Musical Borrowing
An Annotated Bibliography

Individual record

[+] Gabbard, Krin. "The Quoter and His Culture." In Jazz in Mind: Essays on the History and Meanings of Jazz, ed. Reginald T. Bruckner and Steven Weiland, 92-111. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1991.

Jazz today can be considered part of the avant garde movement of the early twentieth century. One of the common characteristics of the avant garde is pastiche, a characteristic jazz shares, particularly in improvisatory virtuosic solos. The purpose of such pastiche is to call into question the distinction between high and low art. Soloists such as James Moody, Lester Young, and Louis Armstrong regularly quoted other works from both the classical tradition and the popular tradition. Juxtaposing a jazz melody with a quotation from the classical tradition provides irony for the listener, who will understand at least that the quotation comes from an entirely different genre of music. A list of several examples is included.

Works: James Moody, Body and Soul (92, 104); Louis Armstrong, Ain't Misbehavin' (93); more in footnotes.

Sources: Percy Grainger, Country Garden; George Gershwin, Rhapsody in Blue.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa

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