Musical Borrowing
An Annotated Bibliography

Individual record

[+] Washburne, Christopher. "The Clave of Jazz: A Caribbean Contribution to the Rhythmic Foundation of an African-American Music." Black Music Research Journal 17, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 57-80.

Scholarship consistently claims African rhythms as the origin of rhythm in early jazz. However, many of the rhythmic cells found in jazz bear more resemblance to Caribbean styles, specifically the son clave,tresillo, and cinquillo found in Cuban music. The Cuban and Haitian immigrants brought their music with them to New Orleans. Many Creole musicians and marching bands borrowed these Caribbean dance rhythms and sounds as a rhythmic foundation for their own music because of their connection with dance. These rhythms then moved into the music of the early jazz pioneers in the rhythmic breaks that occurred in many pieces. The use of these Afro-Cuban rhythms slowly declined as jazz moved away from its dance beginnings. However, these rhythms are continually borrowed in jazz as an homage to past jazz styles and composers.

Works: Da Costa/Edwards/La Rocca/Ragas/Shields/Sbarbaro: Tiger Rag as performed by Louis Armstrong (69-71); Gillespie/Lewis: Two Bass Hit as performed by Miles Davis (71); Barefield/Moten: Toby (71-72); Ellington/Mills/Nemo: Skrontch (71-72); Monk: Rhythm-a-ning (72-73); Clarke/Gillespie: Salt Peanuts (73); Simons/Marks: All of Me (73); Richard M. Jones: Jazzin' Babies Blues as performed by King Oliver (74-75); Caesar/Kahn/Meyer: Crazy Rhythm as performed by Miff Mole (74-75); Barbarin/Russell: Come Back Sweet Papa as performed by Louis Armstrong (75-76).

Sources: Traditional: Son clave,Tresillo, and Cinquillo (57-80).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Altizer

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