Musical Borrowing
An Annotated Bibliography

Individual record

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. "'Quotation' and Emulation: Charles Ives's Uses of His Models." The Musical Quarterly 71, no. 1 ([Winter] 1985): 1-26.

It has long been known that Charles Ives borrows from other composers and from himself. These borrowings have generally been labeled quotations. However, quotation is not the only technique Ives uses when he is alluding to other pieces. Others include modeling (emulation), paraphrasing, cumulative setting, and quodlibet. The emphasis of this article is on Ives's use of models since this has not yet been discussed. If a composer models his piece on another, he borrows the structure or reworks musical material to build the framework of the composition. The use of models is the most important factor to consider in tracing the compositional process. Motivic borrowings are only the most visible part of a deeper dependence on the sources, allusions that lead us to the pieces on which Ives modeled his compositions.

Works: Ives: Holiday Quickstep, Slow March, Turn Ye, Turn Ye, Waltz, Study No. 20 for Piano, The One Way, Charlie Rutlage, Serenity, On the Counter, The Celestial Country, West London.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

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