Musical Borrowing
An Annotated Bibliography

Individual record

[+] Derr, Ellwood. "Mozart's Transfer of the Vocal 'fermata sospesa' to his Piano-Concerto First Movements." Mozart-Jahrbuch 1 (1991): 155-63.

In nine of his piano concertos, K. 271, 413 (387a), 415 (387b), 450, 466, 467, 482, 491, and 503, Mozart used the vocal device "fermata sospesa" for the piano entrance after the first ritornello. Mozart was acquainted with this device in 1768 through J. C. Bach's aria "Cara, la dolce fiamma" in the opera Adriano in Siria, as well as various treatises of Agricola, Tosi, and C. P. E. Bach. Evidences show that before 1777, Mozart had written different elaborations on the opening "fermata sospesa" of J. C. Bach's aria as exercises. Examining the details of the "fermata sospesa" in these nine concertos illuminates the process of evolution in the usage of this device and the deviations from its vocal practice. These deviations and this development involve matters of length, harmonic design, treatment of the orchestra, and the recurrence of thematic elements from the "fermata sospesa" at other places in the piece. Mozart's "fermata sospesa" in K. 413, 415, 450 and 466 involve borrowing of musical materials from C. P. E. Bach and J. C. Bach; K. 467, 482 and 503 involve self-borrowing from his other piano concertos.

Works: Mozart: Piano Concerto No. 9 in E-flat Major, K. 271 (157-58, 160), Piano Concerto No. 11 in F Major, K. 413 (157-59, 160), Piano Concerto No. 13 in C Major, K. 415 (158-59, 160), Piano Concerto No. 15 in B-flat Major, K. 450 (157-58, 160), Piano Concerto No. 20 in D Minor, K. 466 (158-59, 160), Piano Concerto No. 21 in C Major, K. 467 (158, 161), Piano Concerto No. 22 in E flat Major, K. 482 (159, 161), Piano Concerto No. 24 in C Minor, K. 491 (158-59, 161), Piano Concerto No. 25 in C Major, K. 503 (159-61).

Sources: C. P. E. Bach: Trio in B-flat Major, H. 584/ii (160); J. C. Bach: Keyboard Concerto in C Major, Op. 1 No. 5/i (160), "Cara, la dolce fiamma" from Adriano in Siria (160), Keyboard Concerto in D Major, Op. 13 No. 2/iii (161); Mozart: Piano Concerto No. 22 in E-flat Major, K. 482/i (161), Piano Concerto No. 16 in D Major, K. 451/i (161).

Index Classifications: 1700s

Contributed by: Tong Cheng Blackburn

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