Musical Borrowing
An Annotated Bibliography

Individual record

[+] Baillie, Hugh. "Squares." Acta Musicologica 32 (January/March 1960): 178-93.

A collection of Kyrie tenors called "Squares" existed in English sources at least by 1496 and had a strong rhythmic and melodic character. These tenors were used as cantus firmi in polyphonic Kyries, and their use called for a special technique. Three masses "upon the Square" make extensive use of a three-part texture rather than two- or four-part writing. The cantus firmus likewise does not appear in any one part but migrates and is frequently elaborated upon. Because the borrowed material is usually the lowest in register, frequent voice crossings are also prevalent. In addition to Kyrie "squares," there are other manuscript sources that provide "squares" for the rest of the mass movements. In these cases, the Kyrie movement uses a Kyrie "square," the Gloria movement uses the Gloria "square," and so on. However, Ludford's Lady Masses are an exception, since they are built on the Kyrie "square" throughout.

Works: William Mundy: Mass I Upon the Square (179, 181-82), Mass II Upon the Square (179, 181-82); William Whitbroke: Mass Upon the Square (178, 181-82); Ludford: Lady Masses (185-186), Missa feria iiij (186).

Index Classifications: 1400s, 1500s

Contributed by: Mary Ellen Ryan

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Musical Borrowing and Reworking - - 2024
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