Musical Borrowing
An Annotated Bibliography

Individual record

[+] Dickinson, Peter. “Style-modulation: An Approach to Stylistic Pluralism.” The Musical Times 130 (April 1989): 208-11.

Traditionally, modulation is associated with either key or with metric procedures; however, this term can be expanded to incorporate style. “Style-modulation” occurs when different musical styles within a single work are employed in as controlled a way as any other compositional element. Often popular music, especially genres derived from African-American traditions, incorporate style-modulations. Style-modulation is not necessarily brought about by musical quotations, but often has a direct relationship to them. If a quotation is recognizable and departs from established continuity, it may be an example of a style-modulation, such as the Bach chorale in Berg’s Violin Concerto or Chopin’s Funeral March in Satie’s Embryons Desséchés. A work with many quotations, such as Luciano Berio’s Sinfonia, is not necessarily an example of a style modulation, however, as the quotations do not break from the work’s overall continuity. In twentieth-century works in particular, the moment of style-modulation often creates a force of an epiphany. Charles Ives is a good example of a composer whose music includes style-modulations, especially in pieces such as the Concord Sonata,Country Band March, and the Fourth Symphony.

Works: Ives: Piano Sonata No. 2 (Concord, Mass., 1840-60) (208), Symphony No. 4 (208); Berg: Violin Concerto (210); Satie: Embryons Desséchés (210); Luciano Berio: Sinfonia (210-11).

Sources: Simeon B. Marsh: Martyn (208); Ives: Country Band March (208), String Quartet No. 1 (208).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Chelsea Hamm

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