Musical Borrowing
An Annotated Bibliography

Individual record

[+] Butterfield, Ardis. "Repetition and Variation in the Thirteenth-Century Refrain." Journal of the Royal Musical Association 116 (Winter 1991): 1-23.

Refrains are elements which repeat not just within a particular piece, but also from work to work. This includes repeating between different genres, and sometimes appearing in different contexts. The persistent question that has long perplexed scholars is how exact a repetition of a refrain needs to be before it can be considered a refrain. Varying meters, rhythms, and melodies sometimes obscure an appearance of a refrain in a specific work, as in Adam de la Halle's Rondeau 72. In this work as in many others, in order to consider a specific passage a repetition of a specific refrain, precise similarities of both verbal and musical patterns must be present.

Works: Adam de la Halle: Rondeau 72 (5-7, 13-17); Motet: Que ferai, biaus sire Dieus?/Ne puet faillir a honour/Descendentibus (5-7), Ne sai ou confort trover/Que por moi reconforter/Et spera bit (5-7); Jacquemart Giélée: Renart le nouvel (5-7, 13-17); Tibaut: Le roman de la poire (5-7, 21).

Sources: Refrain: Hareu, li maus d'amer m'ochist! (5-17).

Index Classifications: Polyphony to 1300

Contributed by: Rebecca Dowsley

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