Musical Borrowing
An Annotated Bibliography

Individual record

[+] Boyd, George R. "The Development of Paraphrase Technique in the Fifteenth Century." Indiana Theory Review 9 (1988): 23-62.

Development of paraphrase technique in the fifteenth century may be traced through four stages: (1) the cantus firmus migrates successively through several voices; (2) the cantus firmus is subjected to melodic variation but remains in one voice; (3) introductory duos and trios anticipate the arrival of the cantus firmus (which remains in only one voice part); (4) points of imitation based on the cantus firmus open major sections of a piece, which continue in a non-imitative manner. Imitation as a structural device occurred first in secular works before moving to the sacred realm. The syntactic-imitative style reached its fruition in Italy, where humanism and its emphasis on the imitatio were helping to move music from the field of science to the field of humanities.

Works: Bittering: Nesciens mater (27-28); Pycard: Sanctus (28-30); Guillaume Dufay: Alma redemptoris mater (31-32), Vostre bruit (34-35), Anima mea liquefacta est (36, 38-40); Gilles Binchois (36): Ave regina coelorum (36-37); Johannes Regis: O admirabile commercium (40-42); Johannes Ockeghem: Missa Au travail suis (42-43); Jacob Obrecht: Missa Je ne demande (43-44); Salve regina (43-44); Anonymous: Kyrie fons bonitatis (44-47); Johannes Martini: Missa ferialis (48-52), Missa dominicalis (52-57) Josquin des Prez: Missa de Beata Virgine (57-59).

Sources: Antiphon: Nesciens mater (27-28); Sanctus with Marian trope [Sarum] (28-30); Chant: Alma redemptoris mater (31-32), Ave regina coelorum (36-37), Anima mea liquefacta est (36, 38-40), Kyrie fons bonitatis (44-47), Mass XVIII for the Ferias of Advent and Lent (48-52), Mass XI (52-56), Mass IX (57-58), Mass IV (57-58); Introit: Puer natus (41-42); Barbingant: Au travail suis (42-43); Loyset Compère: Au travail suis (42-43).

Index Classifications: 1400s

Contributed by: Felix Cox

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