so common in La: also if the flat be in La (according to the Vt of it) Mi must be flat: as,

[Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Biiv,3] [BATHBISS 03GF]

Heere note that for to tune sharps, put downe Vt, to the third place.

If the note to which you goe may neither in tuning nor naming belong to one order of ascention, go back to the note before, and so Compt: as,

[Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Biiv,4; text: sol, fa, mi, First begin thus, Then go back thus, and so proceed thus.] [BATHBISS 03GF]

[-f.Biiir-] As Men name according to the Vt, of the flat, so there be, that (for facility and fitnesse of the name to the tune) do name according to the Vt of the sharp somtimes: as,

[Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Biiir,1; text: mi, re] [BATHBISS 04GF]

Heere note, that the intermingled flat beareth force but whilest notes as appendant come in the same place, though for handsomnesse men name beefore or after according to it: Likewise the sharp, as,

[Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Biiir,2; text: la] [BATHBISS 04GF]

Thappendancy of the flat by the sharp, and of the sharp by the Flat is taken away, though by negligence and ignorance of prickers, we are oft driuen to gather thappendancie by the course of the song. Looke in the last example.

The prick is to be continued and kept in one tune with the note before it.

Heere note, that the Cleues may remoue from one rule to another, and that they are vsed for Flats. Also that the Direct is put to shew the note following: as,

[Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Biiir,3] [BATHBISS 04GF]

Euery Note in the order of Ascension is a whole [-f.Biiiv-] note or tone aboue the next vnder, saue the vpper and nether Fa, which be but halfe notes or Semitones.

For redinesse in setting Notes distant, let the learner practise these examples following, with all such things as make varietie in naming, or tuning.

Also for readines, note that euery foure rules and a space further, maketh an eight, and euery eight, hath like names.

[Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Biiiv; text: vt, re, mi, fa, sol, la] [BATHBISS 04GF]

[-f.Biiijr-] [Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Biiijr; text: mi, fa, sol, la, O God that art my righteousnesse, Lord Heare me when I cal; thou has set mee at libertie, when I was bound and thral. The 3 parts follow. The Church Tune.] [BATHBISS 05GF]

[-f.Biiijv-] The post rules of Song.

Heere followeth the post rules of Song, which are reduced to the vnlimited obseruations vsed in Singing.

For naming. Capitulum I.

THe exceptions from the order of ascention and descention are diuersely vsed according to the diuersitie of place, and accordingly, they are to bee giuen, for each order in naming seemeth best to them that haue beene brought vp withall.

D, is sometimes vsed in old songs as a Cleue, and putteth Vt downe to the fift place.

In Italy (as I vnderstand) they change Vt into Sol: In England they change Re, into La: when the next remouing Note before or after be vnder.

Some there bee that vse sometimes in defending at this day, the names of Re, and Vt, there be that name at randon, some for pleasure, and some through ignorant imagination, often times beareth great force in making a thing seeme comely, or vncomely, as if in comming downe, Sol, Fa, La, Sol, a man should name the first two notes Re Mi, it would seeme to a singing man very vncomely: yet if the singing man did imagin, that the singer were putting a dittie, or word of foure sillables, [-f.Bvr-] as: Remigrare, to these foure Notes, he would not think it vncomely, and yet in doing the deed, both waies are all one, for the first two sillables of, Remigrare, are Re, Mi.

For Quantitie. Capitulum II.

TO make one and the selfe same mark of quantitie sometimes long, and sometimes short, Musitions in old time, borrowed colours of the Painters, sometimes making it red, and sometimes black, et cetera.

They borrowed numbers of Arithmatike, somtimes making this, and sometimes that figure, et cetera.

They borrowed Circles and Semicircles of Geometrie, sometimes putting in the Center or a lyne, and sometimes leauing it out, et cetera. Sometimes also thereby signifying alteration in time.

They borrowed similitudes of Philosophie, sometimes leauing fulnesse, and sometimes Eclips, as appeareth in the Moone, sometimes knitting and sometimes loosing, as in generation and corruption.

They vsed moreouer many signes and tokens and marks of Quantitie, that are cut off as superfluous.

They vsed also manifold names to distinguish these things one from another, to the wonderfull pestering of the memory, and great roile of the vnderstanding, though some of them wer necessary, yet many were superflous.

The Quantities in Proportion are diuers, according to the diuersitie of Proportions, which are infinite in potentia, that is to say, in possibilitie of increase, as number is.

Many of these things are yet vsed, as the Semibreefe [-f.Bvv-] rest, in three minim time, for three minim rests.

Some strange markes and knitting of Notes which time I doubt not will cut off, neuerthelesse heere shall follow examples of some, to which the redsidue are to be reduced.

[Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Bvv; text: Perfect moode. Imperfect moode. Perfect time. Imperfect time. Maior prolation. Minor prolation. Diminution] [BATHBISS 06GF]

[-f.Bvir-] By these examples following, the foure Modes are knowne what quantitie the lesser notes are to the greater.

[Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Bvir; text: The lower notes are as much in quantitie as the higher with their pricks. Pricks of Diuision are those, which are set aboue notes and not by them, and they shew the note to bee perfect before the prick: and the note following doth belong to another stroke.] [BATHBISS 07GF]

[-f.Bviv-] [Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Bviv; text: 2 longs to the blacke large. 2 briefes to the black long. 2 semibreefes to the black briefe. 2 minims to the black semibrief. XII Examples of Legatures. More Examples of Legatures, as followeth. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12] [BATHBISS 08GF]

[-f.Bviir-] [Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Bviir,1; text: 1, 2, 4, 8] [BATHBISS 09GF]

For Time. Capitulum III.

IN timing hard proportions that go odding, many take care onely of the whole stroke, wholy kept without deuiding it to the going vp and then downe agayne of the hand.

Some keepe Semibreefe time, as sufficient easie of it selfe, and doe not diuide it into minim time.

Three minim time is more difficult, and therefore some doe diuide it into minim time: as,

[Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Bviir,2; text: 2 minims, 4 minims, 3 minims] [BATHBISS 09GF]

Take a stick of a certaine length, and a stone of a certaine weight, hold the stick standing vpon an end of [-f.Bviiv-] some table: See you haue vpon the stick diuers marks: hold the stone vp by the side of the stick: then as you let fall the stone, instantly begin to sing one Note, and iust with the noyse that it maketh vpon the table, beegin another Note, and as long as thou holdest the first Note, so long hold the rest, and let that note thy Cratchet or thy Minim, et cetera as thou seest cause, and thus maist thou measure the very Time it selfe that thou keepest, and know whether thou hast altered it, or not.

For Tune. Capitulum IIII.

SOme learne to Tune only by the Voice of anoher: some vse helpe of an Instrument, which is the better way.

Learners vse to tune by a certaine continuance of time, according to the Vt of the song, before they practise intermingled Flats or sharps.

Heere note, that C. called Csolfavt cleue, is a fift beneth G. called Gsolrevt cleue, and F. called Ffavt cleue, is a fift beneth C. called Csolfavt, Cleue.

Also a man may compt from any cleue, by the letters, compting them forward when hee goeth vpward, and acompting them backward when he goeth downward, telling but the first seuen letters: by the knowledge of this, men may giue their tunes to the parts without knowledge of the Gamvt. Yet for the common vse, it were not amisse, that learners should sometime or other commit the Gam-vt to memory.

Many things are heere taught by rule, for which [-f.Bviiir-] teachers heeretofore, gaue no rule, and if they were asked how shall a man know the like? they would answere, that is according to the course of the Song, but this answere is so vncertaine, that it is as good for the yong Scoller, they had said we know not.

A generall Table comprehending two parts in one, of all kindes vpon all plaine Songs, vpon all pricke Songs, and in all wayes that may be found, one part beginning, th'other following, the plaine Song or ground being sung beneth them: all which are found by this present table, with such facilitie, that the vpper part is made, and neuer booked, as heere followeth.

[-f.Bviiiv-] [Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Bviiiv; text: The obseruations of the places vp are sixe, Places vp. Places down, Courses downe. Courses vp. 8 vt supra, The observations of the places down are sixe. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 16, 35, 85, 135, 136, 1356] [BATHBISS 10GF]

[-f.Cir-] THis present table, may serue also, who so marketh it well, for 2 parts in one, without a plaine song, of all kinds, and in all waies for 3 parts in one, without a plainsong, or ground, the third part being vnder: of all kindes and of all wayes for 2 parts in one, vpon 2 plain songs, or grounds at once, for maintaining reports, and other such things as these be.

First it is to be vnderstanded by this word place, is ment the distance of the following part, to the former part, as the same place or vnison, is called the first place, the next or second place is called the second place, whether it be vp or downe, et cetera.

Next heere is to be vnderstanded that by this word, Course, is ment the distaunce of that which followeth iust so long after, as the following part resteth to that which goeth beefore, in the plaine Song or ground, as if the following part haue a Semibreefe rest, then the Note of tbe ground is in the first course, which hath in the same place that which followeth, iust a Semibreefe length after, and that note is in the second course, which hath in the second place that which followeth iust a Semibreefe length after, whether it bee vp or downe, et cetera.

This beeing knowne, first looke in what place vp or downe, you would haue the following part to bee, which is according to the pleasure of the maker, and so it is how long the following part shall rest. Then looke in what course vp or downe is the note of the ground, for which you would make, then looke what square of the table meeteth with the place and course, and there [-f.Civ-] you shall finde noted by figures, what concord serueth for that course.

All Concords next expressed in the square, make discords betwixt the vpper part and the plaine song or ground. Neuerthelesse, they may be brought in, when they may be garded by the place next adioyning, for whatsoeuer maketh a discord, the next place to it maketh a concord.

Note also that iust so long before the close, as the following part resteth, you make not that which breedeth a discord, betwixt the vpper part and the ground, nor that which to the close of the ground is one more in number then the second figure of obseruation.

Note also, that if iust so long before the close as the following part resteth, you make that which to the close is two more in number then the first figure of obseruation, then best way is to make it sharp.

Note also, that from the beginning forth, of so farre before the close, as the following part resteth, all concords serueth.

The exposition of the figure of obseruation.

THe first and second figures sheweth what distaunces (in respect of the latter notes of the course) should not come twise together, remouing one way with the latter notes, and also where in respect of the latter note of the course, a [-f.Ciir-] flat for a sharp, or a sharp for a flat, contrary to the order of the place should not bee.

The third and fourth sheweth what mouing one way with the place, iust so long after as the following part resteth, maketh discords.

The fift and sixt serueth wherein the distance, there should not be like mouing one way with the place iust so long after as the following part resteth, and the fift figure. Also where sharp for flat, or flat for sharp, contrary to the order of the place should not bee iust so long after as the following resteth.

Heere note, that vnder each number are comprehended all those that maketh eights, or concords, of that kinde to it, except that vnder the last figure of obseruation such as make eights to the number one way with the place, and such as make ninthes to it in the contrary way are comprehended.

Heere note that two parts in one in the vnizon, fourth, and fift, doe differ from the rest, for in the rest, both parts are tyed, to like order of ascention, but in these both parts do keepe like order according to their place.

Note also, that in two parts in one, in the fourth vp, and in the fift downe, the vpper fa, kept flat in the nether parts causeth a strange flat to be brought in the vpper part, therefore the best way is to make it sharp, vnlesse it bee in such places as a strange flat will doe well to come in.

[-f.Ciiv-] Two verses comprehending the foresaid Table,

which for necessities sake of the matter, must be written crossing one another

[Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Ciiv, text: Gladius Musicus. Aggredior quo aderis cado cernis adest mi Ihesu, Vnum addas tollasque loco stet quatuor addas] [BATHBISS 11GF]

[-f.Ciiir-] IN this Table, or figure aforesayde, foure things are comprehended, the places, the 6. figures of obseruation belonging to them, the courses and concords seruing for them, for the seuen places, there be seuen words in the blade of the Sword: the first word, Aggredior, is alwaies for the first place: the second word downward, quo, is for the second place downeward, et cetera. And the second word vpward, mi, is for the second place vpward, et cetera. This word, Ihesu, is cut off from the rest, to signifie that it beelongeth to another kinde, for in it the letters numerable being 5. doe signifie the first and second figures of obseruation, and it is written one way with the verse, to signifie that it goeth according to the woord of the verse, which is for the place, for it signifieth one number with the word of the verse, that standeth for the place, as if the word bee the fourth word of the verse, then it signifieth, 4. et cetera and 5. signifieth the fift number, to that, as the fift number to foure is 8. and so are the first and second figures of obseruation found. Then are the other foure figures of obseruation to bee found by the crosse verse, which sayth: adde one to the place, take one from the place, let the place stand, adde foure to the place, and so shall you finde the third, fourth, fift, and sixt figures of obseruation.

Heere note, that if the place be the vnizon, beecause you cannot take one from a vnizon, take it from eight, which is of the same kinde, when you haue thus done, tourne the poynt of the Sword downe, and then the seuen woords, serueth for the seuen courses in this order: First the word that serueth for the place, serueth for the [-f.Ciiiv-] first course, the second woord vpward, for the second course vpward: the second woord downeward, for the second course downward, et cetera. As the Sword now standeth, compting about vpon the seuen words, when you haue found what woord serueth for the course, looke what vowels bee in it, and thereby you shall know the concords, that serueth for that course, as if the vowel bee A, it signifieth the vnizon. If it be E, it signifieth the third. If it be I, it signifieth the fift. And if it be O, it signifieth the sixt. Lo, thus are all the things expressed at large in the table, briefely contriued in the compasse of two verses.

[-f.Ciiijr-] The names of the Cords for Counterpoint, Descant, and any set Song in how many parts soeuer.

A concord is diuided into an Vnizon. Third.. Fift. Sixt. Eight. Tenth. Twelfth. Thirtenth. and a Fiftenth Discord are these. A second. A fourth. A seuenth. A Ninth. A leuenth. A fouretenth. and their eights.

[Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Ciiijr; text: vnison, Concords, perfect and vnperfect. 5, 8, 12, 15, 19, 22, 26, 3, 6, 10, 13, 17, 20, 24, 27] [BATHBISS 12GF]

[-f.Ciiijv-] [Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Ciiijv; text: Discords. 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, 16, 18, 21, 23, 25, 28, Concords. 1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 15, 17, 19, 20, 22, 24, 26, 27] [BATHBISS 12GF]

[-f.Cvr-] De Inuentione.

CRescit in infinitum, Inuentio tempore cuncto,

Sed tribus est dixis saepe morata malis.

Est mora paupertas prohibens Inuenta probari,

Non poterit fieri stultus inanis ait.

Vis, piger inquit, adire via latitante leone?

Sic mora pauperies, stultus, homoque piger.

Laus nunc, laus semper, laus omni tempore summo:

Discens atque docens, dicite: lausque Deo.


[-f.Cvv-] [Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Cvv; text: CANTVS. G.K. O Lord in thee is all my trust, giue eare vnto my wofull cry: Refuse mee not that am vniust, but bowing downe thy heauenly eie. Behold how I doe still lament, my sinnes whetein I doe offend: O Lord for them shall I bee shent, sith thee to please I doe entend. TENOR, et cetera.] [BATHBISS 13GF]

[-f.Cvir-] [Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Cvir; text: ALTVS. G.K. O Lord in thee: et cetera. BASSVS.] [BATHBISS 14GF]

[-f.Cviv-] [Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Cviv; text: 10. sundry waies of 2. parts in one vpon the plain song. 1. 2.] [BATHBISS 15GF]

[-f.Cviir-] [Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Cviir; text: 10. sundry waies of 2. parts in one, vpon the plain song. 3. 4.] [BATHBISS 16GF]

[-f.Cviiv-] [Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Cviiv; text: 10. sundry waies of 2 parts in one vpon the plain song. 5. 6.] [BATHBISS 17GF]

[-f.Cviijr-] [Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Cviijr; text: 10. sundry waies of 2 parts in one vpon the plain song. 7. 8.] [BATHBISS 18GF]

[-f.Cviijv-] [Bathe, Briefe Introduction, f.Cviijv; text: 10. sundry waies of 2. parts in one vpon the plain song, 9. 10.] [BATHBISS 19GF]

FINIS. Place the Table of the comparisons of Cliffes after this.

[-unpaginated rear insert-] [Bathe, Briefe Introduction, insert; text: A Table of the comparisons of Cliffe, how one followeth another for the naming of Notes: changing (Vt) into (Sol) and (Re) into (La.), Mi. Fa.] [BATHBISS 20GF]

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