Musical Borrowing
An Annotated Bibliography

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[+] Aarburg, Ursula. “Ein Beispiel zur mittelalterlichen Kompositionstechnik: Die Chanson R. 1545 von Blondel de Nesle und ihre mehrstimmigen Vertonungen.” Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 15 (1958): 20-40.

The chanson d’amour L’Amours dont sui espris R. 1545, attributed to the twelfth century trouvère Blondel de Nesle, and its retexted version by Gautier de Coinci served as the basis for several works in the ensuing decades, and these later works provide a useful view into the compositional practices of the era. All of these songs and conductus feature virtually identical line length, rhyme arrangement, and large-scale form, although it is unclear if any or all of these works follow a particular rhythmic mode. An analysis of Blondel’s chanson shows a close correspondence between the textual rhythm and musical motives, with the whole melody built in paired sequences that act almost like question-and-answer phrases—a common technique in medieval song practice. The conductus Purgator Criminum AH. 20,16 from the manuscript W1 uses the L’Amours melody as a tenor and features new upper voices, but these added parts are deeply dependent on the contour and motivic cells of Blondel’s melody. The limited voice exchange and simple counterpoint with the tenor, moreover, marks it as a fairly unsophisticated reworking. The conductus Procurans odium AH. 21,176 from manuscripts F, Mü, and Ma, on the other hand, makes use of more elaborate voice exchanges above the tenor to create a unique, almost static aural effect, like the ringing of bells. The numerous repeating motives and cellular construction of the upper voices’ melodies also suggest this conductus is derived from improvisatory vocal performance practices of the era. Questions of chronology and which works may have influenced one another are more difficult to answer, due to the limited number of medieval songs available to scholars and the general lack of analytical studies of the repertory.

Works: Gautier de Coinci: L’Amours dont sui espris R. 1546 (20-30); Anonymous: Purgator Criminum AH. 20,16 (30-35); Anonymous: Procurans odium AH. 21,176 (35-38).

Sources: Blondel de Nesle: L’Amours dont sui espris R. 1545

Index Classifications: Monophony to 1300, Polyphony to 1300

Contributed by: Matthew G. Leone

[+] Aarburg, Ursula, ed. Singweisen zur Liebeslyrik der deutschen Frühe. Düsseldorf: Pädagogischer Verlag Schwann, 1956.

Index Classifications: Monophony to 1300, Polyphony to 1300

[+] Abbate, Carolyn. "Tristan in the Composition of Pelléas." 19th-Century Music 5 (Fall 1981): 117-41.

The model for the composition of Pelléas is Tristan und Isolde. The intent is to avoid the recollection of Wagner, but numerous recollections are present. These recollections take the form of orchestration and of musical material. Quotations of Wagner occur most often in the interludes (pp. 138-140). Debussy is viewed as a commentator on Wagner both in the way he used certain Wagnerian lois (especially the system of metaphorical tonality in which the order and choice of keys rests upon textual and not upon functional harmonic exigency, pp. 129-32) and in the way he alluded to the earlier works.

Works: Debussy: Pelléas et Mélisande.

Sources: Wagner: Tristan und Isolde.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Abbate, Carolyn. "Wagner, Cinema, and Redemptive Glee." The Opera Quarterly 21 (Autumn 2006): 597-611.

The epiphanic moment in which a listener realizes that musical borrowing has taken place concerns not only the relation between two texts but also performance. For instance, in the 1939 film The Thief of Baghdad there is a brief allusion to a passage from the overture to Wagner's Der fliegende Holländer. When one recognizes such borrowing, it is dependent on a "polysemic mélange" that works together to make such recognition possible. For instance, beyond the musical resemblances, the film and the opera share a number of images, such as a ship and blood-red sails. Also, in both film and opera it seems as if music animates objects. An individual's particular viewing experience can also contribute to the experience, such as when a movie theater and an opera hall share similar acoustics. Such ludic details of performance are often overlooked but are an inseparable part of such epiphanic moments.

Works: Miklós Rózsa: Score to The Thief of Baghdad (597-609).

Sources: Richard Wagner: Der fliegende Holländer (597-609).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: John F. Anderies

[+] Abbey, Eric James, and Colin Helb, eds. Hardcore, Punk, and Other Junk: Aggressive Sounds in Contemporary Music. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2014.

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

[+] Abert, Anna Amalie. "Das Nachleben des Minnesangs im liturgischen Spiel." Die Musikforschung 1 (1948): 95-105.

Index Classifications: Monophony to 1300

[+] Abraham, Gerald. "Operas and Incidental Music." In The Music of Tchaikovsky, ed. Gerald Abraham, 124-83. 2d ed. New York: W. W. Norton, 1974.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Abraham, Gerald. "The Folk-Song Element." Chap. in Studies in Russian Music. London: W. Reeves, [1935].

In the use of folk tunes, Glinka was concerned with nothing more than stringing them together into frankly popular fantasias. Efforts of later composers to fuse these tunes into complicated musical organisms (sonata-form on the symphonic scale) failed, according to Abraham, (1) because folk songs are not suited to such treatment and (2) because these composers had a fundamentally wrong conception of Russian folk music as homophonic. The discovery of the polyphonic nature of a great deal of Russian folk-music came just too late to influence the development of Russian art music. The only successful symphonic handling of folk tunes was a matter of "good taste," being shown in the avoidance of virtuosity in the treatment of the material and in not making it an excuse for "talking about oneself." To absorb a great deal of the folk idiom (as Mussorgsky did) and invent original themes from that root was a more successful way to get around the implications of using an original folk tune.

Works: Borodin: Prince Igor (46); Tchaikovsky: String Quartet No. 1 (47), Symphony in F Minor (48f), 1812 Overture (48); Rimsky-Korsakov: Hundred Russian Folk-Songs, Op. 24 (47f), Overture on Russian Themes (48), Easter Festival Overture (54), Capriccio Espagnol (54), Sinfonietta, Op. 31 (55); Balakirev: Overture on Three Russian Themes in B Minor (48), A Thousand Years (52f.); Beethoven: String Quartet No. 8 in E Minor, Op. 59, No. 2 (55); Mussorgsky: Boris Godunov (55).

Sources: Sidel Vanyz (47), Vo pole bereza stoyala (48), "Over the field creeps the mist" (56).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Abraham, Lars Ulrich. "Trivialität und Persiflage in Beethovens Diabelli-Variationen." In Neue Wege der musikalischen Analyse. Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für Neue Musik und Musikerziehung Darmstadt 6, 7-17. Berlin: Merseburger, 1967.

Works: Beethoven: Thirty-Three Variations on a Waltz by Diabelli, Op. 120.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Adams, Courtney. "Some Aspects of the Chanson for Three Voices During the Sixteenth Century." Acta Musicologica 49 (1977): 227-50.

While some three-part pieces written before 1520 were given a si placet fourth part, the majority of concordant three- and four-part chansons show the reverse: four-part chansons before 1550 were most often turned into three-part pieces by removing a line, usually the contratenor. In evaluating individual pieces to determine the presence of preexistent material, the following should be considered: (1) the presence of defective harmonic writing; (2) the range and character of the questionable voice (an unusual number of semiminims, frequent voice crossing, or a general low range of all the voices would suggest a four-part original); (3) the presence of more than one cantus firmus among concordances of a given piece; (4) comparison of questionable pieces with others by the same composer.

Works: Anonymous: Amour vault trop qui bien (240); Conflicting attributions: Amy, soufrez que je vous ayme (240-41); Anonymous: Ces facheux sotz qui mesdisent d'aymer (241); Ninot le Petit or Willaert: C'est donc par moy (241); Janequin: De son amour me donne jouyssance (241-42); Anonymous: En regardant son gratieux maintien (242), Fortune, less-moy la vie (242), J'ay trop aymé, vrayment je le confesse (242), Je ne sçay pas comment (242-43); Claudin: Jouyssance vous donneray (243), Languir me fais sans t'avoir offensé (244); Anonymous: Le cueur est bon et le vouloir aussi (244); Costely: Ma douce fleur, ma marguerite (244); Tomas Janequin: Nous bergiers et nous bergieres (245); Janequin: Or sus, or sus vous dormez trop (245); Créquillon or Richafort: Or vray Dieu qu'il ennuyeux (245-46); de la Rue: Pour ung jamais ung regret me demeure (246); Janequin: S'il est si doulx par quoy n'est doncques moindre (246-47); Anonymous: Si vostre coeur prent le tenné (247); Claudin: Si vous m'aymez, donnez m'en asseurance (247); Arcadelt: S'on pouvoit acquérir (247-48).

Index Classifications: 1500s

Contributed by: John F. Anderies

[+] Adams, Courtney. "The Early Chanson Anthologies Published by Pierre Attaingnant (1528-1530)." Journal of Musicology 5 (Fall 1987): 526-48.

Among the Attaingnant publications between 1528 and 1530, there are several cases of borrowings and duplications of the following kinds: (1) In four pieces (out of approximately 350) duplication involves more than one part. (2) The borrowing of a single melodic line from a four-part chanson for use in another chanson à 4 is rare. (3) Cases in which three- and four-voice works share the same text have a musical connection: they mostly share the superius. That one chanson is modeled on another one is difficult to prove. But if two chansons employ similar melodic contours, use the same cadential note for each phrase, and duplicate a harmonic passage as well, then the argument for borrowing is good.

Works: Attaingnant: Or plaise a Dieu (533), En souspirant (534), Une pastourelle gentille (534), En regardant son gratieux maintien (535).

Sources: Attaingnant: En devisant (533), Si vostre couer (534), Quand vous vouderz faire une amye (534), En regardant son gratieux maintien (535), De toy me plaintz (536).

Index Classifications: 1500s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Adams, Courtney S. "The Three-Part Chanson during the Sixteenth Century: Changes in Its Style and Importance." Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1974.

Index Classifications: 1500s

[+] Adams, Kyle. “What Did Danger Mouse Do?: The Grey Album and Musical Composition in Configurable Culture.” Music Theory Spectrum 37 (Spring 2015): 7-24.

Danger Mouse (producer Brian Burton) recorded a performance of Jay-Z’s The Black Album in his 2004 The Grey Album, which challenges traditional notions of individual authorship. He produced The Grey Album by taking an a cappella recording of Jay-Z’s The Black Album and remixing portions of The Beatles’ The White Album as the instrumental backing. Because a mashup is a combination of two or more recordings onto a single track, it can be difficult to decide what type of art the mashup actually is, or what its creator has really done in making it. The Grey Album differs from A+B mash-ups such as Smells Like Booty (which combines Nirvana’s Smells Like Teen Spirit with Destiny’s Child’s Bootylicious) in multiple ways. First, unlike A+B mash-ups, The Grey Album is unequal in its borrowing. The entirety of Jay-Z’s lyrics are preserved, while The Beatles’ music is cut up and reconfigured to fit the lyrics. Second, The Grey Album deliberately obscures the incongruity of its sources. The aim of the album is to reinforce or reinterpret the lyrics, not to use them for comedic effect, and as a result, this borrowing has more in common with art music techniques than with existing popular mash-ups. Because the lyrics are clearly the focus of the album, it is not an independent composition, but rather a performance of The Black Album. Burton’s creative process connects him to the larger tradition of musical borrowing as The Beatles’s music served as Burton’s interpretative tool for his performance of Jay-Z’s album.

Works: Danger Mouse: The Grey Album; Soulwax: Smells Like Booty (8-9); Anonymous: Oops... The Real Slim Shady Did It Again (9); Berio: Sinfonia (11); Greg Gillis/Girl Talk: Feed the Animals (11); John Oswald: Plunderphonic (12).

Sources: Destiny’s Child: Bootylicious (8-9); Nirvana: Smells like Teen Spirit (8-9); Eminem: The Real Slim Shady (9); Britney Spears: Oops! I Did It Again (9); Jay-Z: The Black Album (10-23); The Beatles: The White Album (10-23).

Index Classifications: 2000s, Popular

Contributed by: Sarah Kirkman, Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Adams, Stephen. R. Murray Schafer. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1983.

In this treatment of the life and work of Schafer, several examples of borrowing are discussed. Son of Heldenleben (1968) is based on Strauss's Ein Heldenleben, and it demonstrates Schafer's ambivalence toward the Romantic era. Strauss's first theme serves as a cantus firmus in extreme augmentation for most of the piece, and other borrowed themes are presented in a rush at the end of the work. Written for orchestra and tape, Schafer's piece praises and belittles Strauss simultaneously, a conflict which is audible. Besides the direct quotations, two tone rows are derived from Strauss. Adieu, Robert Schumann (1976) is an example of collage, as it uses quotations from several of Schumann's works, including Kreisleriana and Carnaval. Written for a contralto, who plays the role of Clara Schumann, and orchestra, the work takes place in the last days before Schumann's death in a mental institution. It exemplifies Schafer's ability to blend old and new styles to create something distinctly his own.

Works: Schafer: Son of Heldenleben (110-17), Adieu, Robert Schumann (158-60).

Sources: Richard Strauss: Ein Heldenleben, Robert Schumann: Kreisleriana, Carnaval.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Jessica Sternfeld

[+] Addamiano, Antonio. “Imitatio, aemulatio e traditio in alcune Missae carminum tra Quattro e Cinquecento.” In Il Cantus Firmus nella Polifonia: Atti del convegno internazionale di studi Arezzo, 27-29 dicembre 2002, ed. Francesco Facchin, 89-119. Arezzo: Fondazione Guido d’Arezzo, 2005.

The Missa carminum, a Renaissance mass type cultivated by several composers that is structured around a tenor built by stringing together different pre-existent tunes, provides interesting examples of the practice of musical imitatio. The musical borrowing in these pieces highlights a composer’s innovative compositional technique while still linking to the traditions of the past. By using known tunes as the basis of new musical creations, these composers encourage the comparison of their new compositions with those whose legitimacy as musical objects is already established. In their reuse of music of the past, composers negotiate two important elements of memory. First, they navigate between their own originality and the conventions established by past composers. Second, their use of borrowing creates tension between a composer’s memory and the memory of their audience.

Works: Obrecht: Missa carminum I (91), Missa carminum II (92-93); Costanzo Festa/Andreas Da Silva: Missa carminum II (94-95).

Sources: Dufay/Binchois: Je ne vis oncques la pareille (91); Anonymous: Bon temps (91); Anonymous: Ou le trouveray (91); Anonymous: Ha! Coeur perdu et desolle (91); Busnois: Une filleresse/S’il y a compagnon/Vostre amour (91), Joye me fuit (91), Acordes moy (91), Mon mignault/Gracieuse (91), J’ai mains de bien (91); Loyset Compère/Pietrequin: Mais que se fut secretement (91); Ockeghem: S’elle m’amera/Petite camusette (91), Petite camusette (94-95); Anonymous: Je ne porroie plus celer (91); Josquin: Adieu mes amours (91, 94-95); Busfrin: Et trop penser (91); Jacobus Barbireau: Scoen lief (91-93); Hayne van Ghizeghem: Ce n’est pas jeu (91), De tous biens plaine (94-95); Anonymous: Quant je vous dys (91); Adrien Basin: Madame, faites moy savoir (91); Rubinus: Entre Paris et Saint Quentin (92-93); Johannes Martini: La Martinella (93-94); Loyset Compère: A qui diraige mes pensée (92-93), Le renvoy (92-93); Anonymous: L’homme armé (94).

Index Classifications: 1400s, 1500s

Contributed by: Daniel Rogers

[+] Adler, Eliyana R. “No Raisins, No Almonds: Singing as Spiritual Resistance to the Holocaust.” Shofar: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies 24 (2006): 50-66.

For several Yiddish-speaking Jews, music served as a vehicle for spiritual resistance during the Holocaust. Writers often composed new lyrics to pre-existing tunes from popular songs and folksongs, and the music chosen was often both easily identifiable and significant to the writer. Through adapting older, well known songs, the writers were able to express subtle messages and meanings to their listeners. Broadly speaking, songs could be adapted in three ways: reuse, rewriting, and response. Reusing older melodies allowed concentration camp inmates to create a song that reflected their reality while also observing their Jewish heritage. Rewriting, or adding new lyrics to existing tunes, drew on the listeners’ familiarity with both the original tune and the original words to create symbolic meanings. Finally, songs in the response category would make references to original song texts, but not the original tunes, creating a deliberate contrast between the new song and the source.

Works: Anonymous: Ani Ma’amin (55, 57); Anonymous: Zog Nitkeyn Mol (57); Anonymous: Tsen Brider (57-58); Rilke Glezer: Papirosn (62); Yankele Hershkowitz: Papirosn (62); Sh. Sheinkinder: Papirosn (63); Yankele Hershkowitz: Nishtu Keyn Przydziel (62-63); Shimshon Fersht: Unter di Grininke Beymelekh (64); David Beyglman: Nit kayn Rozhinkes, nit kayn Mandlen (64).

Sources: Abraham Goldfaden: Rozhinkes mit Mandlen (54, 60-61, 64); Ani Ma’amin (57); Mordecai Gebirtig: Es Brent (56, 57); Anonymous: Tsen Brider (57-58); Abraham Goldfaden: Shulamis (58-59); Herman Yablokoff: Papirosn (61-62); A. M. Bernstein: Tsum Hemerl (58-59).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Cynthia Dretel, Matthew G. Leone

[+] Adrio, Adam. "Die Weisen der böhmischen Brüder im Werk Ernst Peppings." In Musicae Scientiae Collectanea: Festschrift Gustav Fellerer zum siebzigsten Geburtstag am 7. Juli 1972, ed. Heinrich Hüschen, 23-34. Köln: Arno-Volk-Verlag, 1973.

Cantus firmus is treated differently in several a cappella works by Ernst Pepping. All the pieces selected borrow from the sacred songs of the Bohemian Brothers.

Works: Works: Pepping: Deutsche Choralmesse für sechsstimmigen Chor (23), Spandauer Chorbuch (23), Liedmotetten nach Weisen der Böhmischen Brüder für Chor a capella (24ff.), Gesänge der Böhmischen Brüder in Variationen für Chor a cappella (31).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Adrio, Adam. "Heinrich Schütz und Italien." In Bekenntnis zu Heinrich Schütz, ed. Adam Adrio et al., 55-64. Kassel: Bärenreiter-Verlag, 1954.

Index Classifications: 1600s

[+] Ahern, Sean. “Let the Shillelagh Fly: The Dropkick Murphys and Irish American Hybridity.” In Hardcore, Punk, and Other Junk: Aggressive Sounds in Contemporary Music, ed. Eric James Abbey and Colin Helb, 21-33. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2014.

Celtic punk band the Dropkick Murphys create a hybrid Irish American identity through the appropriation of traditional folk songs and instruments, connecting their real home town of Boston with a fantasized homeland of Ireland. The Dropkick Murphys often perform and record covers of Irish folk songs. Their cover of the ballad The Fields of Athenry, about a man forcibly removed from his homeland, thematically fits in with their original material about the importance of home, family, and nationality, and supports the band’s working-class “underdog” image. Bagpipes, tin whistles, and other elements of traditional Irish folk music are frequently used by the band. In comparison, references to Boston are much more specific in Dropkick Murphys songs. Specific Boston sports teams, public transit lines, music venues, and individuals are mentioned to create a sense of the specific Irish American community of the band’s hometown. The hybrid identity created by the Dropkick Murphys reimagines what it means to be Irish American for a new generation further removed from their familial homeland.

Works: Dropkick Murphys: The Fields of Athenry (24-25), The Wild Rover (25), The Rocky Road to Dublin (25).

Sources: Traditional: The Fields of Athenry (24-25), The Wild Rover (25), The Rocky Road to Dublin (25).

Index Classifications: 2000s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Alaleona, Domenico. "Le laudi spirituali italiane nei secoli XVI e XVII e il loro rapporto coi canti profani." Rivista musicale italiana 16, no. 1 (1909): 1-54.

Index Classifications: 1500s, 1600s, 1700s

[+] Albrecht, Hans. "Ein quodlibetartiges Magnificat aus der Zwickauer Ratsschulbibliothek." In Festschrift Heinrich Besseler zum Sechzigsten Geburtstag, ed. Institut für Musikwissenschaft der Karl-Marx-Universität, 215-20. Leipzig: Deutscher Verlag für Musik, 1961.

Index Classifications: 1500s

[+] Albrecht, Hans. "Zur Rolle der Kontrafaktur in Rhaus Bicinia von 1545." In Festschrift Max Schneider zum Achtzigsten Geburtstage, ed. Walther Vetter, 67-70. Leipzig: Deutscher Verlag für Musik, 1955.

Index Classifications: 1500s

[+] Albrecht, J. "Das Variations- und Imitations-Prinzip in der Tektonik von Bartóks Bratschenkonzert." Studia Musicologica 14, no. 1-4 (1972): 317-27.

Works: Bartók: Viola Concerto

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Alexander, Gavin. "The Elizabethan Lyric as Contrafactum: Robert Sidney's 'French Tune' Identified." Music and Letters 84 (2003): 378-402.

Index Classifications: 1500s

[+] Alexander, Michael J. The Evolving Keyboard Style of Charles Ives. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Keele, 1984. Reprinted verbatim, New York and London: Garland, 1989.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Alfeld, Anna Poulin. "Unsung Songs: Self-Borrowing in Amy Beach's Instrumental Compositions." M.M. thesis, University of Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music, 2008.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Allanbrook, Wye Jamison. "Comic Issues in Mozart's Piano Concertos." In Mozart's Piano Concertos: Text, Context, Interpretation, ed. Neal Zaslaw, 75-105. Ann Arbor, Mich.: The University of Michigan Press, 1999.

There are two kinds of self-referential aspects in Mozart's piano concertos: reminiscences of or allusions to specific works, and generic references to characteristic styles. It is easy to assume that Mozart frequently borrowed specifically from his opere buffe in his piano concertos, based on fortuitous similarities. However, the contribution of buffa in Mozart's piano concerto writing is mainly in its procedure, the most prominent effect being the achievement of closure. For example, the buffa gesture of repetitive cadences serves as a function of syntax when transposed to classical concerto style, reaffirming the tonic for a convincing closure and serving as a climax of rhythmic motive developing throughout the movement. Another "buffa echo" is the coda itself. The introduction of new materials, a quickened pulse and layering voices parallels the buffa finale. It is the interplay of solo and orchestra in the concerto that allows the dramatic operatic device to be incorporated.

Works: Mozart: Piano Concerto No. 14 in E-flat Major, K. 449 (76-85), Piano Concerto No. 15 in B-flat Major, K. 450 (86, 88), Piano Concerto No. 19 in F Major, K. 459 (94-97), Piano Concerto No. 17 in G Major, K. 453 (98, 100), Piano Concerto No. 20 in D Major, K. 466 (99, 101).

Sources: Mozart: Le nozze di Figaro, "Terzetto" (II, 13) (76), "Susanna or via sortite" (78, 80-81), and "Aprite un po' quegli occhi" (86-89), Don Giovanni, "Ho, Capito" (89-93).

Index Classifications: 1700s

Contributed by: Tong Cheng Blackburn

[+] Allanbrook, Wye Jamison. Rhythmic Gesture in Mozart: Le Nozze di Figaro and Don Giovanni. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983.

Index Classifications: 1700s

[+] Allsen, J. Michael. "Intertextuality and Compositional Process in Two Cantilena Motets by Hugo de Lantins." Journal of Musicology 11 (Spring 1993): 174-202.

A comparison of the motet O lux decus Hispanie to the motet on which it was based, Christus vincit, shows how musical material was re-worked to serve different texts. The text of Christus vincit is a laudatory tribute to Doge Francesco Foscari. The prima pars is built on a number of points of imitation specific to the text. The secunda pars uses an unusual mensural shift, a sesquitertia proportion but with coloration, probably inspired by the text. In O lux decus Hispanie, an antiphon from a rhymed Office for St. James the Greater, changes to the music of the prima pars help obscure the original points of imitation and thus give more continuous declamation. Changes in mensuration also affect the proportions between the lengths of the two partes. Although Christus vincit is the parent work, there is no evidence to prove that Hugo de Lantins had any direct role in the creation of O lux decus Hispanie.

Works: Hugo de Lantins: O lux decus Hispanie.

Sources: Hugo de Lantins: Christus vincit.

Index Classifications: 1400s

Contributed by: Felix Cox

[+] Allsen, J. Michael. "Style and Intertextuality in the Isorhythmic Motet 1400-1440." Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1992.

Index Classifications: 1400s

[+] Allsup, Randall Everett. “Sequoias, Mavericks, Open Doors... Composing Joan Tower.” Philosophy of Music Education Review 19, no. 1 (Spring 2011): 24-36.

Joan Tower demonstrates how a composer can remake traditions to carve out a space for her own voice. Tower comes out of the Western art music tradition with Beethoven as her strongest influence. “I couldn’t get [Beethoven] out of my head!” she says, “So I decided to invite him in.” Tower wrestles with Beethoven and allows him to become part of her music rather than an outside antagonist. Beethoven’s most obvious influence on Tower’s wider musical output is the technique of small motivic units organically developing, which can be seen in Tower’s Sequoia for orchestra. Tower claims Beethoven as part of her musical inheritance, but instead of feeling burdened by tradition, she uses it as the impetus for new ideas that are completely her own. Creativity in the arts does not happen in a vacuum free from tradition and cultural influences, but rather it takes place in dialogue with the past and future. In other words, a creative individual recognizes her inheritance and the tradition of which she is a member and makes something new out of older materials.

Works: Joan Tower: Sequoia (26-27, 30-31, 35).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s

Contributed by: Sarah Kirkman

[+] Altmann, Peter. Sinfonia von Luciano Berio: Eine analytische Studie. Vienna: Universal Edition, 1977.

In the third movement of his Sinfonia, Berio uses collage on three levels. (1) The Scherzo ("Des Antonius von Padua Fischpredigt") from Mahler's Second Symphony, of which the proportions remain essentially the same, makes up the structural basis. The addition stresses the proportional importance of the fateful number eleven standing for imperfection, which in turn is related to the meaning of Mahler's scherzo. (2) In the course of the whole movement, Berio quotes composers from Bach through Stockhausen, and while we recognize some of the quotations immediately, others can hardly be perceived. (3) The text consists of passages from Beckett's novel The Unnamable interspersed with words by Joyce, expression marks, political slogans, and phonetic material. Mahler's music implies the quotations on the second level, be it tonally (Berio even changed some notes for tonal reasons), motivically (the minor second functions as a central motive), programmatically, or by instrumentation. Even the disposition of the text follows Mahler and it is often only through the text that we can identify musical quotations. This kind of collage therefore does not destroy but reinterprets the "Fischpredigt." The study includes some didactic suggestions.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 2; Berio: Sinfonia.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Altmann, Wilhelm. "Ist Bruckners sogenanntes Choralthema seine eigene Erfindung?" Allgemeine Musik-Zeitung 47 (February 1920): 100.

Index Classifications: 1800s

[+] Ameln, Konrad. "Die 'Silberweise' von Hans Sachs: Vorlage evangelischer Kirchenlieder?" Jahrbuch für Liturgik und Hymnologie 21 (1977): 132-37.

Index Classifications: 1500s

[+] Anderson, Gordon A. "A New Look at an Old Motet." Music and Letters 49 (January 1968): 18-20.

The tenor of the Latin motet Homo, mundi paleas from Wolfenbüttel 1099 is designated Et gaudebit, but the melody is actually Et florebit. Observance of this scribal error allows identification of the motet as a contrafactum of a French motet in the same manuscript, Chascun qui de bien amer.

Works: Homo, mundi paleas.

Sources: Chascun qui de bien amer.

Index Classifications: Polyphony to 1300

Contributed by: Reginald Sanders

[+] Anderson, Gordon A. "A Small Collection of Notre Dame Motets ca. 1215-1235." Journal of the American Musicological Society 22 (Summer 1969): 157-96.

The LoC manuscript (London Add. 30091) contains fourteen motets that may be divided into two equal halves of seven pieces representing two different styles. All the concordances are listed and each motet is placed in the historical position of the manuscript itself and in the repertory of the early motet (1200-1245). In contrast to the motets nos. 1-7, nos. 8-14 have no clausula source and do not go back to an earlier Latin motet or a version in the old conductus-style. They are contrafacta of bilingual motets, but in contrast to the first group they have hardly been reworked thereafter. From this and other stylistic features, it may be concluded that the second group must be at least twenty years younger than the first. No other manuscript shows the shift from bilingual to Latin contrafacta as clearly as LoC. Adam de la Halle's motet J'os bien a m'amie parler/Je n'os a m'amie aler/(In) seculum may be modeled on the original Latin version of Eva quid deciperis/In seculum.

Works: Works: Anonymous motets including contrafacta: Salve salus hominum/O radians stella/Nostrum (161-62); O Maria, decus angelorum/Nostrum (161, 164); Tu decus es decoris/O Maria, beata genitrix/Nostrum (161, 164); Plus bele que/Quant revient/L'autr'ier jouer/Flos filius eius (165); Quant revient/L'autr'ier jouer/Flos filius eius (165); Candida virginitas/Flos filius eius (165-66); Castrum pudicitie/Virgo viget/Flos filius eius (165-66); Flos ascendit/Flos filius eius (167-68); Ne sai que je die/Johanne (170-71); Cecitas arpie fex/Johanne (170-71); Tedet intueri/Te decet (172-75); El mois d'avril/Al cor ai une/Et gaudebit (175); Ypocrite pseudopontifices/Velut stella/Et gaudebit (175-76); Virgo Virginum/Et gaudebit (175-76); Memor tui creatoris/Et gaudebit (175-76); O felix puerpera flos virginum/In seculum (180-81); Hac in die dulce melos/Cumque evigilasset (182); Hac in die dulce melos/Spes vite miseries/Cumque evigilasset (182-83); Balaam, prophetandi patuit/Balaam (183-84); Arbor nobilis/Crux forma penitentie/Sustinere (185-87); Cruci Domini/Crux forma penitentie/Sustinere (185-87); Eva quid deciperis/In seculum (187-88); Adam de la Halle: J'os bien a m'amie parler/Je n'os a m'amie aler/(In) seculum (188-89).

Index Classifications: Polyphony to 1300

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Anderson, Gordon A. "A Troped Offertorium-Conductus of the Thirteenth Century." Journal of the American Musicological Society 24 (Spring 1971): 96-100.

In a late volume of Analecta Hymnica, Clemens Blume selected eighteen texts that are "Tropi ad Offertorium 'Recordare.'" The first two in his edition have an extant polyphonic setting, while the remainder are known only in plain-chant settings or by their texts alone. The second text, O vera, o pia, is the newly identified contrafactum setting. It ends with the troped word nobis, an anomaly which falls outside the rhyme scheme of the text. This feature, rare in condunctus texts, prompted a search for the source of its tenor. The melody is that of the last verse of the Offertorium Recordare, Virgo Mater, which closely follows the chant melody, taken from W1. From a stylistic and historical viewpoint, the most important aspect is the use of a troped word in the text, a practice that had hitherto been found only in motets among polyphonic works outside the obviously troped settings.

Index Classifications: Polyphony to 1300

Contributed by: Mirna Polzovic

[+] Anderson, Gordon A. "Clausulae or Transcribed-Motets in the Florence Manuscript?" Acta musicologica 42 (1970): 109-28.

The clausulae of Florence, Biblioteca Mediceo-Laurenziana, Pluteo 29.1 are not transcriptions of motets. Many of the clausulae have short melismas at the end, which would render them unrelated to existing motets. Anomalies in notation do exist, but these can be reconciled through the application of standard fractio modi and the use of some system of equipollentia, already in use in the cum littera sections of contemporary conductus.

Index Classifications: Polyphony to 1300

Contributed by: Felix Cox

[+] Anderson, Gordon A. "Newly Identified Tenor Chants in the Notre Dame Repertory." Music and Letters 50 (January 1969): 158-71.

Identification of the tenor is accompanied by a discussion of concordances and structural and textual features in the following motets: from the Wolfenbüttel 1099 manuscript, Canticum letitie,A grant joie, and He! mounier porrai je moudre?; from the Madrid manuscript, Ave gloriose plena gratie; from the Las Huelgas manuscript, Nos. 84, 94, 112, and 141 (Clama, ne cesses, Syon filia/Alleluia); and the English four-part motet, Ave miles de cuius militia/Ave miles, O Edlkude/textless quartus cantus/Ablue. Of the three chant segments, "Potentiam," "De," and "Te," which are the tenors of clausula settings in the Florence manuscript, the first and third are identified and the implications discussed. Speculation is made as to the tenor of the double motet Quomodo fiet id/O virgo virginum/O stupor omnium in modum.

Index Classifications: Polyphony to 1300

Contributed by: Reginald Sanders

[+] Anderson, Gordon A. “A Unique Notre-Dame Motet Tenor Relationship.” Music &Letters 55, no. 4 (October 1974): 398-409.

While contrafactum technique is common throughout Medieval and Renaissance music, there are several contrafacta resettings that are confined within the general circle of Notre Dame practice. Two motets, Ovibus pastoris Mens seduli/(Pro ovibus) and Mes cuers est emprisones/Et pro suo, have tenors set to the same text, yet the music for each tenor comes from a different chant. This relationship between tenors has not been observed before among Notre Dame motets. The identification of these tenors means that all motets in the Madrid manuscript have known tenors.

Works: Anonymous: Ovibus pastoris Mens seduli/(Pro ovibus) (399-401), Mes cuers est emprisones/Et pro suo (406-9).

Sources: Anonymous: Alleluia: Eripe me (408-409), Et pro suo grege (409).

Index Classifications: Polyphony to 1300

Contributed by: Elizabeth Stoner

[+] Anderson, Paul Allen. “The World Heard: Casablanca and the Music of War.” Critical Inquiry 32 (Spring 2006): 482-515.

The music of Casablanca was a metaphor for the power of political unity against the adversaries of America: American music defied enemy music and thus enemy culture. This metaphor is accomplished both diegetically and through Max Steiner’s score, which creates leitmotifs out of national songs and the famous ballad, As Time Goes By. Because current wartime tensions created political insecurities for audiences, it was difficult for viewers to regard the film as fantasy, and the film’s music aids in a transition to fiction. For example, the relationship between the diegetic performances of As Time Goes By and Steiner’s appropriation of the ballad reinforces a past of assured political ideology as well as American unity and idealism. Additionally, the film demonstrates fantasies and realities of race and segregation through the treatment of and musical performances by the character Sam.

Works: Michael Curtiz (director) and Max Steiner (composer): score to Casablanca.

Sources: Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle: La Marseillaise (484, 497-98, 500-501); Carl Wilhelm: Die Wacht am Rhein (484, 497-98, 500-501); Herman Hupfeld: As Time Goes By (485, 487, 497, 502-14).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kate Altizer

[+] Andraschke, Peter. "Das revolutionär-politische Zitat in der avantgardistischen Musik nach 1965." Musik und Bildung 11 (May 1979): 313-18.

Although Stockhausen, Nono, and Henze approach the preexistent material differently, they all try to combine simple, tonal melodies with the complex structures of sound (Klangstrukturen) of the avantgarde around 1967. In his Hymnen, Stockhausen borrows different national anthems to represent internationality and disparities between nations. He develops, for example, the Internationale in a way that underlines the program of the composition, the struggle for a peaceful world, gradually synchronizing different layers of sound. Nono's Per Bastiana--Tai-Yang Cheng does not borrow the (communist) Chinese folk song The East Is Red in a traditional way. The pentatonic melody and its intervallic structure permeate the whole composition. "Tai-Yang Cheng," a textual quotation from the song, expresses Nono's hope for a "red shining life" of his daughter Bastiana under the banner of communism. Henze expresses the difficulties of our West-European world by attempting to write a symphony in 1969 with traditional techniques and dead (kaputt) musical material and his admiration for communist Cuba (the piece was written for Havana) by quoting Cuban folk songs and communist tunes (such as the song of the National Liberation Front in Vietnam, Stars of the Night).

Works: Stockhausen: Hymnen, Nono: Per Bastiana--Tai-Yang Cheng; Henze: Sinfonia No. 6 for two Chamber Orchestras (315-17).

Sources: Marseillaise (314-15), Internationale (314-15), The East is Red (315), Stars of the Night (316).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Andraschke, Peter. "Gustav Mahlers IX. Symphonie: Kompositionsprozess und Analyse." Ph.D. diss., University of Freiburg, 1973.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Andraschke, Peter. "Traditionsmomente in Kompositionen von Christóbal Halffter, Klaus Huber und Wolfgang Rihm." In Die neue Musik und die Tradition: Sieben Kongressbeiträge und eine analytische Studie, ed. Reinhold Brinkmann, 130-52. Mainz: Schott, 1978.

Halffter, Rihm, and Huber use quotations with different intentions. Halffter's Noche pasiva del sentido makes extensive use of a descending four-tone motive that not only associates the piece with Spanish folklore in general but also plays an important role in Ravel's Rhapsodie espagnole. Rihm modeled the fourth movement of his String Quartet No. 3 over long stretches on the "Cavatina" from Beethoven's String Quartet, Op. 130; some of the thematic material is derived from Beethoven and the movements show similar outlines. "Genesis," the first movement from Huber's Violin Concerto (Tempora) represents the emergence of sound from "primitive noises" (Urgeräusche), including in this process a structurally important quotation of the B-A-C-H motive. The third movement, "quod libet," displays its link to the classical tradition by including literal quotations, thus alluding to the contraction "quodlibet." In his ...inwendig voller figur..., Huber reuses material from the second ("De Natura") and last ("quod nescitur") movements of his Violin Concerto, relating Dürer's sketch Traumgesicht and texts of the apocalypse of John.

Works: Halffter: Noche pasiva del sentido (131-35); Rihm: In Innersten (String Quartet No. 3, 138-43); Huber: Tempora 143-50), . . . inwendig voller figur . . . (146, 149).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Anglés, Higinio. "L'epístola farcida de Sant Esteve." Vida Cristiana 10 (1922-23): 69-75.

Index Classifications: Monophony to 1300

[+] Ansari, Emily Abrams. “‘Vindication, Cleansing, Catharsis, Hope’: Interracial Reconciliation and the Dilemmas of Multiculturalism in Kay and Dorr’s Jubilee (1976).” American Music 31 (Winter 2013): 379-419.

African American composer Ulysses Kay and white librettist Donald Dorr’s 1976 opera Jubilee expresses the early stages of the political ideology of multiculturalism in confronting the history of American slavery in the context of the US Bicentennial celebrations for which it was commissioned. Kay’s use of historical musical forms and quotations reflects the creators’ nuanced approach to the opera’s subject matter. Kay’s early composing career is marked by an adherence to universalism and a denial of the influence of race on his music. This attitude changed with his work on Jubilee, which dealt explicitly with racial politics. The opera’s multiculturalist approach is evident in the lynching scene, modeled on the auto-da-fé in Verdi’s Don Carlo. In this scene, three racially segregated choruses—white planters singing a patriotic song, poor whites singing a chorus based on the folksong Goober Peas, and slaves singing the hymn Flee as a Bird to the Mountain gather to celebrate the Fourth of July and to witness the hanging of a slave woman. No single chorus is dominant over the others and they each reveal complex reactions to the proceedings from different nineteenth-century cultural viewpoints. Jubilee does not shy away from depicting the horrors of slavery, but it also does not demonize white Americans. The final scene offers a different model of multicultural reconciliation and is scored with ragtime music, a genre marked by stylistic fusion between African American and European American traditions. Despite its initial reception as a symbol of healing, Jubilee has not been produced since its initial run. However, the main concern of Jubilee—the ideology of multiculturalism and the challenges of trading cultural uniqueness for social cohesion—is still an ongoing concern in American culture.

Works: Ulysses Kay: Jubilee (397-403)

Sources: Traditional: Rise Up Shepherds an’ Foller (397-99), Goober Peas (401-2), Flee as a Bird to the Mountain (402-3); Verdi: Don Carlo (400-3)

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Ansari, Emily Abrams. “The Benign American Exceptionalism of Copland’s Fanfare for the Common Man.” The Musical Quarterly 103 (Winter 2020): 246-80.

The enduring success of Aaron Copland’s 1942 Fanfare for the Common Man owes in part to the tension it holds between jingoistic and progressive politics that today appeals to a wide array of audiences and politicians. In its conception, Fanfare conveyed a leftist progressive message, celebrating the “common man” based on a speech by Vice President Henry A. Wallace. Until the 1970s, the piece was mostly understood by audiences as dramatic rather than political or patriotic. After Copland conducted Fanfare alongside overtly patriotic pieces at the 1979 National Symphony Orchestra Fourth of July concert, a more “American” meaning was attached to it, largely sidelining its progressive aspects. The use of Fanfare by both the Bush and Obama administrations suggests an association with benign American exceptionalism, tempering patriotic celebrations with a non-specific progressive element. This reconfiguration of the meaning of Fanfare is also evident in the large number of popular works (film and television soundtracks in particular) that utilize the Fanfare trope: trumpets (or horns) playing leaping triads in martial rhythms juxtaposed with loud drums. This trope is distinct from a generalized fanfare by slower tempo, more adventurous harmony, and often a texturally distinct solo trumpet. Rather than evoking overt militarism as a traditional fanfare would, the Fanfare trope is used to evoke benign exceptionalism. Examples of the Fanfare trope feature prominently in the scores to Superman (1978) and The West Wing (1999-2006). Recent works challenging this idea of exceptionalism include HBO’s Veep, the title sequence of which uses the Fanfare trope satirically in its comedic depiction of self-serving politicians, and Netflix’s House of Cards, which offers a cynical take on American politics with a stripped-down Fanfare trope in its title sequence. Given the show’s War on Terror theme, the trumpet in the title sequence of Homeland can also be understood as a fractured Fanfare trope. The Trump Administration’s avoidance of Fanfare and Fanfare tropes along with a trend of Fanfare performances following Biden’s election demonstrates the piece’s continued relevance in American politics.

Works: Anonymous: score to Strong (2011 Rick Perry campaign ad) (247); Aaron Copland: Symphony No. 3 (251); John Williams: score to Superman (263-64); W. G. Snuffy Walden: score to The West Wing (263-64); David Schwartz: score to Veep (264-65); Jeff Beal: score to House of Cards (264-65); Sean Callery: score to Homeland (265-66); Jerry Goldsmith: score to Air Force One (267).

Sources: Aaron Copland: Fanfare for the Common Man (247, 251, 263-67).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Film

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Anson-Cartwright, Mark. "Haydn's Hidden Homage to Mozart: Echoes of 'Voi che sapete' in Opus 64, No. 3." Intégral 14/15 (2000/2001): 121-36.

The development of the first movement of Haydn's String Quartet Op. 64, No. 3 shares several similarities with an extended harmonic pattern in Mozart's "Voi che sapete" from Le Nozze di Figaro. This may reveal that Mozart's arietta is a concealed model. Both the Mozart and Haydn excerpts can be analyzed using an interrupted Schenkerian Urlinie of 3-2 // 3-2-1 that begins on the dominant minor (F minor). A half cadence on C major is reached via an augmented sixth on D-flat, and this is followed by descending motion from C to A-flat major. Although Haydn emphasizes the tonal area of A-flat longer than Mozart, both excerpts move from A-flat to C minor and then cadence in G minor. The tonal complexity in "Voi che sapete" seems more sophisticated than the character singing the arietta (Cherubino), which may indicate that the music is aimed to appeal to musical connoisseurs. This target audience for the arietta, alongside Haydn's documented familiarity with Le Nozze di Figaro, strengthens the possibility that aspects of Mozart's arietta were incorporated into Haydn's quartet.

Works: Haydn: String Quartet in B-flat Major, Op. 64, No. 3.

Sources: Mozart: Le Nozze di Figaro, "Voi che sapete."

Index Classifications: 1700s

Contributed by: Laura B. Dallman

[+] Anthony, John Philip. "The Organ Works of Johann Christian Kittel." 2 vols. Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 1978.

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s

[+] Antonowytsch, Myroslaw. "Das Parodieverfahren in der Missa Mater Patris von Lupus Hellinck." In Renaissance-muziek, 1400-1600, Donum natalicium René Bernard Lenaerts, ed. Jozef Robijns, 33-38. Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit Seminarie voor Muziekwetenschap, 1969.

Index Classifications: 1500s

[+] Antonowytsch, Myroslaw. "Renaissance-Tendenzen in den Fortuna-desperata-Messen von Josquin und Obrecht." Die Musikforschung 9 (1956): 1-26.

Index Classifications: 1400s, 1500s

[+] Antonowytsch, Myroslaw. Die Motette 'Benedicta es' von Josquin des Prez und die Messen 'super Benedicta' von Willaert, Palestrina, de la Hêle und de Monte. Utrecht: Wed. J. R. van Rossum, 1951.

Index Classifications: 1500s

[+] Apelt, Tobias, and Lindsay Kemp. “Joseph Haydn: ‘Erdődy-Quartette’ op. 76/Joseph Haydn, ‘Erdődy’ quartets op. 76.” In Mozartwoche 2017: 26. Jänner-5. Februar—Almanach: Konzerte Mozartwoche, Wissenschaft, Museen, ed. Geneviève Geffray and Marc Minkowski, 215-20. Salzburg: Internationale Stiftung Mozarteum, 2017.

Index Classifications: 1700s

[+] Aplin, John. "Cyclic Techniques in the Earliest Anglican Services." Journal of the American Musicological Society 35 (Fall 1982): 409-35.

The English Prayer Book of 1552 made the traditional five-movement Ordinary cycle a thing of the past, but composers began expanding the possibilities of cyclic groupings by including elements from Matins and Evensong. Sheppard in particular began expanding the use of head motive and end-of-movement material, linking movements thematically and placing the motives at various places in the individual movements. William Mundy, in composing a missing Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis for Robert Parsons' First Service, utilizes motives already found in Parsons.

Works: William Mundy: Magnificat, Nunc Dimittis (427-28).

Sources: Robert Parsons: First Service (421-27).

Index Classifications: 1500s

Contributed by: Felix Cox

[+] Arauco, Ingrid. "Bartók's Romanian Christmas Carols: Changes from the Folk Sources and Their Significance." Journal of Musicology 5 (Spring 1987): 191-225.

Four sources provide the basis for the study of Bartók's folk song arrangements, the Romanian Christmas Carols: (1) the transcriptions from the recordings he made on location; (2) notebook entries of melodies written down on-the-spot; (3) the versions of the carols as given in the preface to Bartók's Romanian Folk Music, vol. 4; and (4) the arrangement. Arauco especially examines changes between sources (2) and (3) and interprets them as a rapprochement to Western art music. Removal of incidental tones and ornaments, repositioning of barlines, and alteration of notes and rhythms clarify the harmonic and motivic phrase structures, which become easier to understand for listeners familiar with the tradition of Western art music and to some extent make up for the loss of the text originally comprising that function. Arauco argues that the change of elements incidental to the essence of the folk song not only adds structural clarity but, as a consequence, also reinforces the "inner emotive power."

Works: Bartók: Romanian Christmas Carols.

Sources: carols collected by Bartók in Transylvania, 1910-14 (193-95).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Arewa, Olufunmilayo B. "Copyright on Catfish Row: Musical Borrowing, Porgy and Bess, and Unfair Use." Rutgers Law Journal 37 (Winter 2006): 277-354.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Arewa, Olufunmilayo B. "From J. C. Bach to Hip Hop: Musical Borrowing, Copyright, and Cultural Context." North Carolina Law Review 84 (January 2006): 547-645.

Current copyright laws do not adequately support the forms of musical borrowing prevalent in hip-hop. The use of pre-existing recordings in hip-hop samples simultaneously violates the protected rights of both the existing musical composition and the recording of that musical composition. Sampling continues to be viewed as theft rather than a source of innovation within music. Aesthetic values prevalent in hip-hop, such as oral tradition, textual emphasis, repetition, polyrhythm, and borrowing, need to be situated in a broader context of musical aesthetics and, consequently, legal treatment of borrowing practices. Treating hip-hop as theft or plagiarism robs it of its rightful place within the historical context of musical borrowing in many different kinds of music. Modifications to current copyright laws, such as payment structures and differentiation of different types of sampling, are necessary to address the legality of hip-hop sampling.

Works: Irving Gordon (songwriter), Natalie Cole (performer): Unforgettable (562); Beastie Boys: Pass the Mic (570-72); N.W.A.: 100 Miles and Runnin' (574-76); Biz Markie: Alone Again (580-81); Handel: Israel in Egypt (601-603, 610).

Sources: James Newton: Choir (570-72); George Clinton (songwriter), Funkadelic (performers): Get off Your Ass and Jam (574-76); Gilbert O'Sullivan: Alone Again (Naturally) (580-81); Dionigi Erba: Magnificat (601-603, 610).

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Arewa, Olufunmilayo B. "The Freedom to Copy: Copyright, Creation, and Context." U. C. Davis Law Review 41 (December 2007): 477-559.

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

[+] Arewa, Olufunmilayo B. “Blues Lives: Promise and Perils of Musical Copyright.” Cardozo Arts & Entertainment Law Journal 27 (2010): 574-619.

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

[+] Armitage, Merle. George Gershwin. New York: Van Rees, 1958.

Like Bartók and Stravinsky, Gershwin was both a discoverer and an inventor (pp. 39-59). Many of his musical sources were African-American and Jewish, and he was inventive in the areas of rhythmic variation, placement of accents, and color. Gershwin observed a large population of Gullah Negroes on Folly Island in order to compose the score of his "folk opera" Porgy and Bess (pp. 149-53). He had great difficulty with the critics for his "vulgar" borrowing from the jazz idiom (pp. 84-121).

Works: Gershwin: Porgy and Bess, Piano Concerto, An American in Paris.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Daniel Bertram

[+] Armstrong, Tom. “One into Three: Context, Method and Motivation in Revising and Reworking Dance Maze for Solo Piano.” Journal of the Royal Musical Association 147 (May 2022): 272-81.

Tom Armstrong’s Dance Maze: Variations for Piano, Duos for Trumpet and Piano, and Solos for Trumpet is a trio of closely related pieces initially composed in 1994 as a solo piano piece and later revised in 2008 and 2017 using techniques described by Tom Johnson in Self-Similar Melodies. The reworked Dance Maze can be performed as a piano and trumpet duo, or the two parts can be detached and played as a piano solo or trumpet solo. In reworking the original Dance Maze for solo piano as Duos for Trumpet and Piano, Armstrong uses the technique of overpainting, in which new material alters the structure of existing material. Subsequent revisions, which Armstrong calls reworkings, are based on Johnson’s Self-Similar techniques, including Infinite Automation (based on the transformation n –> n, n + 1, n + 1^9) and Dragon Curve No. 9 (based on a paper folding fractal). Armstrong’s motivation for reworking Dance Maze was to respond to critiques of the original and to explore open compositional structures.

Works: Tom Armstrong: Dance Maze: Variations for Piano, Duos for Trumpet and Piano, and Solos for Trumpet (272-81)

Sources: Tom Armstrong: Dance Maze for Solo Piano (272-81)

Index Classifications: 2000s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Arnold, Stephen. "The Music of Taverner." Tempo, no. 101 (1972): 20-39.

As a means of facilitating communication with his audience, Peter Maxwell Davies employs parody technique. His works reflect both the OED definition of "a composition in which an author's characteristics are ridiculed by imitation" and the 16th-century definition, in which a chanson or motet was drawn upon for the Mass setting, either by using its theme as a cantus firmus or by subjecting the material to some more elaborate process of modification and fragmentation. An examination of the musico-dramatic structure of Davies's opera Taverner provides examples of both varieties of the technique.

Works: Peter Maxwell Davies: Taverner, St. Thomas Wake (Foxtrot for Orchestra) (21).

Sources: St. Thomas Wake (21), John Taverner: In Nomine (22), Gloria Tibi Trinitas (25), Davies: Second Fantasia on Taverner's 'In Nomine', Victimae Paschali Laudes (plainsong) (29).

Index Classifications:

Contributed by: Amy Weller

[+] Asimov, Peter. “Transcribing Greece, Arranging France: Bourgault-Ducoudray’s Performances of Authenticity and Innovation.” 19th-Century Music 44 (March 2021): 133-68.

Louis-Albert Bourgault-Ducoudray’s promotion of ancient Greek modes as a resource for modern French music is deeply entwined with his commitment to the Aryanist philosophy of Émile Burnouf. In his 1876 collection of Greek folk songs, Trente mélodies populaires de Grèce et d’Orient, Bourgault uses both transcription and arrangement to bolster his position as an authority on ancient music, working under the premise that modern Greek folk songs reflect ancient Greek modal theory. In his arrangements of the transcribed melodies, Bourgault exploits this supposed connection to ancient Greece to give authority to his own harmonic innovations. Bourgault’s 1878 suite Carnaval d’Athènes similarly uses explanatory paratext to give the work authority as a reproduction of authentic Greek folk music despite exhibiting Bourgault’s compositional hand. Later composers use Bourgault’s authority to give their orientalist music a sense of authenticity. For example, Alfred Bruneau’s 1887 opera Kérim borrows extensively from Bourgault’s Greek arrangements to express its oriental (Middle Eastern) setting. Critics of the time found Kérim to be too researched and authentic, suggesting a distinction between oriental musical tropes and Bourgault’s “academic” approach. Camille Saint-Saëns also borrowed from Bourgault’s collection in his 1893 incidental music for Sophocles’s Antigone in order to reproduce an “authentic” ancient Greek chorus. Compared to Bruneau, Saint-Saëns was much more liberal in adapting Bourgault’s folk songs, elaborating on Bourgault’s modal arrangements rather than the melodies themselves, and his Antigone score was well received. After the success of his Greek arrangements, Bourgault began collecting folk songs from his native Brittany, resulting in the 1886 collection Trente melodies populaires de Basse-Bretagne. He was also expanding his belief in the common roots of “Aryan” and “Indo-European” music. Bourgault’s 1887 opera Michel Columb (later titled Bretagne) cites two Breton melodies from this collection and otherwise emulates its modal folk style. Bourgault’s 1891 opera Thamara also uses his understanding of Greek modality and borrows from his Breton collection. In doing so, Bourgault more directly articulate his Aryanist, ethnic nationalist ideology, forging a continuity between ancient Greek and modern French music.

Works: Louis-Albert Bourgault-Ducoudray: Trente mélodies populaires de Grèce et d’Orient (139-44), Carnaval d’Athènes (146-48), Michael Columb / Bretagne (160-63), Thamara (165-67); Alfred Bruneau: Kérim (148-55); Camille Saint-Saëns: Antigone (154-59).

Sources: Louis-Albert Bourgault-Ducoudray: Trente mélodies populaires de Grèce et d’Orient (148-59), Trente mélodies populaires de Basse-Bretagne (160-63, 165-67); Guillaume André Villoteau: Description de l’Égypte (149).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Atkinson, Charles M. "The Earliest Agnus Dei Melody and Its Tropes." Journal of the American Musicological Society 30 (Spring 1977): 1-19.

The oldest known Agnus Dei melody, Melody 226 in Martin Schildbach's Das einstimmige Agnus Dei und seine handschriftliche überlieferung vom 10. bis zum 16. Jahrhundert, appears with additional verses in its earliest sources, raising the question of whether these are tropes or whether all the music was composed at the same time. In the ninth century the function of the Agnus Dei became dissociated from an extended rite of Fraction, and its form became that of threefold repetition. As the Agnus Dei moved into Frankish regions, geographically distinct repertoires of associated verses came to be identified. The interior verses that appear with Melody 226 are more syllabic and differ from the Agnus Dei melody itself with regard to range, tessitura, and ductus, suggesting that the interior verses are in fact tropes.

Index Classifications: Monophony to 1300

Contributed by: Felix Cox

[+] Atlas, Allan W. "Conflicting Attributions in Italian Sources of the Franco-Netherlandish Chanson, c. 1465-c. 1505: A Progress Report on a New Hypothesis." In Music in Medieval and Early Modern Europe: Patronage, Sources and Texts, ed. Iain Fenlon, 249-94. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

An examination of some seventy-six pieces with conflicting attributions suggests that the question of attribution is not one of scribal error but rather a case of compositional revision of the work of one composer by another. Many conflicting attributions involve composers who were associated with one another in some special way, often by having been colleagues at a court or cathedral. In some cases these compositional revisions involve the entire polyphonic fabric, but more often only a single voice is involved, usually the contratenor. Sometimes different attributions are given for similar readings of existing variants; in that case, the variants may be a case of a scribe not knowing which reading to attribute to which composer. Conflicting attributions may help offer clues to lacunae in a composer's biography: Hayne van Ghizeghem and Johannes Japart are composers whose careers may be expanded in this way. Tables give all seventy-six pieces with conflicting attributions plus the twenty-three base sources from which they are drawn.

Works: Johannes Martini/Heinrich Isaac: Des biens (257-58, 278), La Martinella (257, 260, 261-62, 278); Malcourt/Johannes Martini/Johannes Ockeghem: Malheure me bat (257, 259-60, 279); Jacob Obrecht/Virgilius: Nec michi, nec tibi (258, 260, 263, 279); Antoine Busnois/Hayne van Ghizeghem: J'ay bien choisie (260, 264, 278); Antoine Busnois/Heinrich Isaac: Sans avoir (260, 265, 279); Josquin des Prez/Johannes Japart: J'ay bien rise tant (260-61, 265, 278); Alexander Agricola/Loyset Compère: La saison en est (261, 266, 279); Petrus Congiet/Johannes Japart: Je cuide (261, 266, 278); Loyset Compère/Pietrequin Bonnel: Mais que ce fust secretement (261, 267, 279); John Bedingham/Walter Frye: So ys emprentid (268, 281); Gilles Binchois/Walter Frye: Tout a par moy (269,278); Adrien Basin/[illegible]: Madame faites moy (269-71, 281); Barbingant/Johannes Fedé: L'homme banni (269, 271, 272, 281).

Index Classifications: 1400s, 1500s

Contributed by: Felix Cox

[+] Atlas, Allan W. "Heinrich Isaac's Palle, Palle: A New Interpretation." Analecta musicologica 14 (1974): 17-25.

Index Classifications: 1400s, 1500s

[+] Atlas, Allan W. “Belasco and Puccini: Old Dog Tray and the Zuni Indians.” The Musical Quarterly 75 (Fall 1991): 362-98.

The aria “Che faranno i vecchi miei,” sung by the minstrel character Jake Wallace in Act I Puccini’s opera La Fanciulla del West, was long thought to have its source in the Stephen Foster tune Old Dog Tray. In fact, the source for the Puccini aria is Carlos Troyer’s arrangement of the Chorus of Virgin Maidens from the Zuni Indian Festive Sun-Dance. The long-standing misconception of this aria’s source arose primarily because the play on which La Fanciulla is based, David Belasco’s The Girl of the Golden West, includes a line that implores Jake Wallace to sing Old Dog Tray; since then, scholars have assumed a direct source-work connection between the songs in the play and the opera. Not only does the tune Belasco included in the play—an ensemble arrangement written by the music director for the play, William Walter Furst—not match Puccini’s aria in either poetic meter or melody, but Belasco’s tune also differs greatly from the music and lyrics of Foster’s song. A look at Puccini’s sketches and letters solves this puzzle: the composer received a book containing the Festive Sun-Dance from Sybil Seligman in 1907. With the exception of phrase repetition, the melody of the opening period in “Che faranno” matches the Zuni Indian tune exactly.

Works: Puccini: La Fanciulla del West (362-92); William Walter Furst: Old Dog Tray (370-76).

Sources: William Walter Furst: Old Dog Tray (370-76); Stephen Foster: Old Dog Tray (373-77); Carlos Troyer: The Festive Sun-Dance (384-87, 391).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Aubry, Pierre. Recherches sur les "Tenors" latins dans les motets du triezième siècle d'après le manuscrit de Montpellier bibliothèque universitaire H. 196. Paris: Champion, 1907.

Index Classifications: Polyphony to 1300

[+] Audissino, Emilio. “Gottfried Huppertz’s Metropolis: The Acme of ‘Cinema Music.’” In Today’s Sounds for Yesterday’s Films: Making Music for Silent Cinema, edited by K. J. Donnelly and Ann-Kristin Wallengren, 45-63. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.

There is an inherent difference between music of silent films and sound films; the former, sometimes referred to as cinema music, is music performed in the cinema usually experienced as a filler for silence while the latter, sometimes referred to as film music, is music physically placed on the film and experienced with narrative function in mind. However, some silent film scores act as if they could have been composed for this latter, narrative period, such as Gottfried Huppertz’s score for Metropolis (1927), due to its orchestration, use of leitmotivic techniques, and manipulation of musical material.

Due to cuts upon the film’s American release, Huppertz’s original score was heavily edited and mostly forgotten, to the point where the original score was not used in the 1984 remastering of the film by Giorgio Moroder. However, in 2008, the closest version to the original film was rediscovered in an Argentinian archive, along with Huppertz’s sketches and timings. The reconstruction of this earlier, more complete version reveals that the score contained many of the narrative techniques now associated with later film music, mainly the leitmotiv technique. It also includes references to other works: the melodic and harmonic language is rooted in Wagner, Mahler, and Richard Strauss’s style, while the “Machine Theme” echoes similar music by George Antheil and Arthur Honegger. In addition to these stylistic allusions, Huppertz also uses outright quotation, including the Dies irae chant upon the deaths of the workers in the machine room and La Marseillaise when the False Maria leads the mob to destroy the machines. In the process, despite its earlier time period, Huppertz’s score takes on the qualities and ethos of later Hollywood film music.

Works: Gottfried Huppertz: Score to Metropolis (45-57).

Sources: Camille Saint-Saëns: Danse Macabre (51); Anonymous: Dies irae (53); Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle: La Marseillaise (53).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Emily Baumgart

[+] Auh, Mijai Youn. "Piano Variations by Brahms, Liszt and Friedman on a Theme by Paganini." D.M. diss., Indiana University, 1980.

An introduction to Paganini's place in history and his contributions includes background information on the 24th Caprice of Op. 1, an analysis of its theme, and a list of works (p. 28) based on this theme. Auh provides introductions and analyses of Liszt's sixth Grande etude, Brahms's Variations on a Theme by Paganini, Op. 35, and Friedman's Studies on a Theme by Paganini, Op. 46b, and compares the elements of retention and variability of the original theme, variation technique, grouping for performance, and technical musical difficulties. Almost all of the variations assume the basic structure and given harmony of Paganini's theme; thus the variation techniques used are mainly of harmony, rhythm, and character.

Works: Johannes Brahms: Variations on a Theme of Paganini, Op. 35; Ferrucio Busoni: An die Jugend (7); Ignaz Friedman: Studies on a Theme of Paganini, Op. 46b; Franz Liszt: Etudes d'execution transcendente d'après Paganini (7), Grosse Paganini-Etuden; Robert Schumann: Studies after Caprices of Paganini, Op. 3 (7), 6 Concert Etudes after Caprices of Paganini, Op. 10 (7).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Jean Pang

[+] Auner, Joseph H. "Schoenberg's Handel Concerto and the Ruins of Tradition." Journal of the American Musicological Society 49 (Summer 1996): 264-313.

In the early 1930s, Schoenberg transcribed and recomposed compositions of the Baroque era to reaffirm his position in the lineage of German composers during a time when Germany was under the government of the National Socialists. Schoenberg described his Concerto for String Quartet and Orchestra as "freely transcribed" from Handel's Concerto Grosso, Op. 6, No. 7. Its reworking is different from that of Schoenberg's arrangements of Bach and Brahms, as it alters the original much more, using techniques such as reharmonization, the addition of contrapuntal parts, and compressing and expanding the material. Schoenberg reinterprets Handel's music most freely in the third movement. In so doing, he created a duality between the past and the present and contrasted Baroque tonality and compositional techniques with the chromatic/atonal traditions of the twentieth century. Schoenberg also transposed the third movement to a new key, changed the tempo from Andante to Allegro grazioso, and imposed a formal Sonata-Allegro plan onto the material. This work suggests Schoenberg's identity crisis as German and Jewish as well as the larger social and cultural world of the 1930s (specifically 1933), when the work was composed.

Works: Schoenberg: Cello Concerto (264, 285-86), Concerto for String Quartet and Orchestra (265-69, 271, 287-313).

Sources: Georg Matthias Monn: Keyboard Concerto F. 41 (264); Handel: Concerto Grosso, Op. 6, No. 7 (265-66, 287-313).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Geelhoed, Matthew Altizer

[+] Auslander, Philip. "Intellectual Property Meets the Cyborg: Performance and the Cultural Politics of Technology." Performing Arts Journal 14, no. 1 (January 1992): 30-42.

The technology of digital sampling challenges our traditional understanding of authorship, and the resulting ambiguities are reflected in our cultural and political environment. For instance, when the group Frankie Goes to Hollywood sampled Led Zeppelin's drummer John Bonham for their recording of Relax, who was the author? Was it John Bonham (who was deceased at the time)? Was it the sampling software? Donna Haraway, in her "Manifesto for Cyborgs," has argued that high-tech culture problematizes many of the binarisms built into our culture, and such destabilization can be politically useful. One artist who has exploited technology for politically useful ends is Laurie Anderson. In her film Home of the Brave she opens by lecturing the audience through a synthesized "male" voice, blurring the binarism of gender. She also samples the voice of William S. Burroughs, who is also silently present for one scene, playing with the dualism of recording and "liveness." Throughout her film, she goes on to challenge other dualisms such as speaking/singing, self/other, author/reader, and person/machine. Anderson's work provides a glimpse of the effect that technology can have on politics and culture.

Works: Frankie Goes to Hollywood (Peter Gill, Holly Johnson, Brian Nash, Mark O'Toole): Relax (31); Bobby Freeman (songwriter), Ula Hedwig (performer): Do You Wanna Dance (33); Bobby Freeman (songwriter), Bette Midler (performer): Do You Wanna Dance (33); Laurie Anderson: Home of the Brave (37-41).

Sources: Bobby Freeman (songwriter), Bette Midler (performer): Do You Wanna Dance (33); Bobbie Freeman (songwriter and performer): Do You Want to Dance (33).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Kerry O'Brien

[+] Austern, Linda Phyllis. "Musical Parody in the Jacobean City Comedy." Music and Letters 66 (October 1985): 355-66.

The early seventeenth century witnessed the rise of the English dramatic genre known as city comedy or citizen comedy, a play characterized by a contemporary London setting, recognizable character types from the social milieux between manual laborers and prosperous merchants, colloquial diction, and predominantly satirical tone. Another marked feature, overlooked by musicologists until recently, is its realistic use of contemporary English music, thus providing a unique documentation of the varied musical practices and beliefs of contemporary London. It must also be considered the first English dramatic genre to make regular use of musical parody, over a century before the ballad opera emerged. The music in these plays is a mixture of original compositions, popular existing songs, and their parodies, all of which help to show the city and its people in many moods. Songs selected for parody were drawn from the contents of published books of songs and ayres, from the popular ballad repertory, and from other plays. All songs were sung as unaccompanied monodies, regardless of the texture of the original. Musical parody in the city comedies can be divided into three distinct types, in which respectively (1) a song text is altered to fit the specific circumstances under which it is to be sung on stage; (2) the circumstances surrounding the origin of the song are imitated (often through the treatment of a broadside ballad); and (3) a song or musical scenario from another play is imitated as part of a reference to, or a parody of, that other drama.

Works: Thomas Dekker and John Webster: Northward Ho (358-59), George Chapman, Ben Johnson and John Marston: Eastward Ho (360-65).

Sources: Robert Jones: "My thought the other night," Second Booke of Songs and Ayres (358-59), "A Sorowfull Sonet made by M. George Mannington, at Cambridge Castle. To the tune of Labandala Shot," A Handefull of Pleasant Delites (360-61).

Index Classifications: 1600s

Contributed by: Mirna Polzovic

[+] Austin, William W. "Debussy, Wagner, and Some Others." 19th-Century Music 6 (Summer 1982): 82-91.

In Debussy and Wagner (1979), Robin Holloway seeks out those passages in Debussy which recall or which can be viewed as quotations of passages in Wagner. Some of the cases seem forced. Some compositions by Holloway himself include references to the music of Debussy and Wagner and others.

Works: Debussy: Pelléas et Mélisande (83), "Golliwog's Cake-Walk," from Children's Corner (83), La Damoiselle élue (84), Le Martyre de Saint Sébastien (84), Jeux (84-85,88); Holloway: Clarissa (88-90), Scenes from Schumann: Seven Paraphrases for Orchestra (90), Romanza (90-91).

Sources: Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (83-84), Parsifal (84, 88-90); Debussy: Jeux (88-90); Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 in C minor (90-91); Bach: D major fugue from the Well-Tempered Clavier, Book Two (91).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

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