Musical Borrowing
An Annotated Bibliography

Individual record

[+] Burstein, L. Poundie. "Surprising Returns: The VII# in Beethoven's Op. 18 No. 3, and Its Antecedents in Haydn." Music Analysis 17 (October 1998): 295-312.

Analysis of the first movement of Beethoven's String Quartet in D major Op. 18, No. 3 (1798-1800) reveals an intriguing use of a VII# chord at the end of the development and its interaction with, and impact on, other passages in this and in the third movement. Haydn also utilized VII# or a VII#-V progression at the end of developments in more than a dozen sonata-form and sonata-rondo-form movements, including his Piano Trio No. 16 in D major. Haydn's relatively prominent use of VII#, notably in movements in D major, anticipated and influenced Beethoven's Op. 18, No. 3. Both Haydn's and Beethoven's exploitation of that device serves dramatic purposes at similar locations in the piece and exploits related chromatic motives.

Works: Beethoven: String Quartet in D Major, Op. 18, No. 3 (295-301, 308-10).

Sources: Haydn: Symphony No. 66 in B flat Major (302), String Quartet in G Major, Op. 54, No. 1 (303), String Quartet in C Major, Op. 33, No. 1 (303), Piano Sonata in E flat Major, Hob. XVI:25 (303), Symphony No. 104 in D Major (303), Piano Trio in F Major, Hob. XV:6 (304), String Quartet in D Major, Op. 20, No. 4 (304), Symphony No. 93 in D Major, (305, 306), Piano Trio in E Minor, Hob. XV:12 (305, 307), Trio for Piano, Flute (or Violin) and Strings in D Major, Hob. XV:16 (307-9).

Index Classifications: 1700s

Contributed by: Tamara Balter

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