Musical Borrowing
An Annotated Bibliography

Individual record

[+] Carr, Cassandra I. "Charles Ives's Humor as Reflected in His Songs." American Music 7 (Summer 1989): 123-39.

Although Ives's writings discuss concepts of sardonic wit in composition, his songs reveal a wide range of expression of humor, which became more complex over the course of his career. His humorous compositions can be categorized into at least four categories: parody, whimsical reminiscence, philosophical humor, and exaggerated insignificance. Ives's techniques of humor often do not rely on musical borrowing, but rather from outlandish performance directions, general stylistic allusions, or incongruous juxtapositions of styles. Nonetheless, musical borrowing can contribute to the humor.

Works: Ives: The Side Show (125, 129-31).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Virginia Whealton

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