Musical Borrowing
An Annotated Bibliography

Individual record

[+] Goldschmidt, Harry. "Zitat oder Parodie?" Beiträge zur Musikwissenschaft 12 (1970): 171-98.

Quotation in music is often considered without exploring the context of the quoted material. Many of Beethoven's overtures follow the model of the French overture, which requires one or more quotations from the stage music. Material which is recognizably from another piece but is altered in some way is placed in the category of "adaptation," which is defined as the removal of a piece of music from its original context and conforming it to a new environment and function. This may require a new context (transcription); transposition and new instrumentation (such as placing material from a piano sonata into a chamber music piece); or new words, this last condition being termed "parody." Parody is discussed extensively with the relationships between the Joseph cantata, Leonore, and Fidelio, and between the Choral Fantasy and the Ninth Symphony. A more exhaustive investigation is necessary to determine the true extent of Beethoven's creative methods in terms of quotation, adaptation, and parody.

Works: Beethoven: Overture to Zur Weihe des Hauses, Op. 124 (172-74), Overture to Die Ruinen von Athen, Op. 113 (172-73, 175, 183-84), Overture to König Stephan, Op. 117 (172-73), Overture and drafts to Leonore (171, 187-89), Fidelio (171-72, 187-89), Overture to Egmont, Op. 84 (174), Overture to Die Geschöpfe des Prometheus, Op. 43 (171, 174-75), Piano Sonata in F Minor, Op. 2, No. 1 (175), Piano Sonata in C Major, Op. 2, No. 3 (175), Septet in E-flat Major, Op. 20 (175), Piano Variations, Op. 35 (176), String Quartet in C Minor, Op. 18, No. 4 (177-78), String Quartet in F Major, Op. 18, No. 1 (178), Missa solemnis (179-80), Grosse Fuge, Op. 133 (181), String Quartet in F Major, Op. 59, No. 1 (182), Sring Quartet in E Minor, Op. 59, No. 2 (182), Diabelli Variations (182-83), Blümchen der Einsamkeit, Op. 52, No. 4 "Maigesang") (184, 186), Chorfantasie, Op. 80 (189-95), Symphony No. 9 in D Minor, Op. 125 (172, 194-95), Lied aus der Ferne, WoO 137 (186), Symphony No. 8 in F Major, Op. 93 (176).

Index Classifications: 1800s

Contributed by: Nikola D. Strader

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