Musical Borrowing
An Annotated Bibliography

Individual record

[+] Griffiths, Paul. "Quotation-->Integration." In Modern Music: The Avant-Garde Since 1945, 188-222. New York: George Braziller, 1981.

The move from quotation to integration can be summarized under four headings: (1) Out of the Past, (2) Out of the East, (3) Collage, and (4) Integration. The music of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was too close to composers' own time to be approached without an ironic detachment, so the much more distant past can be used without being labeled conservative. Plainsong melodies and twentieth-century techniques of variation are used by Peter Maxwell Davies to create un-fifteenth-century sounding melodies. For example, his opera Taverner uses the sequence Victimae paschali laudes, which is parodied and used as a symbol of the Resurrection. Davies uses plainsong to question his own music and methods and those of his contemporaries, in an attempt to convince himself of his work's genuineness. The East has exerted a marked influence on composers since 1950, including Messiaen, Cage, Reich, and LaMonte Young. The percussion-based ensembles in works by Boulez and Stockhausen have exotic Eastern resonances, but this influence has been seen less in works by Eastern composers themselves. Takemitsu, for example, seems to be more inspired by Debussy, Boulez, and Feldman than any particular Eastern orientation. Collages have been composed in order to test the present against the past, and vice versa, and to improve audience contact by providing a familiar subject. Cage's works of the 1960s, such as Williams Mix, Fontana Mix, Variations IV, and HPSCHD, were attempts to bring together real-world sounds and composed music (both live and on tape), often including much multi-media apparatus. Bernd Alois Zimmermann, however, often brings together musical worlds with the intent of setting the quoted material in relief, in direct contrast to the methods of Cage, whether it comes from Bach, Prokofiev, or Berg. Integration is similar in style to collage, but the two differ greatly in intent. In integration, the original material is suppressed in order to serve the new work, as is the case in the third movement of Berio's Sinfonia. The assembly of so many quotations is accomplished so well that the work may well be considered a new creation. Again unlike Cage, the work is an organized picture of disorder, rather than disorder itself. Stockhausen's Hymnen is also an integration, this time of national anthems. Recordings of various anthems are intermodulated within each other, setting up juxtapositions of the anthems. Hymnen sets up a stream of electronic sound around, between, and through the presentation of the anthems, seemingly drifting from one region to another.

Works: Messiaen: Couleurs de la cité céleste (190-91), La Transfiguration de Notre Seigneur Jésus-Christ (191, 196); Peter Maxwell Davies: Taverner (190, 192), Alma redemptoris mater (191), String Quartet (191), Blind Man's Buff (192), St. Thomas Wake (192), First Fantasia on an In nomine of John Taverner (192), Second Fantasia on an In nomine of John Taverner (192-93), Worldes Blis (192-93), Ave maris stella (193), Prolation (193), St. Michael Sonata (193), Symphony (193), A Mirror of Whitening Light (193-5); Jean-Claude Eloy: Equivalences (197), Faisceaux-diffractions (197), Kamakala (197), Shanti (197); Henze: L'autunno (197); Tristan (197); Stockhausen: Telemusik (199-200, 206-7, 210, 213); Cage: Credo in Us (200), Variations V (200-201), Fontana Mix (200), Theatre Piece (201), Variations IV (201); Cage and Lejaren Hiller: HPSCHD (201); Eric Salzman: The Nude Paper Sermon (201); Crumb: Ancient Voices of Children (202), Night of the Four Moons (202); Bernd Alois Zimmermann: Die Soldaten (202), Antiphonen (202), Nobody knows the trouble I see (202), Présence (202), Musique pour les soupers du Roi Ubu (202-3), Photopsis (203), Monologe (203-5); Michael Tippett: Symphony No. 3 (203); Shostakovich: Symphony No. 15 in A Major (203); Mauricio Kagel: Ludwig van (203), Variationen ohne Fuge (203-8); Stockhausen: Kurzwellen (206), Opus 1970 (206-7); André Boucourechliev: Ombres (206, 220); Berio: Sinfonia (207-9, 219-20); Stockhausen: Hymnen (210-13); Henri Pousseur: Echos de Votre Faust (213), Jeu de miroirs de Votre Faust (213), Votre Faust (213), Miroir de Votre Faust (213-14), Couleurs croisées (214), Les ephemeredes d'Icare (214), Mnemosyne II (214), Racine (214), Répons (214), Invitation à l'utopie (214), Icare apprenti (214), Die Eprobrung des Petrus Hébraïcus (214-15), Stravinsky au future (215), L'effacement du Prince Igor (215, 217); Peter Schat: Canto general (216, 218), To you (216); George Rochberg: Blake Songs (219), Contra mortem et tempus (219), Music for the Magic Theater (219), String Quartet No. 1 (219), String Quartet No. 2 (219), String Quartet No. 3 (219), Symphony No. 2 (219), Symphony No. 3 (219), Violin Concerto (219).

Sources: Machaut: Messe de Notre Dame (189); Plainchant: Victimae paschali laudes (190); Monteverdi: Vespers (191); Plainchant: Dies irae (193); Berg: Wozzeck (202); Beethoven: Symphony No. 9 in D Minor (203); Mahler: Symphony No. 2 in C Minor (208), Symphony No. 4 in G Major (208); Henri Pousseur: Votre Faust (213); Stravinsky: Agon (215-16); Webern: Variations, Op. 27 (216).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Geelhoed

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