Musical Borrowing
An Annotated Bibliography

Individual record

[+] Lockwood, Lewis. "Beethoven's Earliest Sketches for the Eroica Symphony." The Musical Quarterly 67 (October 1981): 457-78.

Beethoven's Wielhorsky sketchbook contains sketches for a variety of works, including the Op. 35 Eroica variations for piano. Immediately following the sketches for the piano variations is a plan for the Third Symphony, with meters, key schemes, tempo markings, and rough themes for each of the first three movements. The lack of reference to a fourth movement suggests that Beethoven planned to use the piano variations as a basis for the finale to the symphony from the start. Lockwood demonstrates that the principal theme of the first movement is derived from the "Basso del Tema" of Op. 35. The finale of the symphony is thus seen as the generating force of the entire work.

Works: Beethoven: "Eroica" Variations for Piano, Op. 35, Symphony No. 3 in E-flat Major, Eroica, Op. 55.

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Nancy Kinsey Totten

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