School of Music
University of Nebraska--Lincoln
Lincoln, NE 68588-0100
(phone: [402] 472-2507; Internet: plefferts1@unl.edu)

Data entry: Robin High
Checked by: Peter Slemon
Approved by: Peter M. Lefferts

Fn and Ft: SCOTA3B1_TEXT
Author: Anonymous
Title: The Scottish Anonymous
Source: Judson Dana Maynard, "An anonymous Scottish treatise on music from the sixteenth century, British Museum, Additional Manuscript 4911, edition and commentary," 2 vols. (Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University, 1961), 2:1-132. Used by permission.
Graphics: SCOTA3B1 01GF-SCOTA3B1 62GF


Quhat is mensural music? Music mensurall, as Ornitoparchus, ane doctur of music, dois writ, is discretioun of modulatioun and forme in discreit figuris, in mud, tym and prolatioun quantificat; or it is the artt of full harmony that is perfytlie constitut throw deversitie of figuris and vocis; or it is of augmentatioun and diminutioun of all essenciall nottis, mesuris and pausis. Quhairthrow the quantatie and valur of everie figur in the propir kynd is manifest and in cantionis with mesur modulat.

Quhow monye propr kyndis fallis to music mensurall? Fyveftein. Quhilk fyvftein?
1. Mesur
2. Tym
3. Figur
4. Paus
5. Mud
6. Prolatioun
7. Sing
8. Perfectioun
9. Imperfectioun
10. Punct
11. Alteratioun
12. Syncopa
13. Tactus
14. Augmentatioune
15. Diminition

Misur--quhat is it? It is of a certane moving with alternatie be ane equall straik or an choip distinctlye proccionat throw the quhilk all nottis and pausis of sangis for the qualitie of everie sing or figur as in mensurall proportioun deducit.

[-2-] [fol. 1v] [CHAPTER ONE--FIGURE]

Ane figur--quhat is it? Ane figur, as Franchinus sayis, is ane representation of a rycht and amittit voce quhilk beand of a rycht voce dois schew the figuris and the nottis with a certain mesur singaball and pronunciabill, the amittit voce surlye with sylence and pausis is declarit; or ane figur is ane forme or ane kynd oppinand the hid preceptionis of nottis--[o]r pausis shew the congnition of the samyn--quhairthrow all prolatioun harmonical dois perfytlie produce inteligence of everie mesur and tym eftir as the quantie of the figur dois requir. Of the quhilkis figuris the bodeis ar formit in this ordour eftir nottit.

The larg is ane figur of quhilk the leynth dois the badie triplicat havand ane virgill in the rycht part up or doun, sic: [MXvvxsn]

The long is a figur of quhilk the lynth dois dubill the breid havand a virgule to the similitud of the larg, sic; [Lv]

The breve is a figur with ane quadrat bodie formit with absence of the virgule. [Bv]

The semibrev is a round figur formit to the ane eg or as plesit Franchinus ane triangli, thus: [Sv, two void triangles]

The mynnum is a figur as the semibrev is with a virgule ascendent or discendent. [Mv]

The curchet is a figur lik the mynnym with [Scs] [-3-] colour variat.

The quaver is a figure lik the curchet havand ane cruik in rycht part. [Scsvxdx]

The semiquaver is a figur lyik the quaver havand tua cruikis in the rycht part quhilkis in this ordour ar distributit: [Scs2vxdx]

[Anon., Scottish, 3; text: Perfyt, Imperfyt, Figurarium, Corpora, 12, 6, 3, 1, 8, 4, 2, 1, O, C] [SCOTA3B1 01GF]

[-4-] [fol. 2] THE SECUND CHAPTOUR

Ligatur--quhat is it? Gaforus dois writ in the fyvft chaptur of the secund buik that a ligatur is of simpill figuris be detful tractis ane ordinat conjunctioun, or as Tinctor writtis, a ligatur is of a noit till ane uther togidder suning. Ornitoparchus in the thrid chaptur of this secund buik dois writ that a ligatur is of principall figuris ane condependens eftir the tracth up or down in rectitud or obliquit, or it is of simple figuris or of dyverss kindis, towart arsis and thesis, of ane noit till ane uther ane aggregat connectione.

Quhow mony sympill figuris ar copulative? Ffour. Quhilk four? Ane larg, a long, a brev, a semibrev. Ane mynnym, suithly, is never fund with ligaturis to be conjunit nor curchet, quaver nor semiquaver. For congnitioun of the quhilkis dyverss rewlis in inicialis, medialis and finalis ar speciallie producit.

The first rewill: All noitt iniciall wantand the taill--quhidder it be squair or obliqui--the secund descendent, is ane long.

The secund rewill: All noit iniciall havand nocht ane taill the secund discendent is ane breve.

The thrid rewill: All noitt iniciall havand the taill down in the part senistre of it is for ane breff hatom.

The ferd rewill: All noit iniciall quhowever it be formit havand the taill up in the senistre part is a semibrev togidder with the nixt followand nocht curand quhidder it ascend or discend.

In medialis the first rewill: All noitt betuixt the first and the last is callit media.

[-5-] [fol. 2v] The secund rewill: All meid noit, quhowever it it [sic] be formit or to put, is a breve.

The thrid rewill: A long may entir to the beginning and the ending but never in middis.

The ferd rewill: Ane breve in the beginnyng, in the middis is to be bund is most abill.

The fyvft rewill: The semibreve in the beginning, in the middis, and the ending may be bund so that the taill in the senistre part upwart be drawin.

In finalis the first rewill: All noit discendent, gif it be quadrat, is ane long.

The secund rewill: All finall noit quadrat ascendent is ane breve.

The thrid rewill: All finall obliqiu, quhidder it ascend or discend, is ane breve.

The ferd rewill: The larg, quhairevir it be fund, alway dois a larg remane; the quhilkis thir consequent exemplis dois appreve.

Off Ligaturis of Tua Nottis the Congnition Descendent

This present ligatur is constitut to be of tua longis: [[1], Lig2vdcsdx on staff 3]

This present ligatur is constitut to be of tua brevis: [[2], Lig2vcdsnod on staff3]

This present ligatur is constitut to be of tua semibrevis: [[3], Lig2vcssnd,Lig2vcssnod on staff3]

[-6-] This ligatur the first is a long and the last is ane breve: [[4], Lig2vod on staff3]

This present ligature the first is ane breve and the last ane uther: [[5], Lig2vcdsnd on staff3]

[fol. 3] This present ligatur the first is ane long and the last ane uther: [[6], Lig2vd on staff3]

So Endis the Cupling of Tua Nottis Discendent and Beginnis the Cupling of Tua Nottis Ascendent

This present ligaturis is constitut of tua brevis: [[7], Lig2va,Lig2vart on staff3]

This present ligatur is constitut of tua longis: [[8], Lig2vLaL on staff3]

This present ligatur is constitut of tua longis: [[9], Lig2vLacsdx on staff3]

This present is ane long and ane breve: [[10], Lig2vLa on staff3]

This present ligatur is to be hatom the first ane breiff the last ane long: [[11], Lig2vart on staff3]

This present ligatur the first ane breiff the last ane long: [[12], Lig2vacsdx on staff3]

This present ligatur is of tua semibreffis: [[13], Lig2vcssna on staff3]

[-7-] So Endis the Cuppilling of Tua Nottis Ascendent and Beginnis of Thrie Noittis Descendent

Of this present ligatur the first is ane long, the secund ane breve and the thrid ane long: [[14], Lig3vdd on staff3]

This present ligatur the first is ane long, the secund ane breve and the thrid ane long: [[15], Lig3vddcddx on staff3]

Of this present ligatur the first is ane long, the secund ane brevf and the last ane long: [[16], Lig3vddcsdx on staff3]

This present ligaturis the first is ane long, t[h]e nixt and thrid ar brevis: [[17], Lig3vdod on staff3]

[fol. 3v] Of this present ligatur the first and secund ar brevis and thrid is ane long: [[18], Lig3vcdsndd on staff3]

This ligatur the first tua ar brevis and the thrid ane long: [[19], Lig3vcdsnddcddx on staff3]

Of this present ligatur the first tua ar breiffis and the thrid is ane long: [[20], Lig3vcdsnddcsdx on staff3]

Heir the first tua are semibrevis and the thrid is ane [long crossed out] breve: [[21], Lig3vcssndd on staff3]

This present ligatur the first tua ar semibrevis and the last is ane long: [[22], Lig3vcssnddcddx on staff3]

Of this present ligatur the first tua ar semibrevis and the last is ane long: [[23], Lig3vcssnddcsdx on staff3]

This present ligatur is constitut of thrie brevis: [[24], Lig3vcdsndod on staff3]

Heir the first ar semibrevis and the last ane breiff: [[25], Lig3vcssndod on staff3]

[-8-] So Endis the Cuppling of Thrie Notis Discendent and Beginnis the Cuppling of Thre Nottis Ascendent

Heir in this ligatur the first is ane long, the secund ane breve and the thrid a long: [[26], Lig3vLaacsdx on staff3]

Of this present ligatur the first is ane long, the secund ane breff, and the thrid ane long: [[27], Lig3vLaacdsn on staff3]

This present ligatur the first is ane long, the secund tua ar brevis: [[28], Lig3vLaa on staff3]

Heir the first tua ar brevis and the last ane long: [[29], Lig3vadcddx on staff3]

[fol. 4] Of this present ligatur tua ar semibrevis and the thrid ane long: [[30], Lig3vaacsdx on staff3]

The first tua ar semibrevis the thrid ane long: [[31], Lig3vcssnaacsdx on staff3]

Heir in this present ligatur the first [is ane crossed out] tua ar semibrevis and the last ane long: [[32], Lig3vcssnaacddx on staff3]

[Anon., Scottish, 8; text: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12] [SCOTA3B1 01GF]

[-9-] [Anon., Scottish, 9; text: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6] [SCOTA3B1 01GF]


Quhat is ane paus? It is ane figur or ane virgule [fol. 4v] over lynis and spacis transvertit, haldin for ane sing of tasiturnitie missorit with artificiall sylence eftir the quantatie of everrie noit till it appropriat; quhilk dois singnifie als mekill of the c[h]oip mensurall quhow mekill the valour of the noitt quhairto it has respect dois extend.

Quhow monye kyndis of pausis ar nemmit? Als mony kyndis of pausis ar nemmit as sindrie noittis. For quhy everie noitt hes the propir pauss quhilk is of samekill valour quhow mekil the [valour crossed out] propir noit thair in the cantione is wontit to be modulat, for quhy the pausis ar decernit be dyverss twiching of lynis to be extendit in this maner:

1. Gif ony virgule is be four haill spacis transvertit, twichand all the fyve lynis, that pause is of mud maior or of the larg perfyt. Of the quhilk tua ussis bot in endingis of sangis in this manner: [ANE LARG,MXvvxsn,MXP,MXP,MXvvxsn on staff5]

2. Gif ony virgule to the ferd lyne dois pretend, that pauss is of the muid minor or of the perfect long: [ANE LONG PERFYT,Bvcsdx,3LP,3LP,3LP,3LP,Lv on staff5]

3. Gyve ony virgule to the thrid lyn dois intend, that pause is of ane long imperfyt: [ANE LONG IMPERFYT,Bvcsdx,2LP,2LP,Lv on staff3]

4. Gyve ony virgule ovir ane space is fund twichand tua lynis, that pause is of ane breiff: [ANE BREVE,Bv,BP,BP,Bv on staff3]

5. Gif ony [pause crossed out] virgule downwart fro the lyne to the meid, [space crossed [ANE SEMEBREV,Bv,Sv,SP,SP,Sv on staff3] [-11-] out] that pause is of ane semebreiv:

6. Gif ony virgule for the lyne to the meid spaic uprasit, tha pause is callit ane su[s]piry of ane mynnym: [MYNNYM,Svcd,MP,MP,Mv on staff4]

[fol. 5] Gif virgule fro the lyne to the mid space be uprasit, havand the heid on the rycht part reflexit, it is ane semisu[s]piry callit ane curchet rest: [CURCHET,M,SMP,SMP,Scd on staff 4]

Gyve ony virgule fro the lyne to the mid space be uprasit havand dowbill reflexioune of the rycht part, it is callit ane quaver rest formit in so:

[Anon., Scottish, 11; text: QUAVER] [SCOTA3B1 01GF]

The pauss of semiquaveris ar nocht nottit with modulation usit, quhairfor we leiff thame ondiscryvit. So endis the paus and beginnis:


Quhow monye greis of mensurall music ar nemmit? Thrie. Quhilk thrie? Mud, tym, and prolatioun.

Mud--quhat is it? Mud, as Franchinus in the secund builk dois attest, it is the mesur of longis in largis or of brevis in longis; or it is the beginning of quantatie and forme of largis and longis mesurand tham with nummer trinar or binar; or it is of dyverss figuris a disponit quantatie with ane proporcionat cordinans towart the divisioun and distributione of nummeris quhilk dois observe the rewill and ordour institut schawand the valour and quantatie of everrie figur be signis and taknis oftin sein, quhairby everie kynd of nottis and pauss perfytlie is persevit.

Of Divisioune of Mud

Quhow mikill is mud? Dubill it is. Quhow? Mud maior, quhilk is in larggis and longgis and mud minor, quhilk is [in] longis and brevis and everie ane of tham in perfyt and imperfect is devydit.

[fol. 5v] Of Mud Maior

Mud maior perfyt, it is in the larg havand thrie longis in the self contenit; or it is dimension of thrie longis in a larg, of the quhilk the sing is ane circill perfect till a trinar nummer associat--so: [O3]. Bot the mair imperfytt is the larg tua longis in the self includit, quhilk with ane circle imperfect and trinar nummer junit is knawin--in this wyss: [C3]. The mud perfyt [per crossed out] of the [-13-] less is ane long thrie brefis in the self includit; or it is dimensione of thrie brevis in a long, of the quhilk the sing is a perfyt circle with a binar nummer thairto [a]ssociat--in this wyss: [O2]. The mud less imperfyt is ane long with tua brevis allanerly mensurand, of the quhilk the sing is absence of binar nummer--so: [C], or ane semicircle to be bena[r] nummer junit--so: [C2].

[Anon., Scottish, 13,1; text: (Example 1.), The mud perfyt of the mair: Imperfyt of the mair: Perfyt of the less: Imperfyt of the less:] [SCOTA3B1 02GF]

Heir is ane gryth varience betuix the Bretans and utheris musicians of dyverss regionis annentis the muid perfyt of the less in this wyiss. The docturis of music, sic as Gaforus Laudensis, Faber Strabulen, Wolicus Baroducensis with dyverss uther doctouris dois writt that in the long of the muid less perfyt thrie brevis ar contenit, and the paus of the long dois occupie four levillis and in haill spacis in the maner following:

[Anon., Scottish, 13,2] [SCOTA3B1 02GF]

Quhilk Britans maner, to all doctouris contrary, for quhy thay [fol. 6] [-14-] consider bot tua brevis contenit in the long of the muid perfyt of the less and the pauss of the long dois occupie bot thrie levilis and tua spacis in this maner:

[Anon., Scottish, 14] [SCOTA3B1 02GF]

The quhilk thay hald mair autentic; nocht-the-les, for passaig of the sangis to and fro quhilkis ar prikit eftir the consuetud of dyverss nationis, boyth the wayis ar necessar to be persavit and knawin that musicianis with ignorans be nocht apprihendit.


Tyme--quhat is it? Tym, as Ornitoparchus dois approve, is ane breiv tua or thrie semebrevis in the self includit; or it is of tua or thrie semebrevis in ane breiff a dimention mensurall or ellis in this wayis; tym is ane misur of ane preferrit or ane ommittit voce continuallie proportionat under ane moving. The quhilk onderstand the quantatie of brevis or of certane semebrevis in the respect of ane breff as it war ane positione of thrie or tua semebrevis.

Tym--quhow mekill is it? Dubill it is. Quhow? Perfyit and imperfect.

Quhat is tym perfect? It is perfyit quhen in ony modulation thre semebrevis for ane breiff ar nummerit, of the quhilk the sing is ane trinar nummer till ane circle or ane semecirkill is admittit--so: [O3], [C3], [O].

Thyme Imperfyt

Tyme imperfect--quhat is it? It is imperfyt quhen tua semebrevis ar nummerit for ane breiff--the quhilk dois exerce allanerly in brevis. Quhilk be the bynar nummer with ane perfyt circle or ane semecircle conjunit; or ane semicircle put but nummer quhilk is knawin in this wayis following:

[-16-] [fol. 6v]

[Anon., Scottish, 16; text: (Example 2.), Tym perfyte, or thus: Tym imperfect.] [SCOTA3B1 02GF]


Prolatioune--quhow mekill is it? It is dubill. Quhow? Maior and minor.

Maioir prolation--quhat is it? It is ane semebreve mesurit with thrie mynnimis; or of thrie mynnymis ane semebreiff a connectione, of the quhilk the sing is ane punct within ane circle or half ane cirkill--so: [Od], [Cd].

Prolatioun minor--quhat is it? It is ane semebreve mesurit with tua mynnyms allanerlie, of the quhilk the sing is absence of any ponnct--so: [O], [C].

Als the form with the exempllis eftir fallowand dois report:

[Anon., Scottish, 17; text: (Example 3.), Perfyt prolatioun maior: Perfyt prolatioun: or this wyss: Mair, Perfect, Imperfyt, Of prolation perfect, It is quhen an, awalis, and an, awalis, Less, Imperfyt, Middil mesur] [SCOTA3B1 02GF]

[-18-] [Anon., Scottish, 18; text: (Example 4a.), [fol. 7], Ane exempill of the haill prolation mair, Haill prolation, haill, Of haill prolation, of diminut prolation, diminut, diminution, of proportionat prolation] [SCOTA3B1 03GF]

[-19-] [fol. 7v] Resolution of the prolation befoirwrit.

[Anon., Scottish, 19; text: (Example 4b.), Ane exempill of haill tym perfyt, Of tym perfyt, diminucion, diminut] [SCOTA3B1 04GF]

[-20-] [Anon., Scottish, 20,1; text: proporcionat] [SCOTA3B1 05GF]

[Anon., Scottish, 20,2; text: Thir ar of music the thrie greis, Muid, Tym, Prolatione, dois exeric allanerly in, larggis and longgis; brevis and semebrevis; semebrevis and mynnyms. [fol. 8], Tyme, Perfect, Imperfyt, is quhair ane brev, dois contein, Prolatione is dubill, Perfect, Imperfyt, quhen ane, is devydit in, ii, iii] [SCOTA3B1 05GF]

All the figuris of nottis and all the four mudis with thair signis, tym and prolation beand befoir descryvit, heir in this present table the essenciallis of tham as in ane visibill murour ar manyfest.

[-21-] [Anon., Scottish, 21; text: The mair prolatioun perfect. The maior prolatioun imperfyt. The less prolatioun perfect. The less prolation imperfyt. Tym perfyt. Tym perfect. (sic) Tym imperfit. Mud perfyt of the mair. Muid imperfyt of the mair. Mud perfyt of the less., Mud imperfyt of the less.] [SCOTA3B1 06GF]

[fol. 8v] The tabill forwritin beand suchtfastly signat, now it restis to schew quhow it is belevit that dyverss of the Bretanis in the impressione of sig[n]is dois fro the rycht way declynn pulland the signis of perfyt prolation undiscreitlye to perfect and imperfect muidis and befoir and within thair sangis disusand the propir signis of perfect mud and takand the signis fro prolationis to quhilkis thay ar appropriat and giffand tham to the mud quhilkis ar not to tham convenient and dois abstract and abject the propir signis fro the mudis and punctis to tham the signis quhairwith thay suld not be governit. The quhilk signis of the nemmit Britanis as tha do tham uss in this tabill consequent ar contenit.

[-22-] [Anon., Scottish, 22; text: This is the sing of the mud perfyt of the mair. This is the sing of the mud imperfyt of the mair. This is the sing of the mud of perfyt of the less. This is the sing of the mud of imperfyt of the less.] [SCOTA3B1 06GF]

[-23-] [fol. 9]

[Anon., Scottish, 23; text: Perfection, Divisioun, Adicioun] [SCOTA3B1 07GF]

[-24-] [fol. 9v] Thir tabillis precedent beand considerit, quhairin the form of signis to the four mudis onordarlly ar disponit be dyveris personis quhilkis hes nocht sene the traditionis of antiquitie doctouris of music, quhilk traditionis trow application of all stude[nt]is to be haldin autentic ar speciallie commandit. Thairfor, sen all nationis dois uss the signis fro the moist wyss doctoris of antiquitie derectrit, thay hald it nocht only lesum that the moist cellebrat art of music suld be pervertit throw mutatioun of signis and intrusioun of thame in the placis of dyvris uther signis with Britanis, quhilkis ar bot tua si[n]gular nationis allanerly. Nocht-the-les, thay ondiscretly apponit suld be fro the saiddis mudis suspendit and to prolation fynallie reducit. The signis, swithly, quhilkis thay do in the muddis uss newer wayis--asit is belevit--be na doctouris to tham derectit. Bot thay have the saidis signis to thamself parciallye but auctoritie usurpit; thair[r]for, saiffand thair honour, guid it war to interdit thair vane positione of signis and follow the pluralitie of the nationis of all uthe[r] regionis eftir the traditionis of the saiddis antiquitie doctoris givin to tham ald and wont. The quhilk interdictione beand execut, no deversitie in usuigis betuix tham salbe apprehendit.

Off quhat valour and quantatie is everry figur till his compair quhan ilk ane of the four mudis contra utheris in a sett san ar devolvit? It is to wit: That the quantatie of figuris is knawin be the minnym of the perfect of the mair--[O3]; and be the semebreve of the perfect of the less--[O2], that is to say, thrie [Sv,Sv,Sv] of the perfyt of the less ar equall of quantatie till ane semebre[ve] [Sv] of the perfyt of the mair; and siclyk jugment is to be had of the perfect of [the] less to the [-25-] imperfect of the mair. Item the mynnym of the perfyt of the mair--[O3], and mynnym of the imperfyt of the mair--[C3], and the semebreve of the imperfyt of the less--[C2], and the breve of diminutione of the imperfect of [the] less--[Cdim], ar all equall other of ane mesur, tym and quantatie. So be the knawleig of tham the quantatie of the leve of the figuris befoir writtin salbe perfectlie knawin, as this descriptione of signis and figuris with the exempill followand planly dois furthschaw:

[Anon., Scottish, 25,1; text: [fol. 10], All nationis excepting of the Bretanis dois uss thir present signis. Britanis allanerly dois uss thir present signis, bot non utheris nationis.] [SCOTA3B1 08GF]

The exempill dois eftir follow:

[Anon., Scottish, 25,2; text: (Example 5.), O lux] [SCOTA3B1 08GF]

[-26-] [Anon., Scottish, 26; text: beata trinitas.] [SCOTA3B1 08GF]

[-27-] [fol. 10v] THE SAX CH[A]PTOUR

Sing--quhat is it? It is ane evident takin quhilk giffis the first knawleig of modulation towart mude, tym and prolation quhairthrow be the cirkill haill and half the quantatie of figuris justlie ar decernit.

Ane cirkill--quhat is it? Dubill it is. Quhow? Of the mair perfyt, and the less perfect.

Quhat is the circle of the mair perfect? It is ane singe or ane takin of perfyt tym with a trinar nummer to the rycht syid of the circle junit in this wyss--[O3], quhilk dois properly signifie muid, tyme and prolation of the perfect of the mair.

Quhat is ane cirkill of the less perfect? It is ane sing proponit in the maner of ane rund compas with ane binar nummer to the rycht syd of the circle junit in this wayss--[O2], quhilk dois allanerly siginfie muid, tym and prolation off the perfyt of the less.

Ane cirkill imperfyt--quhat is it? Dubill. Quhow? Of the mair imperfyt and of the less imperfect.

Quhat is ane circle of the mair imperfyt? It is ane takin of tym imperfyt callit ane semecirkill with ane trinar numbre to the rycht syd of the semecircle junit in this wyss--C3, quhilk dois signifie mud, tym and prolation of the imperfyt of the mair.

Quhat is ane circle of the less imperfyt? It is ane evident sing of tym imperfyt with ane semecirkill deping it, but ane punct in the middis in this wyss--[C] [sic], quhilk dois betakin muid, tym and prolation of the imperfyt of the less.

[-28-] [fol. 11] Thir ar the signis of the muddis: [O3] the perfect of the mair of the perfyt tym [C3] the imperfyt of the mair of perfect tym [O2] the perfect of the less of imperfect tym [C2] the imperfyt of [the] less of imperfyt tym.

In the iyll of Britane tua regionis ar contenit, that is to say, Ingland and Scotland. The quhilk tua regionis tua nobill nationis dois inhabeit callit Britanis; of the quhilkis musicianis est the consuetuid of all uther nationis dois nocht the cirkillis disting[uish] in perfect and imperfyt with cyphris of trinar and bynar numbris to the forsaiddis cirkillis adjunit, bot thay abstract fro thair circlis the saiddis cypheris and dois uss the signis fornemmit eftir the consuetuid be thame usurpit usit and wontit as this paragraphe dois represent.

Thir ar the singis of mudis usit in Britan: [Od] of the perfyt of the mair [Cd] of the imperfyt of the mair [O] of the perfect of the less [C] of the imperfect of the less [Odim] less prolatioun be diminution of tym [Cdim]

[Anon., Scottish, 28; text: Of signis ane of perfyt, ane of imperfyt: mud maior, perfect, imperfect, of tym perfect, muid minor, of perfyt, of tym imperfyt, the mair prolation, of the less prolation, tym] [SCOTA3B1 09GF]

Muid, tym, and prolatioun--be quhat kind of singnis ar thay knawin? [-29-] Thay ar knawin by tua maner of wayis, that is to say, be signis perfyt and signis imperfyt.

[fol. 11v] Quhow ar they knawin be the signis perfyt? Be rund and haill circlis as thus--[O], [Cdim]; and teiknit with trinall nummer--so: 3, and with punctis within cirkillis or semecirkillis imprentit--so: [Od], [Cd], of the quhilkis everray ane dois betakin perfection of nottis quhilkis onder tham ar subduwit.

[Anon., Scottish, 29,1; text: Mud maior, maior, minor, tym, prolation] [SCOTA3B1 09GF]

Quhow ar thay knawin be singis imperfyt? Thay ar knawin be half circlis thus--[Cdim], [C]; or taiknit with numer binar and with absens of pounction in this wayis--[C2], as heireftir is practicit:

[Anon., Scottish, 29,2; text: maior, minor, tym, prolation] [SCOTA3B1 09GF]

To the quhilkis thrie considerationis ar to be recordit. First: giff the nummer trinall or benary to the circle be adjunit thus--[O3], [C3], [O2], [C2], than the circle properly to the mud dois pertein and sorvis to the larg quhilk has the nummer trinall. [fol. 12] Ane uther [-30-] is that hes the singe benar servis to the long, the quhilk nummer trinall dois betakn perfyt tym and numer, of bynarrie--imperfyt tym. The secund: gif the circle be singnat without numeris [o]r punctis and put allone in this wayss --[O], [C], [Odim], [Cdim], thay ar betaknit of tym allanerly quhilk is of brevis, of [the] quhilk the haill circil perfection--the half cirkill imperfection dois notifie. The thrid: quhow oft that punctis in circlis or semecircles in this fassone imprentit--[Od], [Cd], [Oddim], [Cddim], thay ar alway to prolation committit, that is, to semebrevis.

The singnis of mud maior and minor heir expressis be exemplis consequent ar denuncit:

[Anon., Scottish, 30; text: Geve to ane perfect circle be annexit the number of: trinarie, bynary, it schawis the mud, maior, minor. The singis of tym expresss heir ar knawin: Ane cyphre of: trynarie put to ane circle imperfect, so: dois singnifie tym, perfyt, imperfut. Ane circille, haill and full, imperfyt, put but numer so: schawis the thm. In quhatsumen cumpas or circle, is signgat, is nocht signat, ane punct in this wyss: the prolation is] [SCOTA3B1 09GF]

[-31-] [fol. 12v] Sen dyverss signis ar imformit of commixtioun of thrie principal figuris, that is to say, circle, numer, and punct, quhairthrow the knawleig of tham facill dois appeir gif to everie figur the avin valour be givin. Thairfor, it lykis to subduce ane resolitar tabill of everrie figur in quhatsumen sing it be put schawand the valour be imperfection of the said tabill in this fassone followand:

[Anon., Scottish, 31; text: Mynnym, Semebrevis, Brevis, Longgis, Largis, Singe] [SCOTA3B1 10GF]

Thir signis befoir writtin beand put in ordour, it is necessar thall all signis perfyt and imperfyt be put in exemplis and all nottis [by] cypheris be numerit, quhairthrow studentis may hav onderstanding quhow mekill every fygur or not is of valour and quantatie.

[-32-] [fol. 13] Ane declartion of signis, figuris, and cyphris in ane practic speculative heireftir dois proceid:

[Anon., Scottish, 32,1; text: 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 54, 81] [SCOTA3B1 10GF]

Thir figuris above writin ar of mair prolation, tym, and mud.

[Anon., Scottish, 32,2; text: 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24] [SCOTA3B1 10GF]

This figuris above written ar of less prolation, tym, and mud.

Mairatouir, the cyphrie is annexit tua maner of wayss, that is to say, collatrall and subjugall. Collatrall is quhen the cyphre is to the rycht syid of the circle conjunit--[O3], [C3], thairfor ane grie allanerly it is significat and quhen it is onder the circle subducit--[O/3], [C/3], than of figuris mensurall it is ane betaiknar as heir be ane exempill is previt:

[Anon., Scottish, 32,3; text: (Example 6.), The discant: Tenor:] [SCOTA3B1 11GF]

[-33-] [Anon., Scottish, 33] [SCOTA3B1 11GF]

[fol. 13v] Of Dyverss Circles Superflew and Abusit

The auld fatheris of [in crossed out] antiquitie wyslie did decreit thrie musical greiss to be of dyverss circlis superflew and abusit with tua circlis and ane meid punct in this wayss--[signum], say thet the mair circle suld schaw the mud and the less circle the tym signet and the punct suld schaw the prolation. Nocht-the-les, utheris diverss of music practicians hev exprenit the quantateis perfyt and imperfyt of noittis and nummeris trinary and bynarie with caracteris, circles and semecir[c]les perfytlie disponit, schawand that gif the canticle in the muid [mair] perfyt and less perfyt and tym perfect or imperfyt beis discreitly institut it salbe knawin be thir signis and sypheris eftir followand:

[-34-] Thir ar the signis of the mudis: [033] mair perfyt less perfyt or of tym perfyt [023] mair perfyt less imperfyt of tym perfyt [032] mair perfyt less perfect of tym imperfect [C32] mair perfyt imperfyt less perfyt tym imperfyt [C23] mair imperfect less imperfyt of tym perfyt.

The Nullitie of This Last Process

Thir circlis afoir writin beand singnat and the quantateis of tham declarit, quhilkis the modern musicianis has lang abusit and superflew hatom, it is expedient that the fir[st] way and the secund of division of signis in this presant chaiptour devolvit be autorezit and autentic haldin. The thrid way, forsuitht, is alluterlye fra our uss to be exterminat, abusit, and of nan availl declarit; quhairfoir the philosopher sayis, Frustra fi[a]t per plura quod potest per pauciora.

Sen the signis with few allegationis ar all perfytlie declarit, it is in vane to induce may[r] auctoriteis for the decleratioun of tham. Thairfor this present process orde[r]lye promuiffit may sifficiand ceiss, bot yeit certane signis less principall dois rest undeclarit quhilkis ar contenit in this present chaiptur, that is to say, generall pausis with convenientis canticlis, inceptionis, reinceptionis, asperationis, molificationis [fol. 14] and utheris signis to the constitution of harmonye pertenand quhilkis be thir exemplis subsequent ar all to memorie reducit.

[-35-] [Anon., Scottish, 35; text: Thir ar the singis of generall pausis: The convenientis of canticlis: The inceptionis [of] tua partis in ane: Salva nos Criste salvator. Off re[in]ceptionis: Off asperations and mollificationis: aspirationis, molificationis] [SCOTA3B1 11GF]


Quhow mony partis of figuris ar nemmit? Ffour. Quhilk four? The first, the secund, the thrid, the fourt. Quhat is the first part? It is callit propinqua, quhilk is interprat the part neirby. Quhat is the secund? It is callit remota, quhilk is interprat the part removffit. Quhat is the thrid part? It is callit remocior, quhilk is interprat mair or farrar removffit. Quhat is the ferd? It is callit remotissima, quhilk is interprat all the farrest removiffit.

[fol. 14v] For the first part--quhat is propinqua? It is [the] part in the quhilk the figur totall immediatlie is resolvit and separat--as ane long in respect of ane larg and ane breve in respect in respect [sic] of ane long and ane semebrev in respect of ane breiff and ane mynnym in respect of ane semebref.

Remota--quhat is it? It is the part betuix the quhilk and the figur total ane only middis with ane ordour naturall cummis betuix--as ane breif in respect of ane larg, betuix the quhilkis ane only long dois repair and ane semebreve in respect of ane long, to [the] quhilkis ane only breif is [impetra crossed out] interponit and ane mynnym in respect of ane breve, the quhilkis ane semebreiff alone dois intermix.

Remocior--quhat is it? It is the part betuix the quhilk and the figur totall tua maner noittis with ordour naturall ar disponit--or ane semebreiff in respect of ane larg, quhilkis the long and the breiff in the middis dois interpone.

Remotissima--quhat is it? It is the part figurall betuix the [-37-] quhilk and the figur total thrie mair figuris naturally remane--as ane mynnym in respect of ane long, betuix the quhilkis ane long, ane breiff and ane semebref naturaly ar includit. Item, the samyn arbitrie is to be leid of the anfractis of the mynnym in respect of the leavff of the small figuris.

In this discription the larg alwayis is fund to be the figur totall and dyesis allwayiss parcialle. The leiff, forsuith, intermedialis, totalis and parcialis ar nemmit. Nocht-the-leiss the mynnym eftir the neotericianis dois cloiss the trinall divisioun of fyguris. Ergo, beyond the mynnym na less figur of imper[fec]tible consideration is proponit, quhairfor the accidentis of music figurable allanerly in the first fyve fyguris ar discreitly deput.

[-38-] [fol. 15] THE AUCHT CHAPTOUR

Quhat is perfection of figuris? It is the same quhilk eftir the sing perfect all noitt in mud, tym, and prolation contenit in trinall nummer dois proceid so that the noitt or the pauss immediatlie followand equall to the precedent be disponit as is this exempill consequent is notificat:

[Anon., Scottish, 38; text: (Example 7.)] [SCOTA3B1 12GF]

[-39-] [Anon., Scottish, 39] [SCOTA3B1 12GF]


Quhat is imperfection of figuris? It is ane abstraction of the thrid part of the vallour of ony noitt of perfyt muid, tym and prolation and so to mak ane noit imperfyt. It is nocht alis bot the oblatione of the thrid part of the same, that is to say, of ane perfyt noit to make it imperfyt, quhairfoir it likis na noit to be maid imperfyt bot gif it be of the valour of thrie perfyt noittis and for causs that imperfection alluterlye in the same greiss is to be comprehendit.

Quhow mony kyndis of imperfectible figuris ar nemmit? Thrie. Quhilk thrie? The first is allanerly pacient, the secund allanerly agent, the thrid is boith agent and pacient.

Quhat is the figur allanerly pacient? It is the larg alone, quhilk suppois be dyverss figuris inferioris it may be imperficit; nocht-the-les, it dois imperfect nane wyis figuris inferioris for quhy it dois never preceid nor follow ony moir figur in quantatie nor the self to the quhilk the thrid part imperfectabill may be applyit.

Quhat is the figur allanerly agent? It is ane only, mynnym, suppois utherwayss in perfyt prolation it dois imperfice; nocht-the-less, be ane uthor mynnym it may nocht be imperficit.

Quhat is ane figur boyth agent and pacient? It is ane figur quhilk may boyth imperfice and [be] imperficit and thay ar thrie numerit, that is to say, ane long, ane brev and ane semebreif, of the quhilk ony ane of tham may do imperfice a mair fygur and be ane less figur be imperficit. Quhairfoir, it is to be nottit that ane fygur now in the haill, now in a part, is imperficit quhairthrow [fol. 16] uther[r] of the figuris [-41-] is the par[t] propinque, uther swithly removit, as ane breif is the thrid propinque part of the long, imperficient the same in the haill; ane semebreif or a mynnym or partis removit of the same makand imperfyt. In that caiss a figur may fra the remorcior part to the part removit be imperficit.

Of figuris uthelis callit:

Pacient alanerly--that is ane figur imper[fec]table, as ane larg.

Agent--the fygur of ane only, mynnym, quhilk be ane uther mynnym may nocht be imperficit.

Agent and pacient boith--thay ar the figuris quhilkis dois imperfice and ar imperficit, as long, breve and semebreif.

Quhow mony generall rew[i]llis of imperfectioun ar nemmit? Four. Quhilk four? The first, the secund, the thrid and the fourt.

Declair the first rewill: All figur or noitt imperfectabill be ane less noitt and never ane less be ane moir noitt is imperficit. Declair the secund rewill: All figur or noitt imperfectable fra the foir part or the last part or fra boyth the partis may be imperficit. Declair the thrid rewill: All figur till uther equall and alyk dois nocht imperfice his mark, as ane long fra ane long nor ane breif for ane breve. Declair the ferd rewill: Ane figur in ane uther is imperficit fra the part [fol. 16v] remotissima befoir or behind, be ressone of the [-42-] perfyt part propinque in the haill inclusit of this wyss: In the fygur of [O2] ane long contenit in ane larg is imperficit be ane brevif, bot gif the pounct of division lator gan stand it, also, in the sing of perfyt tym--[O], ane breif contenit in ane larg and ane long be ane semebreif is imperficit.

Gaffor[i]us sayis the thrie conditionis ar quhilkis dois notifie ane imperfectabill figur to be imperfyt, that is to say, numerall imperfection, punctuall division and fulnes of noittis.

In Muid

The larg is imperficit with ane long or the valour of it befoir or behind in this maner:


In Tym

The larg, the long, the breif and the semebreif befoir and behynd may be imperficit in this wyss:

[O,Lvvxsn,Sv,pt,Sv,Lvvxsn,Lv,Sv,pt,Sv,Lv; Bv,Sv,pt,Sv,Sv; Bv]

In P[r]olation

The larg, the long, the breve and semebreif ar imperficit be ane mynnym or the valour of it befoir and behind in this maner:

[Od,Lvvxsn,Mv,Mv,Lvvxsn; Lv,Mv,Mv,Lv,Bv,Mv,pt,Mv,Mv,pt,Sv,Mv,pt,Mv,Sv]

1. Joannis De Muris so schortlye dois reherss that the long is imperficit be ane brev and be ane semebreif in this wyss:


2. The breve is imperficit be ane semebreif and be ane mynnym in this wyss:


[-43-] 3. The semebrev is imperficit with ane mynnym in this wyss: [Sv,Mv,Bv].

4. The mynnym may nocht be imperficit, so: [Mv,Mv,Mv].

The secund breif is imperficit with ane semebreff, so: [Bv,Bv,Sv,pt,Bv].

[fol. 17] Pausis, foirsouyth, ar nocht to be imperficit bot yit noittis ar imperficit commundly be pausis, that is to say, quhen befoir or beeftir perfyt noittis pausis of less kynd ar set in place. Nocht-the-less, everry pauss hes the imperfyct [ion crossed out] noitt, to quhilk the kynd is equivalent. Quhairfoir all imperfectioun dois proceid:

Otheir be Noit, Pauss or Culour.

Be noit, it dois proceid as in the tenor subsequent is notiscit. Be pauss, it dois proceid as in the last tenor precedent is deducit. Be collour, it dois proceid as in the secund, thrid and ferd tenoris eftir followand is perfytlie descryvit.

Off imperfection of figuris quhilkis befoir the long and eftir, befoir the breif and eftir, befoir the semebreif and eftir. This exemple beand adjunit to the speculatoris moist facill sall vax oppin. Quhilk exempill is on uthoir syid becaus of roum.

[Anon., Scottish, 43; text: [fol. 17v] (Example 8.)] [SCOTA3B1 13GF]

[-44-] [Anon., Scottish, 44] [SCOTA3B1 13GF]

[-45-] [Anon., Scottish, 45] [SCOTA3B1 14GF]

[fol. 18] Off imperfectioun: Till affirm the premis, it is necessar to produce directionis of utherwayss and illuminat professouris of this plesand harmony art, quhilk be our nobill antacessor to memorie is commendit. Quhairfor Ornitoparchus in the levnt chaptur of the secund buik of music dois mak mensione that imperfection is of perfyt noittis ane degradation and to imperfice nocht ellis is bot to mak a perfyt noitt imperfyt or to depryve the noitt of the perfyt valour. Thairfor to the knawleig of imperfection he hes gevin auchten rewlis.

The first rewill makkis mension that four figuris ar imperfectabill, quhilkis ar thir: the larg, the long, the breif, and the semebrev. The secund rewill: An figur imperfectable is alwayis to [be] [-46-] considerit in the nummer of the avin perfyt quantatie. The thrid rewill: It that is anoiss imperficit, it may nocht be mair imperficit. The ferd: All figur imperfectable salbe mair than the imperficient. The fyvft rewill: Imperfection is nocht allanerly be the propinque partis of the noittis, bot be the remott partis, as a perfyt breff nocht allanerly fro the propinque partis of the semebreve, bot fro tua mynnymis quhilkis ar the remot parttis thairof may be [im]perficit. The sext rewill: Tua perfect propinque partis of ony fygur dois nocht that figur imperfice bot ane allanerly; suppois tua remotis may make the same [imperfect]. Quhairfor giff tua semebrevis pausis eftir ane perfect breiff be fund it sall reman perfyt bot nocht punctuall division cum betuix. The sevnt rewill: All figur less superflew dois the mair figur presedent imperfice nocht the figur followand; bot throw ressone of the punct of division or perfection or of transportation that thing moist be duducit. The aucht rewill: Lyk befoir lyik is nocht imperficit, quhairfor all figur imperfectabill salbe put befoir ane mair or ane less nor the self. The nynt: Ane mair figur dois nocht imperfice a less nor ane [fol. 18v] equall dois nocht imperfice ane equa[l]. The tent rewill: Ane figur imperficient ane uther semekill fro it do abstract quhow mekill it is worth. The levnt: Ane pause is nocht imperficit bot it dois ane fygur imperfice. The twelth: Ane ligatur dois nocht imperfice bot it is imperficit. The threttin: Ane larg in makin imperficit, it dois not bot thollis. The fourtene: Ane mynnym in makin imperfect, it thollis [-47-] nocht bot it dois. The fyvftene: Ane long, ane breif, ane semebreif dois imperfit and ar imperficit. The sixten: All imperfection fro the faice or the bak is maid. Fro the faice, that is, quhen the imperficient dois preceid the imperfectabill; fro the bak quhan the figur imper[fec]tabill it dois succeid. The sevnteint: Imperfectioun quhilk befoir and behand is nocht be the propinque partis, bot be the remotis dois happin. The auchtene rewill: All imperfectione is other be noitt or pause or colour. Be noit, quhen befoir or behand ane perfyt noit the fygur of the less kynd placit dois it imperfice. Be pause, quhen ane pause of the less kynd befoir ane perfyt noit is fund, the fygur is imperficit. The pause may nocht be imperficit. Be collour, quhen in imperfect fygouris the colour is offendit, than ar thay imperfect, for quhy the thrid part fro them is abstractit.

Discoloratioun--quhat is it? Discoloration, it is ane knawleig and consideration of tua collouris, that is to say, quhyt and blak, quhilkis ar institut to be amangis figuris distribut for congnition of perfection and imperfectioun.

Of perfectioun--quhow? That is quhan ony fyguris followand the sing of perfytioun ar in the meid partis decolorat, evacuat and maid quhyt, throw quhilk the saiddis figuris naturraly be nummeris trinall of perfectioun salbe disponit and perfyt haldin, as be the exemplis in this present chaiptour afoir nottit is cleirly approvit.

Off imperfection--quhow? That is quhan eftir the sing perfyt ony figuris eftir noittis ar [fol. 19] denigrat and in all thair meid partis collorat and maid blak, than thay ar depryvit of the thrid part of thair quantateis of perfection and allanerly delyvorit in nummeris [-48-] binar to be disponit and imperfyt haldin and attouir denigratioun followand imperfyt singis dois abstract the ferd part of the noitt allanerly fro the same, as be thar exemplis followand is fullelly understand.

[Anon., Scottish, 48; text: (Example 9.), Da pacem domine in diebus nostris.] [SCOTA3B1 14GF]

[-49-] [Anon., Scottish, 49,1; text: stris.] [SCOTA3B1 15GF]

[Anon., Scottish, 49,2; text: [fol. 19v] (Example 10.), In the sing imperfyt denigratione dois abstract the ferd part of the noitt.] [SCOTA3B1 15GF]

[-50-] [Anon., Scottish, 50,1] [SCOTA3B1 15GF]

Colur--quhat is it? It is of principall figuris denigration; of the quhilk the st[r]encht is so mekill that fro figuris in thair perfyt quantatie deducit the thrid part of the valour dois abstrait; fro imperfytis now the ferd part dois remov, now the hemioll[a] proportion dois conduce, quhairfor of tactus this tabill resolutory of perfyt figuris with color noittit to the lectoris we have subducit. Followis the figur:

[Anon., Scottish, 50,2; text: 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 18] [SCOTA3B1 16GF]

[-51-] [fol. 20] Thir exemplis precedent beand till intelligence producit it is to be onderstand that discol[or]atioun--quhilk is callit dea[l]bation and denigration of nottis--followand the sing perfyit of muid, tym, and prolatioun is admittit to be intermixit amang figuris or nottis full[f]illand the trinall numer boyth of quhyt and the blak eftir the disposition of the compositouris of canticlis quhilk in maner of this tenor subsequent schortlie is discrivit:

[Anon., Scottish, 51; text: (Example 11.), Discantus, Tenor] [SCOTA3B1 16GF]

[-52-] [Anon., Scottish, 52,1] [SCOTA3B1 16GF]

[Anon., Scottish, 52,2; text: Quh[o]w oft in ane long thr[i]e, longis, brevis, semebrevis, equalie ar denigrat, ane pause occupiand [two] haill spacis, tua semebrevis [rests] togidder, tua mynnym restis togidder, the mud perfyt. tym perfyit. prolation perfyt.] [SCOTA3B1 17GF]

[Anon., Scottish, 52,3; text: (Example 12.), Mud, Tym, Prolation.] [SCOTA3B1 17GF]

[-53-] [fol. 20v] THE NYNT CHAPTOUR

Ane punt--quhat is it? It is the leist and smallost sing ostenseve of noittis evidently institut to be appoint, quhilk dois in harmony ane thr[i]e-fald office exerss, that is to say:

Ane punt of perfection of addicione and of divisioun.

Of perfection--quhow? It is the the punt quhilk makkis the long perfyt in muid, the breif perfyt in tym and the semebreif perfyt in prolation. The quhilk punit is eftir singnat till ony perfyt noit at the ovinest part of the same, nocht eikand nor perand the sam bot keipand the perfection thairof, makkand it in thrie equall partis divisible that be the noitt followand it be [nocht] imperficit. Quhairfor it is considerit, that gif it be appoint till ony noit disponit in the perfyt quantatie, than, forsuyth, gif it may [nocht] be imperficit be ane less noit. It makis precedent or followand the mair noit, it makis the self in propre perfection to remain, and thairfor it is callit the punyt of perfectione.

Quhow is the punyt of perfectioune dividit fro the punyt of divisione quhill ane has to mak figuris perfyt and ane uther to mak figuris imperfyt? Off the quhilk the knawleig is that quhan a punyt is put eftir ane long it is indicat to be of perfectione and gif it be eftir ane mynnym it is of division. Item, gif ane punt be put betuix tua brevis it dois devyid the muid bot gif thay brevis be of the tym imperfyt, eftir the quhilkis brevis [ony semebreif crossed out] or befoir the quhilkis brevis ony semebreve alone is fund quhilk with sincopa is reducit to the said brev singnat with the punt of perfection. And gif ane punt be put betuix tua semebrevis, it is assingat for division of tym bot gif [-54-] the semebrevis be of minor prolatione, eftir the quhilkis or befoir the quhilkis ane mynnym alone is fund quhilk is deducit to the said semebrev with the punct of perfection assingnat, as the exemplis followand sall schew:

[Anon., Scottish, 54,1; text: [fol. 21] (Example 13a.), Perfection, Sincopa, Perfectioun] [SCOTA3B1 17GF]

Off addicione--quhow is the puynt knawin? It is the punct quhilk is apponit to the syd of the noit augmentand to the said noit half als mekill as the valour of it dois extend, quhilk in this wayis is decernit:

[Anon., Scottish, 54,2; text: (Example 13b.)] [SCOTA3B1 17GF]

Off divisioun--quhow is the punct knawin? It is the punyt quhen it is put to the noit befoir or behind that nother to the noit nor fra the noit dois tak nor gif, bot schawis the noit to be applicat other to the precedent or [to] the subsequent punct for trinall dimension in noittis to be nummerat and distinctlie mensurat--quhilk is nocht placit direct to the syd of the noit bot a lytill heiar or lawer as the exegeus of the noit dois requir.

Quhat gif ane punct of divisione or alteration betuix tua noittis [-55-] abovn dois appoir? In the exemplis thairof the divisioun of trinall numer is planly to be followit and dilligently observit; alswa it schawis nocht allanerly without pounctis to be fulfillit bot the noitis behoviss to be dublit or alterit for the feling of numeris in [punctis crossed out] perfyt trinary deducit as heir be exemple is notifeit:

[Anon., Scottish, 55,1; text: (Example 13c.), Divisione, Alteration, Divisioun, Tym, Muid, Alteratio(n), Prolatioun] [SCOTA3B1 17GF]

[Anon., Scottish, 55,2; text: [fol. 21v] (Example 13d.), Of muid maior, Of muid minor, Of tym, Of prolation, Of proporcione.] [SCOTA3B1 18GF]


Alteratioun--quhat is it? Alteration in figuris--eftir Joannis De Muris--is callit ane duplication of the proper valour of any noit eftir the form of the same or it is ane gemination of ony small noit in respect of the mair noit. Quhairfor alteration eftir ane thriefald consideration of substanciall greis is causit thrie maner of wayis be thrie rewlis to musicianis assingnat.

The first rewill is that na noit ma alter befoir ane noit alyk to the self in quantatie noir befoir ane noit less nor the self. The secund rewill is that na noit may alter befoir ane noit moir nor the self, as ane mynnym befoir ane semebreve or befoir ane pause of ane semebreif, ane semebreif befoir ane breif or befoir the pause of ane breif, and breve befoir ane long or befoir the pause of ane long, ane long befoir ane larg or befoir the pause of ane larg, for the larg is never alterit. The thrid rewill is of alteration of figuris. Fyguris is [in] ane quadruple ordour disponit, that is to say:

In Muid mair perfyt Muid less perfect Tym perfect Prolation perfyt.

[fol. 22] Quhow is alteration knawin in muid perfyt? Thus it is knawin: Quhan tua longis betuix tua largis or betuix tua pausis of tham ar singnat, the secund long sall evermoir be alterat bot gif the punct of divison be interponit, as this discriptione dois fourth schaw:

[-57-] [O3,Lvvxsn,Lv,Lvvxsn; Lvvxsn,Lv,pt,Lv,Lvvxsn on staff5]

Quhow is alteration knawin in muid less perfyt? It is knawin quhan tua brevis betuix tua longis or the pauss of tham, but ane punct, ar signat, the secund breif sall alter and be worth tua brevis as this discription sall preiff:

[O2,Lv,Bv,Bv,[Lv]; Lv,Bv,pt,Bv,Lv on staff5]

Quhow is alteration knawin in tym perfyt? Thus it is knawin: Quhan tua semebrevis betuix tua brevis or the pausis of tham ar includit or betuix the breif and the pause or betuix the pause and the breve ar sittuiat, the secund semebreif allwayss salbe alterat, bot the punct of division be to tham interponit in this maner:

[O,Bv,Sv,Sv,Bv; Bv,Sv,Sv,Sv,pt,Sv,Sv,Bv; Bv,Sv,pt,Sv,Bv on staff5]

In prolation quhow is alteration knawin? In thus wyss it is knawin: Quhow oft that tua mynnyms betuix the semebrevis of perfyt prolatioun or betuix the pausis of tham ar fund, the secund mynnym allwayss is alterat, equivalent to the quantatie of tua mynnyms as be thir figuris is preiffit:

[-58-] [Od,Sv,Mv,Mv,Sv; Sv,Mv,pt,Mv,Sv on staff5]

So the long to fulfill the trinar [nummer crossed out] consideration of the perfyt of the mair is alterat. The breve to perfice the numerabill hailnes of the muid perfyt of the less is alterat. The semebreve to perfice the divisioun of perfyt tym is alterat. [fol. 22v] The mynnym is alterat to perfic the division of perfyt prolation.

[Anon., Scottish, 58,1; text: Four allanerly noittis ar alterable, quhilkis ar put befoir thir figuris, is alterat or dowblit.] [SCOTA3B1 18GF]

[Anon., Scottish, 58,2; text: In the signe, of perfyt muid ane breve, of perfyt tym ane semebreve, of perfyt prolation ane mynnym, is alterat quhan tua ar put above the trinarie. Muid maior, Tym, Prolation] [SCOTA3B1 18GF]

[-59-] Ane exempillar dois eftir follow of alteration of longis, brevis, semebreffis, and mynnymis in perfyt muid, tym, and prolation:

[Anon., Scottish, 59; text: (Example 14.), Discantus, Tenor, Bassus] [SCOTA3B1 19GF]

[-60-] [Anon., Scottish, 60; text: alteris this noit] [SCOTA3B1 20GF]

[-61-] [Anon., Scottish, 61] [SCOTA3B1 21GF]

[fol. 23] The famus auctor, Franchinus, in the threttene chaptour of his secund buik of music mensurall, makis mensione of threttene rewlis, quhilkis for knawleig of alteratioun speciallie ar dressit.

The first rewill is that four noittis allanerly ar alterabill: the long, the breve, the semebreif, and the mynnym. The secund: Alteration the long excludis for quhy the larg hes nocht ane mair [noit crossed out] nor the self of quhilk [it] may be the part propinque. [fol. 23v] The thrid rewill: Alteration to noittis nocht perfyt dois nocht cum bot quhen thay salbe the propinque partis of perfyt figuris thay sall nocht to alteration be subduwit. The ferd: Noittis ar alterit allanerly and nocht pause. The fyvft: In the secund and nocht [-62-] the first fallis alteration. Saxt: All noit alterit dois twyss the self contene. Sevnt: Lyk befoir lyk is nocht alterit. Aucht: Alanerly it hapins in greiss perfyt. Nynt: Alteration cumis for default of ane noit, the numerositie of ternary beand countit. Tent: Quhow oft betuix tua noittis imperfectabill tua alterable noittis ar includit, but ane punct of division, the secund alway is alterit. The levnt: Gif it is equivalent, than onder the pause procedis the figur or the figur the pause. Gif it procedis the figur, it is alterit; gif it procedis the pause, alteration hes no place for quhy the noittis alanerly ar alterit and nocht the pause. Alteration alway dois fall upone the secund and nocht upone the first. The twelft: Alteration is abstractit throw fulnes of noittis and punctis of division in ligatouris swithly is savit. Threttent: Quhow oft thr[i]e alterable noittis betuix tua imperfectablis ar includit, boyith the imper[fec]tablis sall reman perfyt and nan of alterable is alterit for quhy thair is the trinar numer perfyt.


Sincopa--quhat is it? As Franchinus Gaforus sayis, sincopa is ane mensurall canticle, it is ane reductione of ane noitt beand mair nor ane noit or mair noittis till ane uther or utheris noittis, to the quhilkis in connumeration it dois properlye convein. Or cincopa in ane mensurall sang is ane passaig of ane semebreve or ane mynnym be the middis of tua, thrie, four, fyve, or sax mair noittis or of ma[n]y noittis, eftir the arbitry of musicianis or of compositouris of canticlis. The quhilk to counterpunt dois sufficiently descriff for quhy the secund part of the noit sincopat is oft syiss in convying of discordis devolvit. Ergo quha plesis in harmony to sincopat noittis be countrapunt apone tenor, he may begin at ane semebrev or at the pauss [fol. 24] of ane semebreif, and assing the same for the fir[st] part of the first breif contra quhilk he dois sincopy and proceid fro that furth with brevis be numer equall contra and throw als mony brevis as it plesis him, so that he at the ending of the sincopation be posicioun of ane semebreif contra the last part of the last breif mak his numer equall with the saiddis brevis; also siclyk he may do with mynnyms contra semebrevis and curchettis contra mynnyms as the exemplair eftir dois furth schaw.

[Anon., Scottish, 63; text: (Example 15a.), This is the sincopation of the semebref--, Tactus heir is choppit be the breif allanerly.] [SCOTA3B1 21GF]

[-64-] [Anon., Scottish, 64,1; text: and be the paus thairof.] [SCOTA3B1 21GF]

[Anon., Scottish, 64,2; text: (Example 15b.), Heir sincopation is deducit be the mynnym--be the pauss of the samyn., Tactus heir is usit be the semebrev allanterly.] [SCOTA3B1 22GF]

[Anon., Scottish, 64,3; text: (Example 15c.), Heir be the curchet it is sincopat--be the curchet, Heir it is strikin be the mynnym allanerly.] [SCOTA3B1 22GF]

[-65-] [Anon., Scottish, 65; text: rest.] [SCOTA3B1 22GF]

The awtor, Ornitoparchus, of sincopatioun aucht rewlis dois dress.

The first rewill: Sincopation to temporall mesuris dois comit and nocht to the fyguris. Secund: As sincopation dois the nottis respect, rycht so it dois the pause. The thrid rewill: Sincopa takis nocht away the valour of noittis or of pausis bot the mesur allanerly. Fourt rewill: The numer dois nocht minorat the prolation, for quhy the circle keipand [it], it may nocht dress the stre[n]cht of it in ane punct. The fyvft: Betuix diminu[tion] and semidit na differance of tactus or mesur is had bot only nai[tu]r. [fol. 24v] The sext rewill: Diminution of augmentation is contradiction. Sevnt: It is nocht inconvenient that duble diminition do happin to the samyn sing, that is to say, virgular and numerall in this maner--[Cdim2]. Aucht rewill: Virgular and sincopatioun dois oft syiss hapin, numerall seildin, canonict most seildin; of the quhilkis the exemple eftir followand is of the first and secund:

[-66-] [Anon., Scottish, 66; text: (Example 16.), Diminutio virgularis, Semiditas, Sincopa numeralis] [SCOTA3B1 22GF]


Tactus--quhat is it? It is ane continuall mocioun or ane chop witht the hand of the preceptour, dressand the sang mensuraly that the modulatouris everrie ane till ane uther fail the[e] nocht in the perfyt mensuring of the quantaties of all noittis and pausis in equall voces devydit. Thairfor quhow mekill of tym is to be gevin in the choip of everrie noit and pause it is rycht wyslie diffinit, so that planly na certitud of the quantatie of noittis may be techit nor commandit, bot gif certane jugment befoir the chop be orda[r]ly constitut. Quhairfor, it is propir till [th]at to be in everrie grace musicall be figuris quhilkis ar variat eftir the diversiteis of singis and it is nocht ellis bo[t] ane detfull and convenient mesur of muid, tym, and prolatioun. Mairatour, it is to be knawin [that] the semebreve in all singis--except diminucion, augmentatioun, and prolatioun--with ane haill choip [is] to be usit, and institut for this causs: the essenciall valour of semebrev is that everrie noittis till utheris ar of ane aveill and alyik in quantatie mensurall. Quhairfor, it is ta[k]ne tua diverss wyss: ane is be the semebreve and ane uthe[r] be the mynnym. Be the semebreve it is twichit quhan the semebreif is tardie and langdrawand and quhan the sang is swyft and haistie in the self and in schort ordour deducit, than [be] the mynnym it is to be choppit and nocht be the semebrev as be the exemplis followand planly is demonstrat.

[-68-] [Anon., Scottish, 68,1; text: [fol. 25] (Example 17a.), Be this way the chop of the semebreve hes dominatioun.] [SCOTA3B1 23GF]

[Anon., Scottish, 68,2; text: (Example 17b.), Be this way the chop of the mynnym hes dominacioune.] [SCOTA3B1 23GF]

[-69-] In proporcionis the mesur is to be strikin sumtym be the semebrev and sumtym be the mynnym, utherwayiss it may follow the cast of the proporcion inequall, that is to say, gif the proportion be nother choppit be the semebrev nor the mynnym bot be the noit of the same, he that singis the proporcione suld [nocht crossed out] with perfyt and formall induction choip his noit be himself secretly, sua that it offend him nocht in his mesur that [there be] singis econtrar the proporcion to the quhilk for distance of mesur sum jugment of earis discreitly is to be observit. Of the quhilkis proportionis eftir [in] the ferd buik of this presant commiter the process and natur esse[n]ciall sufficiantlye with ordour is declarit.

Forther, it is nocht sene unprofectable to assing certane tablis mair ostensyve to lectoris with figuris and sypheris in void spacis within rewlis or lynis sittuat, schawand be signis the numorable strenith of everry noittis colorat and decolorat, quhilkis dois a?rast pertene to the mensurall chop of harmony for congnitioun of the essenciall valour of everie singe, figur, or sypher in the saiddis tablis exprimit. Also in all kynd of singis the semebreif, as befoir saiddis, alwayis with ane haill chop is mensurat--augmentation, diminutioun, and proporcionis beand exceppit. Nocht-the-les, in singis of diminutioun sum part of the mesur fro noittis is abstract, that is to say, be understand other be noit [h]ave to be mair swiftly tuichit or tua choppis ever for ane to be colorat, quhilk eftir in the chaiptour of diminucion at mair leynth is to be declarat.

[-70-] [Anon., Scottish, 70; text: [fol. 25v], Be the signis and cypheris of this present tabill the valour of every noit decolorat is planly denuncit. Of decolorat larggis, Of decolorat longgis, Of decolorat brevis, Of decolorat semebreiffis, Of decolorat mynnyms, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, 27] [SCOTA3B1 24GF]

[-71-] [Anon., Scottish, 71; text: [fol. 26], Be the signis and cyphres of this present table the valour of of [sic] everry colorat noit is planly denuncit. Tabula reta et vera. Off, Off colorat larggis, Off colorat longgis, Of colorat brevis, Off colorat semebrevis, Off colorat mynnymns, 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 18] [SCOTA3B1 25GF]


Augmentatioun--quhat is it? As Orni[tho]parchus dois writ in the sevnt chaptur of his buik of mensurall musik, it is the incresing of nottis beyond the just valour or it is of ony sang in the nottis thairof a plurification, in the quhilk thrie singis ar to be considerat. The first is: penuratie [or crossed out] and scarsnes of nottis in ane part of ane sang. The secund is: inscription of canonis sayand: the breve salbe ane larg; the semebrev ane long; the mynnym ane breve or crescit in duplo, et cetera. The threid is: ane punct put to ane temporall sing in ane part of ane sang alanerly. In a par[t] I say, for quhy gif the said punct be put in all the partis of the sang it sall nocht be of augmentation, bot of indititioun of the mair prolation. Upone the quhilk augmentation sevin rewllis ar institut.

The first: Augmentatioun of diminutioun is contradictioun. The secund: In augmentatioun the leist sign with ane hail choip is mensurat. Thridlye: Betuix augmentatioun and [ple crossed out] prolatioun thair is ane distance, that is to say, that augmentatioun dois bring furist the mynnym with ane choip, prolatioun swythly with thrie choippis, quhilk is the perfyt semebreve, that with a proporcionat [tact] is mensurat. The ferd: Pausis or noittis nan utherwayis ar minorat. The fyvft: Augmentatioun except in tenoris [h]ave seildin to be maid. The saxt: The larg is nocht augmentit for quhy it is nocht mair nor the self of quhilk the valour dois nocht uptak. Thairfor, by the suyth, tha [-73-] do er[r] quhilk in the larg put [ordour crossed out] onder this sing [Od3] fourscoir and ane tactus dois conclud, for quhy the larg beyond 27 tactus dois nocht express nor yeit a mair nor the self dois admit. The sevnt: Augmentatioun all utheris kyndis of noittis except the largis under the self dois comprehend.

To redintegrat the said augmentatioun quhilk is bot ane incressing of quantateis of noittis be certan signis or canonis beyound the commond and essencial valour of noittis quhilk in thrie maner of wayis is betaknit. First is be prolation of the mair perfyt of ane voic put agane the prolatioun of uther less notis, as heir--[Od], [O], [C], so be the impression of ane punct, the perfyt semebrev of thr[i]e choppis is mensurat. Secundly be proporcionis of less inequalitie quhilkis ar callit augmentationis, of quhilkis the superior nummer is less nor the inferior, as subdupla 1/2, subtripla 1/3, subquadrupla 1/4, and siclyk, of the kynd of the leivff of the quhilkis under the [sub crossed out] inscriptionis of universall nottis and sequentis pauss als oft as thay ar in thair selff multiplicat, so oft the [mesuris numer crossed out] inferior numbre dois the numer superor contene.

[-74-] [fol. 27] THE THRETIEIND [fourttend above line] CHAPTOUR--DIMINUCIOUN

Diminucioun--quhat is it? Diminucion, as Gafforus in his secund buik in the fourtein chaptour dois affirme, that it is a precisione of the mid part in mesur not[h]ing discrepant fro semidit bot that in perfyt singis and figuris with trinar numer it is fund to be mesurat diminucione, quhilk mair is callit trew sincopation and nocht diminucion, of the quhilk sincopation tua kyndis ar nemmit, that is to say, semidite and diminucioun. Semidite is the half of the first mesur of noittis quhilk alanerlye in [im]perfyt tym is locable, of quhilk thir ar the signis--[O2], [C2], [Cddim], [Cdim].

In all thir, swithly, the middis of the mesur proprie be the virgle is cuttit; be the nummer, suithly, it has the strenth in so mekil of duple proporcioun. Thairfor, Erasmus Lapicida rycht wyslye in all thir singis dois nummer in this maner suppone, [O2], [C2].

Proporcione suchtlye nocht of ane bot tua quantateis is relation and forther to reciporat the foir nemmit diminucion, quhilk eftir.

Laudensis: In ane mensurall sang it is ane abstraction fra figuris of a certane quantatie of the escenciall valour or mesur of nottis and pausis be certane circles and semecirclis thairto with canonis be ordinance disponit, be the quhilkis minertion and semidite at the discriptioun of the positur amang the saiddis nottis with privileig ar distribut.

In quhow mony maner is diminucioun betaknit? In thrie maner. Quhilk thrie? First, in the nummer benar with circlis and semecircles quhilkis dois befoir the noittis preced in this wayss--[O2], [C2]. Secundly, [-75-] diminucioun is betaknit be ane smal virgule drawin throw circlis as heir is signat--[Odim], [Cdim], [Oddim], [Cddim]. Thridly, diminucione is betaknit be ane semecircle turnit bakwart in this manner--[CL].

Thairfoir in thir thrie maner of wayss: First, the half of the valour of all the nottis fro tham abstractit is in ane [haill chop crossed out] imperfyt breve is dressit to be strakin in ane hoil choip; secundly, the long in tua choippis; thridlie, the semebreif in half ane choip, quhilkis utherwayis out of diminucioun wontit to be mesurit. Of the quhilkis thr[i]e maner [of] wayiss thrie ex[em]plis with the ferd salbe notifeit. [Eftir augmentatioun crossed out.]

[Anon., Scottish, 75; text: [fol. 27v] (Example 18a.), Joanis precurit cicius Petro avenit prior ad monumentium, Exemplum primum.] [SCOTA3B1 26GF]

[-76-] [Anon., Scottish, 76,1; text: (Example 18b.), Exemplum secundum.] [SCOTA3B1 26GF]

[Anon., Scottish, 76,2; text: (Example 18c.), Saturnus tardior est Marcurio, Exemplum tercium.] [SCOTA3B1 27GF]

[-77-] [Anon., Scottish, 77,1] [SCOTA3B1 27GF]

[Anon., Scottish, 77,2; text: (Example 18d.), Paulus velocior est Petro, Exemplum quartum.] [SCOTA3B1 28GF]

[fol. 28] Ffeirdly, diminucion is betaknit be proporcionis of all kynd havand the mair numer superior nor the inferior, as it is of the mair inequalitie belewit, that is to say, dupla 2/1, tripla 3/1, quadrupla 4/1, sesquialtera 3/2, and of utheris of that kind. Of the quhilkis the ex[em]plis in the ferd buik titulat as heir to be rehersit and agane reportit.

[-78-] Diminucioun by thir singis [Oddim] [Cddim] [Od2] [Cd2] [O2] [C2] [Odim] [Cdim] [CL] [2] makis all notis and pausis to be worth the half of the valour quhilk utherwayss thay had but diminucioun.

Diminucioun is knawin thrie maner of wayss: first, be the way of canon; secundly, be the way of proporcioun; thridly, be the small draucht of ane virgule throw ane circle or ane semecircle trac[i]t.

First--be canon, quhow? Quhen the quantateis of figuris ar variant in mesur eftir the inscript sentenc of the rewill of canon sayand thus: Decrescit in dupla, the larg salbe ane long, the long ane breif, the brev ane semebrev, and suay furth.

Secund, be proporcioun diminucion is constitut with propire carractoris confirmand certan proporcion of numeris, quhilkis dois minorat figuris eftir the consideration of disponit proporcionis.

Thirdly, be the virgule diminucion in the mensurall description of figuris is disponit, quhilk be the small virgule cutand the sing of tym and mesur throw circlis and semecirclis perfytlie is onderstand and declarat.

[fol. 28v] Heir followis that was left onwrittin of augmentation. Augmentatioun is knawin be insti[tu]tione of canonis is decernit, be the quhilkis incressing of dupla, tripla, and quadrupla with discretione is moderatly inducit as be [figur crossed out] canons for exempill is besene.

[-79-] [Anon., Scottish, 79,1; text: (Example 19.), Crescit in duplo, Canon the first. Crescit in triplo, Canon the secund. Crescit in quadruplo, Canon the thrid. Resolutio prima. Resolutio secunda. Resolutio tercia.] [SCOTA3B1 28GF]

It foll[o]wis the rest of diminucioun exemplis.

[Anon., Scottish, 79,2; text: This is the tapill of tactus in diminut singis. Tabula Vera. Four for ane choip, Aucht for ane choip, Saxtene for ane choip, Threttie-tua for ane choip, 1, 2, 3, 6] [SCOTA3B1 28GF]

[-80-] [Anon., Scottish, 80; text: (Example 20.), Diminucio virgularis, semiditas] [SCOTA3B1 29GF]

[fol. 29] Semidite--quhow [is] it knawin? Semidite is knawin quhen in the tym imperfect the half of the valour of everie noit alanerly be the semecircle is modulat in this wayss--[C], and it is tuichit or choippit with ane less noitt equipollent alyk to the semebrev. Bot in this wayss and sing subsequent--[Cdim], the valor of the noit is less be doubling of it nor the singe precedent, and attour semidite is knawin be thir singis--[O2], [C2], be the quhilkis tua semebrevis ar ev[i]n in ane choip twichit and of a lyk mesur extendit.

Dubill diminucion--quhat is it? It is diminucion furth of diminution extract, quhilk is nocht ellis bot the valour of noittis anenis befoir diminucit and agane be doubill diminucion reminorat, so the half part of the noit allanerly with the reminorat singe dois reman, of the quhilk thir ar the singnis--[Odim2], [Cdim2], [CLdim], [CLddim]. Moiratour, proporcionis of simpill diminucionis makand the noittis less, quhilkis onder singnis ar deput, behuffis heir be craft to be refferit that onder thay singis dupla, four semebrevis; tripla, sax; quadrupla, aught; sesqualtera, thrie; with ane tuichit choip suld be absolut.

[-81-] Of diminucionis diminucion [Oddim2] [Cddim2] [Odim2] [Cdim2] [CLddim] [Cdim] [4] makis all notis and pausis worth the ferd part of the valour quhilk thay had without diminucioun.

The exemplis followand reverce follium.

[Anon., Scottish, 81; text: [fol. 29v] (Example 21.), The essenciall valour, Integer valour, Dupla proporcio, Simpil diminucioun, Diminucione simpill, Hemiola, Sesquialtera temporis, Tripla proporcio] [SCOTA3B1 29GF]

[-82-] [Anon., Scottish, 82; text: Proportio tripla, Proporcio quadrupla, Dubill diminucion, Dubill diminucione] [SCOTA3B1 29GF]

[-83-] [fol. 30] THE FYVFTTINT CHAPTUR

Quhat is ane canone? It is ane institutione of noittis or wordis direckit be the arbitar of the compositor schawand be diverss signis the augmentation and diminucion of figuris and be exemplis of resolutione opynnand the enigmateis of abscuir tenoris and sangis, quhilkis be diapenthe, diatessaron, and diapason sangis [and crossed out] or tenoris up or down for thair propir placis harmonicall dois deduce and remov. Of the quhilkis canones na certan rewill may be gevin bot that the formes of the sentence institut and observit.

Quhat is resolutione? It is ane opnyng and furth schawin of obscuir cantionis be canonis institut, quhilkis be way of resolution ar planlye resolvit or it is ane t[r]anscription of noittis in ane moir v[u]lgar forme, in the quhilk rycht wyslye it is to be constitut. Heirfor, thir eftir writtin canonis, togidder with thair superiouris of perfection, alteratioun, and diminucione, ar neidfull and prefectable to be diligentlye in all thair ordinance fulfillit. Heir studentis moist knaw quhow oft in the eftir writtin canonis of resolution thay do perceve figuris of nottis to be duplicat or quadruplicat.

The First Canon

All augmentation and diminucioun of noittis is strenchit to be haill and full choip of the semebreve essenciall, quhairthrow undir thir singis--[O], [C], it [h]av to be estimat and fully onderstand.

[fol. 30v] Thir singis dois augment: [Od], [Cd], thir singis dois conserve: [O], [C], thir singis dois minorat: [Odim], [Cdim], the essenciall valor of [-84-] all pausis and noittis.

[Anon., Scottish, 84,1; text: (Example 22.), The resolution of this canon precedent in the haill valor dois eftir follow:] [SCOTA3B1 30GF]

The Secund Canone

Ane uther, canon, suthly, dois aproch in the quhilk nocht alane[r]ly the figuris bot also the ordinans of singis is to be observit, eftir the quhilk the noittis now hiear, now lawer [h]av to be modulat.

[Anon., Scottish, 84,2; text: (Example 23.), Resolucio.] [SCOTA3B1 30GF]

[-85-] The Thrid Canon

As this exempill schawis, thrie brevis ar present betuix tua virg[u]lis /[Bv,Bv,Bv]/ of the quhilkis the mid breve to the [fol. 31] tym of ane long be diastolen recevis incressing. The long, swyt[hly], put betuix tua brevis /[Bv,Lv,Bv]/ to the tym of ane bref be sistolen to decress is commandit. Of the quhilkis brevis and longis, the strenth be the ditty to the nottis applicat perfectly is knawin, that is to say, Spiritus afflatu, et cetera, at the last be the saiddis figuris to the ditty [subscrivit crossed out] subdewit. Thir versis for ane speciall rewill ar annexit: Sistole productam breviatque diastole longat; Quam natura iubet producere sistole cur[t]at.

[Anon., Scottish, 85; text: (Example 24.), Presens tenor per diastolen et sistolen moduletur. Spir[it]us afflatu domini firmavit alumnor. di[a]stole, sistole, Presentis tenoris resolucio.] [SCOTA3B1 30GF]

The Ferd Canon

Everie noit fro the proper key of the sisteyme may be uprasit or subducit be diatessaron, diapenthe, and diapason gif ane canon of [-86-] the auctor cummandand dois the tenor or the sang preceid as this discription dois furth schaw.

[Anon., Scottish, 86,1; text: (Example 25.), Hic in propria clave sonabitur tenor. Hic in subdiatessaron tenor percanitetur. In epydiatessaron sublimavitur tenor.] [SCOTA3B1 31GF]

[Anon., Scottish, 86,2; text: [fol. 31v], Hic in propria clave resonabitur cantus. Hic in subdiapenthe. In epidiapenthe erigitur cantus.] [SCOTA3B1 31GF]

Ane chaiss of thrie voces in ane dois eftir follow of the quhilkis the first in the proprie key, the secund in epidiapenthe and the thrid in subdiatessaron salbe modula[t], quhilkis in exempile uppone the tenoris fornemmit dois evidently correspond.

Ex unica voce trium vocum sequitur fuga, quarum prima in propria clave, secunda in epydiapenthe, tercia in subdiatessaron resonabitur.

Ane exempill of Doctur Josquini.

[-87-] [Anon., Scottish, 87; text: (Example 26.)] [SCOTA3B1 32GF]

[-88-] [Anon., Scottish, 88] [SCOTA3B1 33GF]

[-89-] Diapason componit with dis, sub, and epy, fro the propre kay removit be precept of canon in the mane[r] consequent salbe modulat.

[Anon., Scottish, 89; text: (Example 27.), Presens tenor in propria sonabitur clave. [fol. 32] Presens cantus in subdiapason moduletur. Is cantus in epidiapason precantur Is cantus in disdiapason ascendent. Presens tenor in disdiapason discendent.] [SCOTA3B1 31GF]

The Fyveft Canon

In the subsequent exemple the mid noit of the tenor be the natur of barbarismi i[s] dublit and in modulation be the crab, throw aucthoritie of canon, is deducit.

[-90-] [Anon., Scottish, 90,1; text: (Example 28.), Presens tenor per cancrum et barbarismium moduletur. Prescripti tenoris resolucio.] [SCOTA3B1 34GF]

The Saxt Canon

The modulator of the exemple consequent moist follow the lark quhilk with his sang fro the e[a]rth to the meid spoir dois ascend, fro hy[ve]ne furth sche[w], revertent with the samyn canticle resonant to the prestyne place dois descend.

[Anon., Scottish, 90,2; text: (Example 29.), Cum alauda pange.] [SCOTA3B1 34GF]

[fol. 32v] The Sevint Canon

In the beginning of this exempill fyve pausis of brevis ar to memorie commendit, quhilkis to similitud of [the] silenc of Zachary ar figurat, as be this mandat of the auctor is demonstrat.

[-91-] [Anon., Scottish, 91,1; text: (Example 30.), Fronte tenor prima zacharizat tempora quina. Prescripti tenoris resolutio.] [SCOTA3B1 34GF]

The Aucht Canon

In this present exemple the sing of perfect of the less is institut befoir to be placit, quhilk beand removit, the sing of the perfyt of the mair throw strenith of this precept canon dois the suprem place occupie.

[Anon., Scottish, 91,2; text: (Example 31.), Cede maiori. Resolutio.] [SCOTA3B1 34GF]

Canon The Nynt

In this exemple the last part of everie breve be precept of the auctor moist be abstract.

[-92-] [Anon., Scottish, 92,1; text: (Example 32.), Modulator cum apocopa consultet. Sancti spiritui assit nobis gracia. Resolucio.] [SCOTA3B1 35GF]

[fol. 33] The Tent Canon

In this tenor suppois dyverss pausis be contenit; nocht-the-les, in tym of the pausis the modulator is nocht forbiddin his sang to ceiss, so the pausis, swythly, ar frustrat admittit and to nan thing reducit. The auctor in this wayss impetrat:

[Anon., Scottish, 92,2; text: (Example 33.), Clama ne cesses. Discantus super huioius tenorem.] [SCOTA3B1 35GF]

[-93-] [Anon., Scottish, 93] [SCOTA3B1 35GF]

Canon The Levnt

Suppois in this present tenor no signe of proportion is contenit; nocht-the-les, the strynth of canon dois counsall the modulator singand the tenor that he maist consult with [the] utheris modulatoris in canticlis proporcionat, as this mandat dois prove.

[-94-] [Anon., Scottish, 94,1; text: (Example 34.), Altus, Gaude cum gaudentibus. Bassus] [SCOTA3B1 36GF]

[fol. 33v] The Twelft Canon

In this exempile the tenor followand fro the propre seit is removit, quhilk is in C, B, A, and G eftir the precept of the auctor is degradit.

[Anon., Scottish, 94,2; text: (Example 35.), Per C, #, simul A, ruit in G. Resolucio cantio nostra.] [SCOTA3B1 36GF]

Canon the Threttent

In this present exempill tua vocis in ane togidder ar begune and togidder endit, of the quhilkis be inspection of cyphris the pryvay [-95-] intelligence maist facill salbe fund.

[Anon., Scottish, 95,1; text: (Example 36.), Pater in filio, filius in patre, spiritus sanctus ab utroque procedens. Prime vocis resolucio. Patre in filio, Secunde vocis resolucio. Filius in patre. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6] [SCOTA3B1 36GF]

[Anon., Scottish, 95,2; text: [fol. 34] Tercie vocis discantus., Secunde vocis resolutio., Prime vocis resolutio., Spiritus sanctus ab utroque, Filius in patre., Patre in filio.] [SCOTA3B1 37GF]

[-96-] [Anon., Scottish, 96; text: procedens.] [SCOTA3B1 37GF]

The Fourtent Canon

Off this present tenor the prefyt signe dois triplicat, the imperfect dois duplicat, of diminucion dois menorat all nottis to the canon subdewit be this precept:

[-97-] [Anon., Scottish, 97,1; text: (Example 37.), Sit velluti luna crescit decrescit et oda. (Resolucio.)] [SCOTA3B1 38GF]

Canon The Fyvtent

Off tua vocis in ane togidder dois [end] and begin, of the quhilkis ane uther fro the beginnyng of the sang to the finall noit dois fordwart proceid, ane uther, suthlye, the crab dois convoy.

[Anon., Scottish, 97,2; text: (Example 38.)] [SCOTA3B1 38GF]

[-98-] [Anon., Scottish, 98,1] [SCOTA3B1 38GF]

[fol. 34v] The Saxtene Canon

Off mutation arsis and thesis. Sic condition is given arsis throw the propir strenth dois naturly to the height ascend and thesis dois swthly to the law descend. Gif arsis in thesim salbe changit, it dois exalt the voce depressit. Heirfor, quhow uther in uther to sounding is commandit, all the noittis of the canticle quhilkis be natur of arsis ar upliffit econtra be thesis ar depressit, be arsis to the height ar upliftit, so suthlye the rewlis musicall beand turnit, the notis be ane onwontit way ar disponit.

[Anon., Scottish, 98,2; text: (Example 39.), Hic arsis in thesim et thesis in arsim moduletur. (Resolucio.), O lux beata trinitas.] [SCOTA3B1 38GF]

[-99-] [Anon., Scottish, 99,1; text: (Example 40.), Ane uther exemple in faburdoun.] [SCOTA3B1 39GF]

Canon Sevintent

Ane uther way of the art dois rest ondiscrivit, quhilk is tractit be scansing of versis of dyverss kyndis and to the mesur and quantatie of tham, quhairby oft wyiss we ar sein with our sang, lyk as it war with feit of versis to ascend and discend putand our neumes and tenouris and utheris kindis of sangis [fol. 35] in placis of the feit of versis be canones exprimand the name of the feit of everry vers at the will of the positor to be collocat, as Dactalus and his followiss, quhilkis ar eftir tablit in this wyss:

Dactilus is of four tymes constitut, quhilk dois preceid with ane long befoir and tua brevis followand in this maner:

[Anon., Scottish, 99,2; text: or so:] [SCOTA3B1 39GF]

Anapestus is of four tyms constitut, quhilk dois proceid with tua brevis befoir and a long followand:

[Anon., Scottish, 99,3; text: or thus:] [SCOTA3B1 39GF]

[-100-] Spondeus is of four tymes constitut, quhilk dois proceid with tua longis so:

[Anon., Scottish, 100,1; text: or so:] [SCOTA3B1 39GF]

Trocheus is of thrie tymes constitut, quhilk dois proceid with ane long befoir and ane breve followand in this form:

[Anon., Scottish, 100,2; text: or thus:] [SCOTA3B1 39GF]

Iambus is of thrie tymes constitut, quhilk dois proceid with a brev befoir and ane long eftir contrary to trocheus:

[Anon., Scottish, 100,3; text: or so:] [SCOTA3B1 39GF]

Trib[r]acus is of thrie tymes constitut, quhilk dois preceid with thrie brevis contenand thrie tymes in this fassone:

[Anon., Scottish, 100,4; text: or thus:] [SCOTA3B1 39GF]

Brachina is of fyve tymes constitut, quhilk dois proceid ane brev befoir tua longis followand in this maner:

[Anon., Scottish, 100,5; text: or so:] [SCOTA3B1 39GF]

Molosus is of sax tymes constitut, quhilk dois proceid with thrie longis in this maner:

[Anon., Scottish, 100,6; text: or thus:] [SCOTA3B1 39GF]

To knaw in quhat maner the premissis salbe modulat, ane schort practik heireftir dois follow:

[fol. 35v]

[-101-] [Anon., Scottish, 101; text: (Example 41.), Trocheus, Diminucio super trocheum, Iambus, Dactalus] [SCOTA3B1 40GF]

[-102-] [Anon., Scottish, 102,1; text: Anapestus, Tribracus] [SCOTA3B1 41GF]

[fol. 36] Canon the Auchtene

In thir tua exemplis consequent, nocht allanerly the signis, bot also the ordinatione and propositione of signis ar to be observit, eftir the quhilkis the notis now hiear, now lawar suld be modulat.

[Anon., Scottish, 102,2; text: (Example 42a.) The first exemple. The resolution of the first exemple of the auchtene canon.] [SCOTA3B1 41GF]

[-103-] [Anon., Scottish, 103,1] [SCOTA3B1 41GF]

[Anon., Scottish, 103,2; text: (Example 42b.), The secund exempill of the auchten canon. The resolution of the secund exemple of the auchtene canon.] [SCOTA3B1 41GF]

[fol. 36v] The Nyntene Canon

[Anon., Scottish, 103,3; text: (Example 43.) Baritonas in G. sit tardior equivalenti.] [SCOTA3B1 42GF]

[-104-] [Anon., Scottish, 104] [SCOTA3B1 42GF]

Canon The Twentie

In this ordor consequent ane formall maner of modulation is to be considerit, quhilk be auld musicianis is institut to be modulat upone the fyve vocalis: A, E, I, O, U; of the quhilkis evrie ane salbe ta[k]ne for ane simpill noit of plane sang and modulat in the tym of ane breve contenit in the perfect of the less or of the imperfyt of the less, upone the quhilkis nottis discant and countering may be plesandly besomig at the arbitry of the modulatoris as thay best pleiss thairapon till accord; attour, suppois the vocalis sumtymes dois pass in the strenth of consonantis, that is, quhan ane vocall is put befoir ane uther vocall spellit togidder, completand ane haill sillabe, but ony uther letteris in the samyn sillab [between] tham conjunit, as voce, valde, vercor, viri et vultum. Euge, Jacobe et Jeconia, ave Josne quis vobis aeris iubar aufert. The musicianis has despensit with the saiddis vocalis and haid maid it lesum to tham to bruik and joyss the first preveleig of [-105-] vocalis in all modulationis to quhilkis thay salbe with discrecione dressit. The dipht[h]ongis, suthly, suppois thay be spellit togidder in a sillabe, thay sall joiss the privileig fornemmit.

Thairfor, unto your universiteis be it knawin that the first vocall, A, in Re is permutit quhilk in De-sol-re grave suld be sett in place and in nan uther key of the sistrem, be reson that the first and secund tune Gregoriane dois set thair original and fynall noittis in De-sol-re allanerly. Quhowbeit that sum musicianis dois hald opinione that the first vocall suld be plesit in Ce-fa-ut grave, quhilk opinione, be the ressone afoir writtin, is nocht to be admittit. The se[c]und vo[c]all, E, fallis to be plesit in E-la-me grave, quhairin the originall and fynall noittis of the thrid and ferd tunis Gregoriane ar facill sett in place. [fol. 37] The thrid vocall, I, fallis to be placit in Ff grave, quhairin the originall and finall nottis of the fyveft and saxt tounis Gregoriane ar ordarly set in place. The ferd vocall, O, fallis to be placit in G-sol-re-ut grave, quhairin the originall and fynall nottis of the sevnt and aucht tounis Gregoriane ar dewlie sett in place. The fyvft vocall, U, fallis to be placit in A-la-me-re scherp, confinall to the first toune Gregoriane uprasit be diapenthe. Of the quhilkis vocalis, A in re, E in mi, I in fa, O in sol, and U in la ar permutit and maid professouris of the samyn keiss fornemmit, for the quhilkis keiss the noittis sall ascend and descend eftir as the vocalis contenit in the dittment dois report. Behald, thairfor, quhow mony sillabis ar in every dittione comprehendit als mony vocalis in the samyn sillabis ar possessit, upone the quhilkis musicianis may thair thair sangis induce. Ane [-106-] example in this dittment consequent dois institutione furth schaw:

[Anon., Scottish, 106; text: Magnificat anima mea dominum.] [SCOTA3B1 42GF]

Eftir the ordour of this foirwrittin exemple, all vocalis contenit in ony utheris ditteis in this present maner without any rewlis or lynes bot upone the ditteis allanerly salbe modulat as be this mandat in a distic[h]on is producit:


Linea cum notula si sit bis bina remota

Vocale voce dulcem peana sonate.

Thir foir writtin preceptis obscuirly figurat, quhilkis to the lectouris be exemplis ar furth of canonis refera, may be ta[k]ne be compositoris and in thair canticlis usit, so that thay tak no mair bot allanerly the precept to put befoir thair, that is to say, Sede maiori, Clama ne cesses, Cum alauda pange, Gaude cum gaudentibus and siclik the law of the mandatis. Suithly the haill declaration of everray canon wald nocht be put befoir the sang for quhy it is evir prolixit and noysum to the modulatouris bot the haill narration of everry precept may suffice amang the canonis to be declarit, and [ane] auctoritie allanerly and mandat [fol. 37v] to be befoir the sang sett in place and than quha plesis to seik the intelligens of everray precept may go to the buik of musik quhair thay sall planly find the thingis quhilkis thay do requir.

[-107-] The Twentie-ane Canon

This tua vocis in ane togidder dois begin and end, of the quhilkis the first voice dois go fordwart with the sang and the secund voice is cancrizat as be this detraction consequent fully may be understand.

Processus cancri trina [se] dividit arte

Pri crescit, decrescit se, fit et ultima velox;

Pri minimas trinas, se binas, ultima tres dat

Cancer; sed motus simplex fiatque seorsum.

[Anon., Scottish, 107; text: (Example 44.), Resolucio.] [SCOTA3B1 42GF]

Canon Twentie-tuay

In this exemple consequent cypheris insteid of noitis upone rewlis and spacis ar devolvit, quhilk suld be modulat eftir the quantatie of the nummeris of everry ane of tham, beginnyng at the cancrization of tham, retrograding to the first inchoation of the saiddis cypheris and fro [-108-] that furth proceding fordwart to the end of the sam be this present auctoritie:

Allosa fimer tu pergito sicuti cancer,

Ut remifas olla moduland[o] clauditur oda.

[Anon., Scottish, 108; text: [fol. 38] (Example 45.), Resolucio precedentis canonis. Discantus, Bassus, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6] [SCOTA3B1 43GF]

[-109-] [Anon., Scottish, 109,1] [SCOTA3B1 43GF]

[fol. 38v] Canon The Twentie-thrie

[Anon., Scottish, 109,2; text: (Example 46.), Post iotam pentha fugat hec presenti camena. Bassus the thrid part. Et in terra pax hominibus bone voluntatis. Laudamus te, Benedicamus te, Adoremus te, Glorificamus te,] [SCOTA3B1 43GF]

[-110-] [Anon., Scottish, 110; text: Gracias agimus tibi, propter magnam gloriam tuam. Domine Deus, Rex celestis, Deus Pater omnipotens. Domine Fili unigenite, Jesu Christe. Dominus Deus, Agnus Dei, Filius Patris, Qui tollis peccata mundi,] [SCOTA3B1 44GF]

[-111-] [Anon., Scottish, 111,1; mundi, miserere. Sanctus Deus, Santus fortis, miserere nobis.] [SCOTA3B1 45GF]

[Anon., Scottish, 111,2; text: [fol. 39] (Example 47.), Musam suspirio pentha levata fuga(t). A-] [SCOTA3B1 45GF]

[-112-] [Anon., Scottish, 112,1; text: men.] [SCOTA3B1 45GF]

[fol. 39v] Canon Twentie-four

[Anon., Scottish, 112,2; text: (Example 48.), Vocem post iotam pentha subacta fugat. Patrem omnipotentem, factorem celi et terre, visibilium omnium et invisibilium. Et in unum dominum Jesum Christum,] [SCOTA3B1 46GF]

[-113-] [Anon., Scottish, 113; text: Filium Dei unigenitum. Et ex Patre natum ante omnia secula. Deum de Deo, lumen de lumine, Deum verum de Deo vero. Genitum non factum, consubstancialem Patri: per quem omnia facta sunt. Qui] [SCOTA3B1 46GF]

[-114-] [Anon., Scottish, 114,1; text: Qui propter nos homines, et propter nostram salutem decendit de celis.] [SCOTA3B1 47GF]

[Anon., Scottish, 114,2; text: [fol. 40] (Example 49.), Musam suspirio pentha remissa fugat. Et incarnatus est de Spiritu Sancto ex Maria Virgine: Et homo factus est. Crucifixus etiam pro nobis:] [SCOTA3B1 47GF]

[-115-] [Anon., Scottish, 115,1; text: pro nobis sub Pontio Pilato passus, et sepultus est. Et resurrexit tercia die, secundum Scripturas. Amen. Poncio] [SCOTA3B1 48GF]

The Twentie-fyve Canon

Presens tenor secundum sistmatis regula decantetur vocesque singuler iniciales in subdiatessaron deducantur, relique dependentes prout regula iubet moduletur.

[Anon., Scottish, 115,2; text: (Example 50.), Hymus, Hic arsis in thesim et thesis in arsi[m] labunt[u]r. O lux beata trinitas.] [SCOTA3B1 48GF]

[-116-] [Anon., Scottish, 116,1; text: Hic resolucio crescit in triplo. Thesis hic in arsim vertitur et econtra.] [SCOTA3B1 48GF]

[Anon., Scottish, 116,2; text: [fol. 40v] Altera resolucio magic ampla. Discantus, (Hymus), (Altera resolucio)] [SCOTA3B1 49GF]

[-117-] [Anon., Scottish, 117] [SCOTA3B1 50GF]

Mony ma[ir] canonis out of numbre be dyveris imaginationis and conceittis of men men [sic] may be fenzeit be quantateis of nottis, variation of mesuris, rewlis of canonis and sentence gevin inscriptis, be augmentation and diminucion of figuris with ane contrarie of understanding wontit and usit to be exercit, quhilkis to the arbitry and [-118-] dispocition of musicians with previleig is committit.

[fol. 41] Heir followis diveris exemplis conform to the rewlis within writtin quhilkis ar veray necessar to be had for information of studentis of music desyrand to exers[ize] thair ingyne in speculation of that art. Quhairfor, be thir exemplis followand thay may persaif the progression of diverss conceptis of harmony.

Ane chaiss of Doctur Josquin of tua partis.

[Anon., Scottish, 118; text: (Example 51.), Alter partem in epydiapenthe moduletur.] [SCOTA3B1 51GF]

[-119-] [Anon., Scottish, 119,1] [SCOTA3B1 51GF]

Ane chaiss of thrie partis in ane.

[Anon., Scottish, 119,2; text: (Example 52.), Hic in epidiatessaron due partes sequen cantentur.] [SCOTA3B1 52GF]

[-120-] [Anon., Scottish, 120] [SCOTA3B1 53GF]

[-121-] [Anon., Scottish, 121,1] [SCOTA3B1 53GF]

[fol. 41v] Of Josquin ane chaiss of tua partis divydit fra uther.

[Anon., Scottish, 121,2; text: (Example 53.), Per [tot crossed out] tonium unum deponitur is tonus. This part be depression of ane tune is lawer deponit.] [SCOTA3B1 54GF]

[-122-] [Anon., Scottish, 122,1] [SCOTA3B1 54GF]

[Anon., Scottish, 122,2; text: (Example 54.), Prima pars per tonium as elevatur tonus. [fol. 42], Secunda pars.] [SCOTA3B1 55GF]

[-123-] [Anon., Scottish, 123] [SCOTA3B1 55GF]

[-124-] Ane chais of tua partis in the samyn key.

[Anon., Scottish, 124; text: (Example 55.)] [SCOTA3B1 56GF]

[-125-] [Anon., Scottish, 125,1] [SCOTA3B1 56GF]

[Anon., Scottish, 125,2; text: [fol. 42v] (Example 56.), Triplex, Tenor, Bassus] [SCOTA3B1 57GF]

[-126-] [Anon., Scottish, 126,1] [SCOTA3B1 57GF]

[Anon., Scottish, 126,2; (Example 57.), Vox Proporcionata. Vox Diminuta. Vox integra.] [SCOTA3B1 57GF]

[-127-] [Anon., Scottish, 127; text: [fol. 43] (Example 58.), Discantus Diminutus. Altus Integra Perfectus., Tenor Proporcionatus., Bassus Integer Sed Imperfectus.] [SCOTA3B1 58GF]

[-128-] [Anon., Scottish, 128] [SCOTA3B1 59GF]

[fol. 43v] (Example 59a. Heinrich Isaac's De radice Jesse from the Choralis Constantinus--original notation.)

[fol. 44] (Example 59b. Same as Example 59a with some of the proportions removed.)

[-129-] [Anon., Scottish, 129; text: Resolucio, Tenor, Bassus] [SCOTA3B1 60GF]

[-130-] [Anon., Scottish, 130,1] [SCOTA3B1 60GF]

[Anon., Scottish, 130,2; text: [fol. 44v] (Example 60.)] [SCOTA3B1 61GF]

[-131-] [Anon., Scottish, 131] [SCOTA3B1 61GF]

[-132-] [Anon., Scottish, 132; text: [fol. 45] (Example 61.), Vox Proporcionata. Vox integra. Vox Diminuta.] [SCOTA3B1 62GF]

Heir endis the first part of this buik, the secund part of music and followis the thrid part with the se[c]und buik.

[fol. 45v-blank.]

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