Musical Borrowing
An Annotated Bibliography

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[+] [Unsigned]. "Larry Adler to Unveil Gershwin String Quartet at Edinburgh Festival." Variety 231 (5 June 1963): 43.

Gershwin's Lullably, for string quartet, premiered at the 1963 festival, is an early work whose primary material was later re-used by Gershwin for part of the score for the Scandals of 1922.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: John Andrew Johnson

[+] [Unsigned]. "New Gershwin Tunes Featured in Movie." Down Beat 31 (23 April 1964): 14-15.

Billy Wilder's 1964 film Kiss Me Stupid re-used some Gershwin songs used previously (during the composer's lifetime) and introduced some new ones (posthumously). The new songs were released to the public for the first time from the composer's musical notebooks.

Works: Gershwin: 'S Wonderful,I'm a Poached Egg,All the Livelong Day,Sophia.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz, Film

Contributed by: John Andrew Johnson

[+] [Unsigned]. “Jazz Has Got Copyright Law and That Ain't Good.” Harvard Law Review 118, no. 6 (2005): 1940-61.

Current copyright law discourages the vital reinterpretation of existing music that defines jazz aesthetics. It privileges the composer of a borrowed work as the sole owner, regardless of the meaningful and original transformations a new musician may bring to or derive from an existing chord progression or tune. Within the framework of current copyright law, the kind of borrowing, referencing, and reworking of existing music that characterizes the evolution of jazz is considered unoriginal and thus not up to the standards required to adhere to the law. Revisitation is essential to jazz, ranging from oblique reference to the arrangement and performance of standard songs. Therefore, a narrower definition of what is legally “derivative” must be introduced into copyright law, in order to protect and valuate the highly original contributions of jazz musicians who generate new works and interpolations from existing music. Given the musical originality of many such interpolations, copyright law should consider these to be transformative, and thus not only protected under fair use analysis but also privileged as original compositions, protected under the law. Moving forward, similar considerations may be applied to digital music compilation, since the ability to transform sources and create collages generates new modes of meaning in a similar way to jazz.

Works: John Coltrane (performer): Summertime (1944); Art Tatum (arranger and performer): Cherokee (1946); Live Crew: Oh, Pretty Woman (1951); Miles Davis (arranger and performer): Love for Sale (1951-53); Keith Jarrett (performer): I Got It Bad and That Ain’t Good (1959).

Sources: George Gershwin and Ira Gershwin: “Summertime” from Porgy and Bess (1944), I Got Rhythm (1948-49); Ray Noble: Cherokee (1946); Vincent Youmans and Irving Caesar: Tea for Two (1948); Joseph Kosma and Jacques Prévert: Autumn Leaves (1948); Roy Orbison: Oh, Pretty Woman (1951); Cole Porter: Love for Sale (1951-52); Duke Ellington and Paul Francis Webster: I Got It Bad and That Ain’t Good (1959).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Molly Covington

[+] Abbate, Carolyn. "Wagner, Cinema, and Redemptive Glee." The Opera Quarterly 21 (Autumn 2006): 597-611.

The epiphanic moment in which a listener realizes that musical borrowing has taken place concerns not only the relation between two texts but also performance. For instance, in the 1939 film The Thief of Baghdad there is a brief allusion to a passage from the overture to Wagner's Der fliegende Holländer. When one recognizes such borrowing, it is dependent on a "polysemic mélange" that works together to make such recognition possible. For instance, beyond the musical resemblances, the film and the opera share a number of images, such as a ship and blood-red sails. Also, in both film and opera it seems as if music animates objects. An individual's particular viewing experience can also contribute to the experience, such as when a movie theater and an opera hall share similar acoustics. Such ludic details of performance are often overlooked but are an inseparable part of such epiphanic moments.

Works: Miklós Rózsa: Score to The Thief of Baghdad (597-609).

Sources: Richard Wagner: Der fliegende Holländer (597-609).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: John F. Anderies

[+] Abbey, Eric James, and Colin Helb, eds. Hardcore, Punk, and Other Junk: Aggressive Sounds in Contemporary Music. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2014.

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

[+] Adams, Stephen. R. Murray Schafer. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1983.

In this treatment of the life and work of Schafer, several examples of borrowing are discussed. Son of Heldenleben (1968) is based on Strauss's Ein Heldenleben, and it demonstrates Schafer's ambivalence toward the Romantic era. Strauss's first theme serves as a cantus firmus in extreme augmentation for most of the piece, and other borrowed themes are presented in a rush at the end of the work. Written for orchestra and tape, Schafer's piece praises and belittles Strauss simultaneously, a conflict which is audible. Besides the direct quotations, two tone rows are derived from Strauss. Adieu, Robert Schumann (1976) is an example of collage, as it uses quotations from several of Schumann's works, including Kreisleriana and Carnaval. Written for a contralto, who plays the role of Clara Schumann, and orchestra, the work takes place in the last days before Schumann's death in a mental institution. It exemplifies Schafer's ability to blend old and new styles to create something distinctly his own.

Works: Schafer: Son of Heldenleben (110-17), Adieu, Robert Schumann (158-60).

Sources: Richard Strauss: Ein Heldenleben, Robert Schumann: Kreisleriana, Carnaval.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Jessica Sternfeld

[+] Adler, Eliyana R. “No Raisins, No Almonds: Singing as Spiritual Resistance to the Holocaust.” Shofar: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies 24 (2006): 50-66.

For several Yiddish-speaking Jews, music served as a vehicle for spiritual resistance during the Holocaust. Writers often composed new lyrics to pre-existing tunes from popular songs and folksongs, and the music chosen was often both easily identifiable and significant to the writer. Through adapting older, well known songs, the writers were able to express subtle messages and meanings to their listeners. Broadly speaking, songs could be adapted in three ways: reuse, rewriting, and response. Reusing older melodies allowed concentration camp inmates to create a song that reflected their reality while also observing their Jewish heritage. Rewriting, or adding new lyrics to existing tunes, drew on the listeners’ familiarity with both the original tune and the original words to create symbolic meanings. Finally, songs in the response category would make references to original song texts, but not the original tunes, creating a deliberate contrast between the new song and the source.

Works: Anonymous: Ani Ma’amin (55, 57); Anonymous: Zog Nitkeyn Mol (57); Anonymous: Tsen Brider (57-58); Rilke Glezer: Papirosn (62); Yankele Hershkowitz: Papirosn (62); Sh. Sheinkinder: Papirosn (63); Yankele Hershkowitz: Nishtu Keyn Przydziel (62-63); Shimshon Fersht: Unter di Grininke Beymelekh (64); David Beyglman: Nit kayn Rozhinkes, nit kayn Mandlen (64).

Sources: Abraham Goldfaden: Rozhinkes mit Mandlen (54, 60-61, 64); Ani Ma’amin (57); Mordecai Gebirtig: Es Brent (56, 57); Anonymous: Tsen Brider (57-58); Abraham Goldfaden: Shulamis (58-59); Herman Yablokoff: Papirosn (61-62); A. M. Bernstein: Tsum Hemerl (58-59).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Cynthia Dretel, Matthew G. Leone

[+] Adrio, Adam. "Die Weisen der böhmischen Brüder im Werk Ernst Peppings." In Musicae Scientiae Collectanea: Festschrift Gustav Fellerer zum siebzigsten Geburtstag am 7. Juli 1972, ed. Heinrich Hüschen, 23-34. Köln: Arno-Volk-Verlag, 1973.

Cantus firmus is treated differently in several a cappella works by Ernst Pepping. All the pieces selected borrow from the sacred songs of the Bohemian Brothers.

Works: Works: Pepping: Deutsche Choralmesse für sechsstimmigen Chor (23), Spandauer Chorbuch (23), Liedmotetten nach Weisen der Böhmischen Brüder für Chor a capella (24ff.), Gesänge der Böhmischen Brüder in Variationen für Chor a cappella (31).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Albrecht, J. "Das Variations- und Imitations-Prinzip in der Tektonik von Bartóks Bratschenkonzert." Studia Musicologica 14, no. 1-4 (1972): 317-27.

Works: Bartók: Viola Concerto

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Alexander, Michael J. The Evolving Keyboard Style of Charles Ives. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Keele, 1984. Reprinted verbatim, New York and London: Garland, 1989.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Alfeld, Anna Poulin. "Unsung Songs: Self-Borrowing in Amy Beach's Instrumental Compositions." M.M. thesis, University of Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music, 2008.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Allsup, Randall Everett. “Sequoias, Mavericks, Open Doors... Composing Joan Tower.” Philosophy of Music Education Review 19, no. 1 (Spring 2011): 24-36.

Joan Tower demonstrates how a composer can remake traditions to carve out a space for her own voice. Tower comes out of the Western art music tradition with Beethoven as her strongest influence. “I couldn’t get [Beethoven] out of my head!” she says, “So I decided to invite him in.” Tower wrestles with Beethoven and allows him to become part of her music rather than an outside antagonist. Beethoven’s most obvious influence on Tower’s wider musical output is the technique of small motivic units organically developing, which can be seen in Tower’s Sequoia for orchestra. Tower claims Beethoven as part of her musical inheritance, but instead of feeling burdened by tradition, she uses it as the impetus for new ideas that are completely her own. Creativity in the arts does not happen in a vacuum free from tradition and cultural influences, but rather it takes place in dialogue with the past and future. In other words, a creative individual recognizes her inheritance and the tradition of which she is a member and makes something new out of older materials.

Works: Joan Tower: Sequoia (26-27, 30-31, 35).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s

Contributed by: Sarah Kirkman

[+] Altmann, Peter. Sinfonia von Luciano Berio: Eine analytische Studie. Vienna: Universal Edition, 1977.

In the third movement of his Sinfonia, Berio uses collage on three levels. (1) The Scherzo ("Des Antonius von Padua Fischpredigt") from Mahler's Second Symphony, of which the proportions remain essentially the same, makes up the structural basis. The addition stresses the proportional importance of the fateful number eleven standing for imperfection, which in turn is related to the meaning of Mahler's scherzo. (2) In the course of the whole movement, Berio quotes composers from Bach through Stockhausen, and while we recognize some of the quotations immediately, others can hardly be perceived. (3) The text consists of passages from Beckett's novel The Unnamable interspersed with words by Joyce, expression marks, political slogans, and phonetic material. Mahler's music implies the quotations on the second level, be it tonally (Berio even changed some notes for tonal reasons), motivically (the minor second functions as a central motive), programmatically, or by instrumentation. Even the disposition of the text follows Mahler and it is often only through the text that we can identify musical quotations. This kind of collage therefore does not destroy but reinterprets the "Fischpredigt." The study includes some didactic suggestions.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 2; Berio: Sinfonia.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Anderson, Paul Allen. “The World Heard: Casablanca and the Music of War.” Critical Inquiry 32 (Spring 2006): 482-515.

The music of Casablanca was a metaphor for the power of political unity against the adversaries of America: American music defied enemy music and thus enemy culture. This metaphor is accomplished both diegetically and through Max Steiner’s score, which creates leitmotifs out of national songs and the famous ballad, As Time Goes By. Because current wartime tensions created political insecurities for audiences, it was difficult for viewers to regard the film as fantasy, and the film’s music aids in a transition to fiction. For example, the relationship between the diegetic performances of As Time Goes By and Steiner’s appropriation of the ballad reinforces a past of assured political ideology as well as American unity and idealism. Additionally, the film demonstrates fantasies and realities of race and segregation through the treatment of and musical performances by the character Sam.

Works: Michael Curtiz (director) and Max Steiner (composer): score to Casablanca.

Sources: Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle: La Marseillaise (484, 497-98, 500-501); Carl Wilhelm: Die Wacht am Rhein (484, 497-98, 500-501); Herman Hupfeld: As Time Goes By (485, 487, 497, 502-14).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kate Altizer

[+] Andraschke, Peter. "Das revolutionär-politische Zitat in der avantgardistischen Musik nach 1965." Musik und Bildung 11 (May 1979): 313-18.

Although Stockhausen, Nono, and Henze approach the preexistent material differently, they all try to combine simple, tonal melodies with the complex structures of sound (Klangstrukturen) of the avantgarde around 1967. In his Hymnen, Stockhausen borrows different national anthems to represent internationality and disparities between nations. He develops, for example, the Internationale in a way that underlines the program of the composition, the struggle for a peaceful world, gradually synchronizing different layers of sound. Nono's Per Bastiana--Tai-Yang Cheng does not borrow the (communist) Chinese folk song The East Is Red in a traditional way. The pentatonic melody and its intervallic structure permeate the whole composition. "Tai-Yang Cheng," a textual quotation from the song, expresses Nono's hope for a "red shining life" of his daughter Bastiana under the banner of communism. Henze expresses the difficulties of our West-European world by attempting to write a symphony in 1969 with traditional techniques and dead (kaputt) musical material and his admiration for communist Cuba (the piece was written for Havana) by quoting Cuban folk songs and communist tunes (such as the song of the National Liberation Front in Vietnam, Stars of the Night).

Works: Stockhausen: Hymnen, Nono: Per Bastiana--Tai-Yang Cheng; Henze: Sinfonia No. 6 for two Chamber Orchestras (315-17).

Sources: Marseillaise (314-15), Internationale (314-15), The East is Red (315), Stars of the Night (316).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Andraschke, Peter. "Gustav Mahlers IX. Symphonie: Kompositionsprozess und Analyse." Ph.D. diss., University of Freiburg, 1973.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Andraschke, Peter. "Traditionsmomente in Kompositionen von Christóbal Halffter, Klaus Huber und Wolfgang Rihm." In Die neue Musik und die Tradition: Sieben Kongressbeiträge und eine analytische Studie, ed. Reinhold Brinkmann, 130-52. Mainz: Schott, 1978.

Halffter, Rihm, and Huber use quotations with different intentions. Halffter's Noche pasiva del sentido makes extensive use of a descending four-tone motive that not only associates the piece with Spanish folklore in general but also plays an important role in Ravel's Rhapsodie espagnole. Rihm modeled the fourth movement of his String Quartet No. 3 over long stretches on the "Cavatina" from Beethoven's String Quartet, Op. 130; some of the thematic material is derived from Beethoven and the movements show similar outlines. "Genesis," the first movement from Huber's Violin Concerto (Tempora) represents the emergence of sound from "primitive noises" (Urgeräusche), including in this process a structurally important quotation of the B-A-C-H motive. The third movement, "quod libet," displays its link to the classical tradition by including literal quotations, thus alluding to the contraction "quodlibet." In his ...inwendig voller figur..., Huber reuses material from the second ("De Natura") and last ("quod nescitur") movements of his Violin Concerto, relating Dürer's sketch Traumgesicht and texts of the apocalypse of John.

Works: Halffter: Noche pasiva del sentido (131-35); Rihm: In Innersten (String Quartet No. 3, 138-43); Huber: Tempora 143-50), . . . inwendig voller figur . . . (146, 149).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Ansari, Emily Abrams. “‘Vindication, Cleansing, Catharsis, Hope’: Interracial Reconciliation and the Dilemmas of Multiculturalism in Kay and Dorr’s Jubilee (1976).” American Music 31 (Winter 2013): 379-419.

African American composer Ulysses Kay and white librettist Donald Dorr’s 1976 opera Jubilee expresses the early stages of the political ideology of multiculturalism in confronting the history of American slavery in the context of the US Bicentennial celebrations for which it was commissioned. Kay’s use of historical musical forms and quotations reflects the creators’ nuanced approach to the opera’s subject matter. Kay’s early composing career is marked by an adherence to universalism and a denial of the influence of race on his music. This attitude changed with his work on Jubilee, which dealt explicitly with racial politics. The opera’s multiculturalist approach is evident in the lynching scene, modeled on the auto-da-fé in Verdi’s Don Carlo. In this scene, three racially segregated choruses—white planters singing a patriotic song, poor whites singing a chorus based on the folksong Goober Peas, and slaves singing the hymn Flee as a Bird to the Mountain gather to celebrate the Fourth of July and to witness the hanging of a slave woman. No single chorus is dominant over the others and they each reveal complex reactions to the proceedings from different nineteenth-century cultural viewpoints. Jubilee does not shy away from depicting the horrors of slavery, but it also does not demonize white Americans. The final scene offers a different model of multicultural reconciliation and is scored with ragtime music, a genre marked by stylistic fusion between African American and European American traditions. Despite its initial reception as a symbol of healing, Jubilee has not been produced since its initial run. However, the main concern of Jubilee—the ideology of multiculturalism and the challenges of trading cultural uniqueness for social cohesion—is still an ongoing concern in American culture.

Works: Ulysses Kay: Jubilee (397-403)

Sources: Traditional: Rise Up Shepherds an’ Foller (397-99), Goober Peas (401-2), Flee as a Bird to the Mountain (402-3); Verdi: Don Carlo (400-3)

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Ansari, Emily Abrams. “The Benign American Exceptionalism of Copland’s Fanfare for the Common Man.” The Musical Quarterly 103 (Winter 2020): 246-80.

The enduring success of Aaron Copland’s 1942 Fanfare for the Common Man owes in part to the tension it holds between jingoistic and progressive politics that today appeals to a wide array of audiences and politicians. In its conception, Fanfare conveyed a leftist progressive message, celebrating the “common man” based on a speech by Vice President Henry A. Wallace. Until the 1970s, the piece was mostly understood by audiences as dramatic rather than political or patriotic. After Copland conducted Fanfare alongside overtly patriotic pieces at the 1979 National Symphony Orchestra Fourth of July concert, a more “American” meaning was attached to it, largely sidelining its progressive aspects. The use of Fanfare by both the Bush and Obama administrations suggests an association with benign American exceptionalism, tempering patriotic celebrations with a non-specific progressive element. This reconfiguration of the meaning of Fanfare is also evident in the large number of popular works (film and television soundtracks in particular) that utilize the Fanfare trope: trumpets (or horns) playing leaping triads in martial rhythms juxtaposed with loud drums. This trope is distinct from a generalized fanfare by slower tempo, more adventurous harmony, and often a texturally distinct solo trumpet. Rather than evoking overt militarism as a traditional fanfare would, the Fanfare trope is used to evoke benign exceptionalism. Examples of the Fanfare trope feature prominently in the scores to Superman (1978) and The West Wing (1999-2006). Recent works challenging this idea of exceptionalism include HBO’s Veep, the title sequence of which uses the Fanfare trope satirically in its comedic depiction of self-serving politicians, and Netflix’s House of Cards, which offers a cynical take on American politics with a stripped-down Fanfare trope in its title sequence. Given the show’s War on Terror theme, the trumpet in the title sequence of Homeland can also be understood as a fractured Fanfare trope. The Trump Administration’s avoidance of Fanfare and Fanfare tropes along with a trend of Fanfare performances following Biden’s election demonstrates the piece’s continued relevance in American politics.

Works: Anonymous: score to Strong (2011 Rick Perry campaign ad) (247); Aaron Copland: Symphony No. 3 (251); John Williams: score to Superman (263-64); W. G. Snuffy Walden: score to The West Wing (263-64); David Schwartz: score to Veep (264-65); Jeff Beal: score to House of Cards (264-65); Sean Callery: score to Homeland (265-66); Jerry Goldsmith: score to Air Force One (267).

Sources: Aaron Copland: Fanfare for the Common Man (247, 251, 263-67).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Film

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Arauco, Ingrid. "Bartók's Romanian Christmas Carols: Changes from the Folk Sources and Their Significance." Journal of Musicology 5 (Spring 1987): 191-225.

Four sources provide the basis for the study of Bartók's folk song arrangements, the Romanian Christmas Carols: (1) the transcriptions from the recordings he made on location; (2) notebook entries of melodies written down on-the-spot; (3) the versions of the carols as given in the preface to Bartók's Romanian Folk Music, vol. 4; and (4) the arrangement. Arauco especially examines changes between sources (2) and (3) and interprets them as a rapprochement to Western art music. Removal of incidental tones and ornaments, repositioning of barlines, and alteration of notes and rhythms clarify the harmonic and motivic phrase structures, which become easier to understand for listeners familiar with the tradition of Western art music and to some extent make up for the loss of the text originally comprising that function. Arauco argues that the change of elements incidental to the essence of the folk song not only adds structural clarity but, as a consequence, also reinforces the "inner emotive power."

Works: Bartók: Romanian Christmas Carols.

Sources: carols collected by Bartók in Transylvania, 1910-14 (193-95).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Arewa, Olufunmilayo B. "Copyright on Catfish Row: Musical Borrowing, Porgy and Bess, and Unfair Use." Rutgers Law Journal 37 (Winter 2006): 277-354.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Arewa, Olufunmilayo B. "From J. C. Bach to Hip Hop: Musical Borrowing, Copyright, and Cultural Context." North Carolina Law Review 84 (January 2006): 547-645.

Current copyright laws do not adequately support the forms of musical borrowing prevalent in hip-hop. The use of pre-existing recordings in hip-hop samples simultaneously violates the protected rights of both the existing musical composition and the recording of that musical composition. Sampling continues to be viewed as theft rather than a source of innovation within music. Aesthetic values prevalent in hip-hop, such as oral tradition, textual emphasis, repetition, polyrhythm, and borrowing, need to be situated in a broader context of musical aesthetics and, consequently, legal treatment of borrowing practices. Treating hip-hop as theft or plagiarism robs it of its rightful place within the historical context of musical borrowing in many different kinds of music. Modifications to current copyright laws, such as payment structures and differentiation of different types of sampling, are necessary to address the legality of hip-hop sampling.

Works: Irving Gordon (songwriter), Natalie Cole (performer): Unforgettable (562); Beastie Boys: Pass the Mic (570-72); N.W.A.: 100 Miles and Runnin' (574-76); Biz Markie: Alone Again (580-81); Handel: Israel in Egypt (601-603, 610).

Sources: James Newton: Choir (570-72); George Clinton (songwriter), Funkadelic (performers): Get off Your Ass and Jam (574-76); Gilbert O'Sullivan: Alone Again (Naturally) (580-81); Dionigi Erba: Magnificat (601-603, 610).

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Arewa, Olufunmilayo B. "The Freedom to Copy: Copyright, Creation, and Context." U. C. Davis Law Review 41 (December 2007): 477-559.

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

[+] Arewa, Olufunmilayo B. “Blues Lives: Promise and Perils of Musical Copyright.” Cardozo Arts & Entertainment Law Journal 27 (2010): 574-619.

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

[+] Armitage, Merle. George Gershwin. New York: Van Rees, 1958.

Like Bartók and Stravinsky, Gershwin was both a discoverer and an inventor (pp. 39-59). Many of his musical sources were African-American and Jewish, and he was inventive in the areas of rhythmic variation, placement of accents, and color. Gershwin observed a large population of Gullah Negroes on Folly Island in order to compose the score of his "folk opera" Porgy and Bess (pp. 149-53). He had great difficulty with the critics for his "vulgar" borrowing from the jazz idiom (pp. 84-121).

Works: Gershwin: Porgy and Bess, Piano Concerto, An American in Paris.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Daniel Bertram

[+] Atlas, Allan W. “Belasco and Puccini: Old Dog Tray and the Zuni Indians.” The Musical Quarterly 75 (Fall 1991): 362-98.

The aria “Che faranno i vecchi miei,” sung by the minstrel character Jake Wallace in Act I Puccini’s opera La Fanciulla del West, was long thought to have its source in the Stephen Foster tune Old Dog Tray. In fact, the source for the Puccini aria is Carlos Troyer’s arrangement of the Chorus of Virgin Maidens from the Zuni Indian Festive Sun-Dance. The long-standing misconception of this aria’s source arose primarily because the play on which La Fanciulla is based, David Belasco’s The Girl of the Golden West, includes a line that implores Jake Wallace to sing Old Dog Tray; since then, scholars have assumed a direct source-work connection between the songs in the play and the opera. Not only does the tune Belasco included in the play—an ensemble arrangement written by the music director for the play, William Walter Furst—not match Puccini’s aria in either poetic meter or melody, but Belasco’s tune also differs greatly from the music and lyrics of Foster’s song. A look at Puccini’s sketches and letters solves this puzzle: the composer received a book containing the Festive Sun-Dance from Sybil Seligman in 1907. With the exception of phrase repetition, the melody of the opening period in “Che faranno” matches the Zuni Indian tune exactly.

Works: Puccini: La Fanciulla del West (362-92); William Walter Furst: Old Dog Tray (370-76).

Sources: William Walter Furst: Old Dog Tray (370-76); Stephen Foster: Old Dog Tray (373-77); Carlos Troyer: The Festive Sun-Dance (384-87, 391).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Audissino, Emilio. “Gottfried Huppertz’s Metropolis: The Acme of ‘Cinema Music.’” In Today’s Sounds for Yesterday’s Films: Making Music for Silent Cinema, edited by K. J. Donnelly and Ann-Kristin Wallengren, 45-63. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.

There is an inherent difference between music of silent films and sound films; the former, sometimes referred to as cinema music, is music performed in the cinema usually experienced as a filler for silence while the latter, sometimes referred to as film music, is music physically placed on the film and experienced with narrative function in mind. However, some silent film scores act as if they could have been composed for this latter, narrative period, such as Gottfried Huppertz’s score for Metropolis (1927), due to its orchestration, use of leitmotivic techniques, and manipulation of musical material.

Due to cuts upon the film’s American release, Huppertz’s original score was heavily edited and mostly forgotten, to the point where the original score was not used in the 1984 remastering of the film by Giorgio Moroder. However, in 2008, the closest version to the original film was rediscovered in an Argentinian archive, along with Huppertz’s sketches and timings. The reconstruction of this earlier, more complete version reveals that the score contained many of the narrative techniques now associated with later film music, mainly the leitmotiv technique. It also includes references to other works: the melodic and harmonic language is rooted in Wagner, Mahler, and Richard Strauss’s style, while the “Machine Theme” echoes similar music by George Antheil and Arthur Honegger. In addition to these stylistic allusions, Huppertz also uses outright quotation, including the Dies irae chant upon the deaths of the workers in the machine room and La Marseillaise when the False Maria leads the mob to destroy the machines. In the process, despite its earlier time period, Huppertz’s score takes on the qualities and ethos of later Hollywood film music.

Works: Gottfried Huppertz: Score to Metropolis (45-57).

Sources: Camille Saint-Saëns: Danse Macabre (51); Anonymous: Dies irae (53); Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle: La Marseillaise (53).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Emily Baumgart

[+] Auh, Mijai Youn. "Piano Variations by Brahms, Liszt and Friedman on a Theme by Paganini." D.M. diss., Indiana University, 1980.

An introduction to Paganini's place in history and his contributions includes background information on the 24th Caprice of Op. 1, an analysis of its theme, and a list of works (p. 28) based on this theme. Auh provides introductions and analyses of Liszt's sixth Grande etude, Brahms's Variations on a Theme by Paganini, Op. 35, and Friedman's Studies on a Theme by Paganini, Op. 46b, and compares the elements of retention and variability of the original theme, variation technique, grouping for performance, and technical musical difficulties. Almost all of the variations assume the basic structure and given harmony of Paganini's theme; thus the variation techniques used are mainly of harmony, rhythm, and character.

Works: Johannes Brahms: Variations on a Theme of Paganini, Op. 35; Ferrucio Busoni: An die Jugend (7); Ignaz Friedman: Studies on a Theme of Paganini, Op. 46b; Franz Liszt: Etudes d'execution transcendente d'après Paganini (7), Grosse Paganini-Etuden; Robert Schumann: Studies after Caprices of Paganini, Op. 3 (7), 6 Concert Etudes after Caprices of Paganini, Op. 10 (7).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Jean Pang

[+] Auner, Joseph H. "Schoenberg's Handel Concerto and the Ruins of Tradition." Journal of the American Musicological Society 49 (Summer 1996): 264-313.

In the early 1930s, Schoenberg transcribed and recomposed compositions of the Baroque era to reaffirm his position in the lineage of German composers during a time when Germany was under the government of the National Socialists. Schoenberg described his Concerto for String Quartet and Orchestra as "freely transcribed" from Handel's Concerto Grosso, Op. 6, No. 7. Its reworking is different from that of Schoenberg's arrangements of Bach and Brahms, as it alters the original much more, using techniques such as reharmonization, the addition of contrapuntal parts, and compressing and expanding the material. Schoenberg reinterprets Handel's music most freely in the third movement. In so doing, he created a duality between the past and the present and contrasted Baroque tonality and compositional techniques with the chromatic/atonal traditions of the twentieth century. Schoenberg also transposed the third movement to a new key, changed the tempo from Andante to Allegro grazioso, and imposed a formal Sonata-Allegro plan onto the material. This work suggests Schoenberg's identity crisis as German and Jewish as well as the larger social and cultural world of the 1930s (specifically 1933), when the work was composed.

Works: Schoenberg: Cello Concerto (264, 285-86), Concerto for String Quartet and Orchestra (265-69, 271, 287-313).

Sources: Georg Matthias Monn: Keyboard Concerto F. 41 (264); Handel: Concerto Grosso, Op. 6, No. 7 (265-66, 287-313).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Geelhoed, Matthew Altizer

[+] Auslander, Philip. "Intellectual Property Meets the Cyborg: Performance and the Cultural Politics of Technology." Performing Arts Journal 14, no. 1 (January 1992): 30-42.

The technology of digital sampling challenges our traditional understanding of authorship, and the resulting ambiguities are reflected in our cultural and political environment. For instance, when the group Frankie Goes to Hollywood sampled Led Zeppelin's drummer John Bonham for their recording of Relax, who was the author? Was it John Bonham (who was deceased at the time)? Was it the sampling software? Donna Haraway, in her "Manifesto for Cyborgs," has argued that high-tech culture problematizes many of the binarisms built into our culture, and such destabilization can be politically useful. One artist who has exploited technology for politically useful ends is Laurie Anderson. In her film Home of the Brave she opens by lecturing the audience through a synthesized "male" voice, blurring the binarism of gender. She also samples the voice of William S. Burroughs, who is also silently present for one scene, playing with the dualism of recording and "liveness." Throughout her film, she goes on to challenge other dualisms such as speaking/singing, self/other, author/reader, and person/machine. Anderson's work provides a glimpse of the effect that technology can have on politics and culture.

Works: Frankie Goes to Hollywood (Peter Gill, Holly Johnson, Brian Nash, Mark O'Toole): Relax (31); Bobby Freeman (songwriter), Ula Hedwig (performer): Do You Wanna Dance (33); Bobby Freeman (songwriter), Bette Midler (performer): Do You Wanna Dance (33); Laurie Anderson: Home of the Brave (37-41).

Sources: Bobby Freeman (songwriter), Bette Midler (performer): Do You Wanna Dance (33); Bobbie Freeman (songwriter and performer): Do You Want to Dance (33).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Kerry O'Brien

[+] Austin, William W. "Debussy, Wagner, and Some Others." 19th-Century Music 6 (Summer 1982): 82-91.

In Debussy and Wagner (1979), Robin Holloway seeks out those passages in Debussy which recall or which can be viewed as quotations of passages in Wagner. Some of the cases seem forced. Some compositions by Holloway himself include references to the music of Debussy and Wagner and others.

Works: Debussy: Pelléas et Mélisande (83), "Golliwog's Cake-Walk," from Children's Corner (83), La Damoiselle élue (84), Le Martyre de Saint Sébastien (84), Jeux (84-85,88); Holloway: Clarissa (88-90), Scenes from Schumann: Seven Paraphrases for Orchestra (90), Romanza (90-91).

Sources: Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (83-84), Parsifal (84, 88-90); Debussy: Jeux (88-90); Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 in C minor (90-91); Bach: D major fugue from the Well-Tempered Clavier, Book Two (91).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Babbitt, Milton. "Contextual Counterpoint." Chap. in Words about Music. Edited by Stephen Dembski and Joseph N. Straus. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987.

During a discussion of twelve-tone counterpoint, it is noted that the "Contrapunctus Secundus" from Luigi Dallapiccola's Quaderno Musicale di Annalibera is a gloss on the second movement of Webern's Piano Variations, Op. 27.

Works: Dallapiccola: "Contrapunctus Secundus," Quaderno Musicale di Annalibera (38-40).

Sources: Webern: Piano Variations, Op. 27 (33-40).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: J. Peter Burkholder

[+] Badolato, James Vincent. "The Four Symphonies of Charles Ives: A Critical, Analytical Study of the Musical Style of Charles Ives." Ph.D. dissertation, Catholic University of America, 1978.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Baker, Catherine. “Wild Dances and Dying Wolves: Simulation, Essentialization, and National Identity at the Eurovision Song Contest.” Popular Communication 6 (2008): 173–89.

Through the simulation and essentialization of recognizable folk-musical traits, several Eastern European nations competing at the Eurovision Song Contest in the early 2000s were successfully able to represent, misrepresent, or brand the ethnic folk traditions of their home nation. The Eastern European countries that consistently won the contest between 2001 and 2007 played upon Western stereotypes of the East by incorporating stylized national music, instruments, and ethnic musical characteristics into their song entries. In doing so, they created a distinctively alternative sound to the modern musical styles (such as pop, rock, or disco) featured in the Western countries’ entries. In particular, the Ukrainian singer songwriter Ruslana exemplifies this kind of simulation and essentialization, with her winning entry Wild Dances making use of various traditional instruments, folk-inspired performance practices, and stylistic allusions to Hutsul traditional music that she collected during her ethnographic field work in the Carpathian Mountain region. Her entry is both an example of simulation, as she is presenting a commercialized and stylized version of traditional folk music, and an example of essentialization because her entry only represents a small demographic within Ukraine. Other winning entries, such as Željko Joksimovi’s Lane Moje, also incorporate ethnic folk elements and folk musical tropes.

Works: Ruslana: Wild Dances (175-77, 180, 184); Željko Joksimović: Lane Moje (178), Lejla (178), Call Me (178); Boris Novković: Vukovi umiru sami (179-80).

Sources: Damir Lipošek, Vedran Božić, and Husein Hasanefendić: Moja domovina (179-80).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

Contributed by: Cynthia Dretel, Matthew G. Leone

[+] Baker, David. "From The Composer's Perspective: Three Saxophone Concertos." International Jazz Archives Journal 1 (Fall 1993): 104-13.

In a discussion of three of his saxophone concertos, David Baker describes Ellingtones: A Fantasy for Saxophone and Orchestra as "an attempt to capture the spirit and feel of Duke Ellington." In the first movement, the piece features quotations of the A sections of Ellington's Caravan,Drop Me Off in Harlem, and Minnehaha, while fragments from other songs are used as linking materials. The second movement uses Ellington's All Too Soon not only as one of the themes but also as music heard underneath the saxophone solo. Movement III introduces Ellington's It Don't Mean a Thing If It Ain't Got That Swing in the introduction. Baker describes his treatment of the theme as "Morse-code-like." He then presents six variations on the borrowed tune's ground bass, which he refers to as a passacaglia.

Works: Baker: Ellingtones: A Fantasy for Saxophone and Orchestra.

Sources: Ellington: Caravan (106), Drop Me Off in Harlem (106), Minnehaha (106), All Too Soon (106), It Don't Mean a Thing If It Ain't Got That Swing (107).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan

[+] Ballantine, Christopher. "Charles Ives and the Meaning of Quotation in Music." The Musical Quarterly 65 (April 1979): 167-84.

Quoted musical fragments are as deep in symbolic content as Freudian symbols of "dream-text" fragments. A distinction is made between quoted musical matter that involves words and quoted musical matter that does not. Quotations of untexted music, such as "Westminster Chimes" in Ives's Second String Quartet and the opening motive of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony in Ives's Second Piano Sonata ("Concord"), evoke philosophical associations but not literary meaning. But quoting texted music, such as the songs Ives uses in his Fourth Symphony and his song West London, provides a deeper meaning if the listener knows the original words. Different structures of meaning exist for various listeners in a work that utilizes borrowed materials: (1) abstract, which concerns purely musical relationships; (2) programmatic, eliciting extra-musical associations; and (3) musico-philosophical, uniting all levels of perception and transcending both abstract musical relationships and programmatic images. Ives's Central Park in the Dark and Washington's Birthday illustrate the way in which these levels work. Although in some cases Ives may have borrowed material for structural and thematic reasons, he was still undoubtedly exploiting the connotations of this borrowed material to incorporate different levels of meaning into his music.

Works: Ives: String Quartet No. 2 (171-72), Piano Sonata No. 2: Concord, Mass., 1840-60 (172), West London (173-74), Fourth Symphony (174-76).

Sources: "Westminster Chimes" (171-72); Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 in C minor (172); "There is a fountain" (173-74); Lowell Mason: "Bethany" (174-75), "Watchman" (175); Arthur Sullivan: "Proprior Deo" (175-76).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Lee Ann Roripaugh, Fredrick Tarrant, Paula Ring Zerkle

[+] Balmer, Yves, Thomas Lacôte, and Christopher Brent Murray. “Messiaen the Borrower: Recomposing Debussy through the Deforming Prism.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 69 (Fall 2016): 699-791.

Throughout his career, Olivier Messiaen extensively used musical borrowing as a compositional technique and described how borrowing fit in his compositional process. By analyzing Messiaen’s career-long borrowing of Debussy material—musical themes, harmonies, programs, and gestures—a more complete picture emerges of Messiaen’s relationship to Debussy’s music and of Messiaen’s borrowing practice in general. Evidence of Messiaen’s borrowing can be found in three areas: the music he composed, the music he analyzed, and his writings. Comparing evidence from these areas allows for the identification of transformed and obscured instances of borrowing. Although much of Messiaen’s borrowing is similar to Ives’s collage and patchwork techniques, his material is made to be unrecognizable in what Messiaen calls a “transforming vision” or “deforming prism.” Debussy held a special place in Messiaen’s music and analytical writings. In Technique de mon langage musical, Messiaen gives many examples of harmonic passages in his music derived from Debussy’s Pelléas et Mélisande and others. Messiaen’s unusual candidness in revealing his sources, combined with his penchant for writing programs for his music, invites deeper hermeneutic readings of many of his works. However, the programmatic meanings of his sources often contrast with the meanings of the works he uses them in. Alternatively, the sources may have only personal significance to Messiaen and no programmatic connection. Aside from harmonic and programmatic borrowing, Messiaen also borrows specific keyboard gestures from Debussy. Messiaen’s use of borrowing as a compositional tool often goes beyond transforming individual sources. In many works, Messiaen combines harmonic or rhythmic material from several sources. In the case of Livre du Saint Sacrement, he borrows from Debussy’s Images as well as plainchants from Paroissien romain (Liber usualis), distorting both through a technique of harmonic litany (a process of repeating a melodic fragment with different harmonization) in order to create music representing transubstantiation. Reassessing Messiaen’s compositional process in light of his prolific musical borrowing allows for an understanding of his music that better situates it in historical context. Whereas critics have questioned Messiaen’s reliance on borrowed material as well as his reliance on compositional formulas, the demonstrated combination of these techniques yields a complex compositional method. Messiaen’s borrowing of Debussy suggests a need to place greater attention on the practice of musical borrowing in modern music.

Works: Messiaen: Visions de l’Amen (703-7, 711-16, 731-36, 740-44, 759-63), Vingt regards sur l’Enfant-Jésus (703-7, 744-46), Cinq rechants (707-11, 746-49), Préludes (719-25, 740-44, 761-65), Poèmes pour Mi (719-25, 725-26, 761-65), Nativité du Seigneur (726-31, 755-60), Rondeau (726-31, 736-40), La Sainte Bohème (726-31), Chœurs pour une Jeanne d’Arc (731-36), Trois petites liturgies de la Prèsence Divine (736-40), L’Assension (740-44), Cantéyodjayâ (740-44), Livre du Saint Sacrement (744-46, 767-74), Harawi (750-52, 752-55), Catalogue d’oiseaux (753-55), Turangalîla-Symphonie (755-60), Messe de la Pentecôte (759-63), Saint François d’Assise (759-63), Chants de terre et de ciel (767-74)

Sources: Rameau: Suite in E (703-7); Debussy: Préludes (707-11, 744-46), Pelléas et Mélisande (718-20, 719-25, 725-26, 726-31, 731-36, 750-52, 755-60), Prélude à l’après-midi d’un faune (737-40), Images (740-44, 746-49, 753-55, 759-63, 761-65, 765-67), Études (744-46), Trois chansons de Bilitis (767-74); Anonymous (transcribed by Joanny Grosset): Jâti ândhri (707-11); Liszt: Après une lecture de Dante (711-16); Massenet: Manon (711-16); André Jolivet: Cinq danses rituelles (746-49); Stravinsky: Les noces (750-52); Anonymous (transcribed by Marguerite Béclard d’Harcourt): Delirio (752-55); Ravel: Daphnis et Chloé (755-60); Plainchant from Paroissien romain (Liber usualis): Quotiescumque manducabitis panem hunc (767-74)

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Bañagale, Ryan Raul. “‘It Ain’t Necessarily So’: Larry Adler and Rhapsody in Blue.” In Arranging Gershwin: Rhapsody in Blue and the Creation of an American Icon, 119-47. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

[+] Bañagale, Ryan Raul. “From Camp to Carnegie Hall: Leonard Bernstein and Rhapsody in Blue.” In Arranging Gershwin: Rhapsody in Blue and the Creation of an American Icon, 73-96. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

An analysis of Leonard Bernstein’s numerous arrangements of George Gershwin’s Rhapsody in Blue, which he made throughout his career, illustrates Bernstein’s controversial conviction that the piece was structurally flexible. They also reflect Bernstein’s ambivalent relationship with the piece and with Gershwin, which is also evident in his interviews and essays. Bernstein’s earliest arrangement was written in 1937, when he was still a teenager, and his 1959 recording of the performance with the BBC is one of the best-known versions of the piece today. Certain omissions, stylistic aberrations, reorchestrations, and score annotations in Bernstein’s arrangements offer clues to his developing relationship with the piece and potentially to which editions of the score he knew best.

Works: Leonard Bernstein (arranger): Rhapsody in Blue [1959 version] (75-77, 90-92), Rhapsody in Blue [1937 version] (82-89), Rhapsody in Blue [1938 version] (90).

Sources: George Gershwin: Rhapsody in Blue (73-96).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Molly Covington

[+] Bañagale, Ryan Raul. “Rearranging Concert Jazz: Duke Ellington and Rhapsody in Blue.” In Arranging Gershwin: Rhapsody in Blue and the Creation of an American Icon, 96-118. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

By the 1960s, Rhapsody in Blue was generally not considered authentic to the African American jazz tradition, as it had become a standard of the more classicized genre of “symphonic jazz.” Duke Ellington was one of the few African American composers to engage with the piece regularly over the course of his career, allowing us to trace his relationship to the music over time. On his 1963 album Will Big Bands Ever Come Back?, Ellington and co-arranger Billy Strayhorn sought to create a more authentic, less classicized version of the piece through the reorchestration and reorganization of musical themes and by recasting the piano part in a more typical jazz role, comping chord changes and taking improvised solos. This 1963 arrangement stands apart from Ellington’s earlier arrangements of the piece. The earliest, from 1925, differs little from Ferde Grofé’s popular 1924 arrangement for the Paul Whiteman Orchestra, and it was likely thought of as a crowd-pleaser in a time when the Ellington band worked primarily on tips. His 1932 arrangement was likely also composed to please audiences, but here Ellington is more harmonically and thematically experimental, while maintaining the overall structure of the original. Ellington’s 1963 version was described by David Schiff as a “brilliant act of deconstruction—and renewal.” Ellington and Strayhorn’s arrangement was meant to be a historical retrospective as much as anything, and it achieves its historicism through stylistic allusions to earlier styles of both “black” and “white” jazz. But an even more telling historical narrative of jazz at large may be traced in the stylistic progression of Ellington’s three arrangements.

Works: Duke Ellington (arranger and performer): One O’Clock Jump (97), Woodchopper’s Ball (97), Rhapsody in Blue [1925 version] (101-3), Rhapsody in Blue [1932 version] (104-10); Duke Ellington (arranger and performer) and Billy Strayhorn (arranger): Rhapsody in Blue [1963 version] (110-17); Robert Sadin (arranger) and Marcus Roberts (performer): Rhapsody in Blue (115).

Sources: George Gershwin: Rhapsody in Blue (97-115); Count Basie: One O’Clock Jump (97); Woody Herman: Woodchopper’s Ball (97); Ferde Grofé (arranger): Rhapsody in Blue (101, 107).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Molly Covington

[+] Bañagale, Ryan Raul. “Selling Success: Visual Media and Rhapsody in Blue.” In Arranging Gershwin: “Rhapsody in Blue” and the Creation of American Icon, 148-73. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

George Gershwin’s Rhapsody in Blue has been used in many visual contexts such as films, television programs, and advertisements, and in the process has gained a sort of inherent meaning associating it with success, the American Dream, New York, and modernity. The visual usage of the music then capitalizes on these new meanings. It was Woody Allen’s film Manhattan in 1979 where the piece, along with other Gershwin songs, was strongly associated with New York City, later reinforced by Scorsese’s Bringing Out the Dead and Disney’s Fantasia 2000. Tied to the connection with New York, the piece is also an emblem for success. The association with success is then further reaffirmed by the usage of Rhapsody in Blue in United Airlines’s longstanding advertising campaign. At first, the piece was used to evoke class and elegance, but over the course of the ad campaign the piece began to signify the success of an American-based airline as the commercials couched the music in different styles like East Asian and western fiddle two-step. Later advertisements in the early 2000s used Rhapsody to harken back to United’s past during a period of economic downturn and bankruptcy and focus on an uplifting and rebirth of the airline. United also used the music in a physical space in the O’Hare airport terminal to emphasize the “fun” of air travel, though it was far removed from the original work.

Works: Irving Rapper (director): Rhapsody in Blue (149-50); Woody Allen (director): Manhattan (149-53); United Airlines: advertising campaign 1987-present (“Nation’s Business”, “Pacific Song”, “Playing Our Song”, “Mileage Plus”, “Rising”, “It’s Time to Fly”, “Interview”, “Dragon”, “Heart”) (149, 158-73); Eric Goldberg, et al (directors): Fantasia 2000 (149, 153); Martin Scorsese (director): Bringing Out the Dead (153); Mark Kirkland (director): The Simpsons: “Elementary School Musical” (155-56); Brad Falchuk (director): Glee: “New York” (155-56); Baz Luhrmann (director): The Great Gatsby (156-58); Gary Fry: Rhapsody Ambiance (170-72).

Sources: Gershwin: Rhapsody in Blue (148-73).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Jazz, Film

Contributed by: Emily Baumgart

[+] Banks, Paul. "The Early Social and Musical Environment of Gustav Mahler." Ph.D. diss., St. John's College, 1980.

See especially "Folk Music in Iglau," in which Mahler's allusions to folk tunes and folk types are discussed.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Barber, Nicola J. "Brigg Fair: A Melody, Its Use and Abuse." The Grainger Journal 6 (August 1984): 3-20.

Both Percy Grainger and Frederick Delius set folksinger Joseph Taylor's rendition of the English folksong Brigg Fair.Brigg Fair is related to two other English folksongs, Maria Marten and Dives and Lazarus.Dives and Lazarus sometimes bears the title Come all you Faithful Christian Men, or in the Irish tradition, The Star in the Country.The Jolly Miller is a variant of the same melody. Grainger originally collected the folksong from Taylor in 1905 and made his setting, Brigg Fair, for tenor and mixed chorus in 1906. Delius's setting, in his Brigg Fair: An English Rhapsody, was inspired by Grainger's earlier setting and dates from 1907. Delius's setting borrows ideas from Grainger's but does not copy it stylistically.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: John Andrew Johnson

[+] Barbera, C. André. "George Gershwin and Jazz." In The Gershwin Style, ed. Wayne Schneider, 175-206. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

In a study of George Gershwin's historical relationship with jazz, it is suggested that the composer's songs continue to be attractive to jazz musicians because of their rhythmic, melodic, harmonic, and formal characteristics. For instance, Gershwin tended to repeat notes in his melodies, allowing for the performer to embellish harmonically and rhythmically, as was exemplified by Billy Holiday's recording of Oh, Lady Be Good! In other instances, Gershwin songs are favored because their harmonies can be separated from their melodies, as in Nice Work If You Can Get It. Songs like Somebody Loves Me and The Man I Love contain repeated four-measure phrases, a characteristic musical succinctness that improvisers have long found inviting.

Works: George Gershwin: How Long Has This Been Going On? (188, 200), I Got Rhythm (188, 190, 201), They Can't Take That Away From Me (188-90, 200), A Foggy Day (188-90, 198, 201), Fascinating Rhythm (188,199), Oh, Lady Be Good! (189-90, 193-94, 196-97, 200), Nice Work If You Can Get It (190, 195-96, 198, 201), Bess, You Is My Woman Now (193, 200), The Main I Love (193-94, 197, 200-201), But Not For Me (193), Summertime (195,197, 201), Embraceable You (197, 199, 200-201), Somebody Loves Me (197-98, 200-201), Liza (198), Someone To Watch Over Me (198), Soon (198), Our Love is Here To Stay (198), 'S Wonderful (200).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz, Popular

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan

[+] Barford, Philip T. "Mahler: A Thematic Archetype." The Music Review 21 ([November] 1960): 297-316.

A pentatonic archetypal theme is found in Mahler's music. The archetype may be considered as a private symbol, the "musical expression of some recurrent pattern of exprience." Ninety-two examples of the archetype, often in varied form, are presented. Buddhism and Hegel's concept of das unglückliche Bewusstsein may account for the ubiquity of the idea.

Works: Mahler: Songs of a Wayfarer (310), Das Lied von der Erde (311-12, 314-15), Symphony No. 1 in D Major (313).

Sources: Anonymous: La bergère que je sers (310), Frère Jacques (313).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Barg, Lisa. “Queer Encounters in the Music of Billy Strayhorn.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 66 (Fall 2013): 771-824.

Analyzing the music of Billy Strayhorn introduces many issues related to historicizing race, sexuality, and gender identity in the context of mid-century jazz. Two works in particular—Strayhorn’s songs for Federico García Lorca’s The Love of Don Perlimplin for Belisa in Their Garden and Strayhorn and Duke Ellington’s adaptation of Tchaikovsky’s Nutcracker Suite—involve a fictive collaboration with gay figures from the past and address issues of black queer identity and desire. In fall 1953, Strayhorn composed four pieces for a production of Perlimplin by the Artist’s Theatre collective in Greenwich Village. Strayhorn’s music effectively sets the queer topics of Lorca’s text and the Artist’s Theatre production. Strayhorn’s collaboration with Ellington on an arrangement of The Nutcracker Suite to be released as an LP in 1960 also deals with issues of queer aesthetics. For one, working with a removed (dead) collaborator points to the asynchronicity or queer temporality that shaped Strayhorn’s work. Although some critics panned the LP as a crude parody, Strayhorn’s reworking of Tchaikovsky’s music is sophisticated in its relocation and translation of the original text. For instance, in the Arabian Dance movement, Arabesque Cookie, Strayhorn transforms Tchaikovsky’s sonic signifiers of exotica into modern jazz signifiers, akin to tunes like Caravan. Arabesque Cookie can also be likened to the blend of primitivism and stylized modernity of the queer black dandy as well as Afro-Orientalist imagery in Hollywood films. Overall, Strayhorn’s work on Perlimplin and his arrangement of The Nutcracker Suite provide a new queer historical framework for understanding his position in the Ellington Orchestra and the way his personal relationship with Ellington is portrayed in literature.

Works: Billy Strayhorn (with Duke Ellington): The Nutcracker Suite (793-813)

Sources: Tchaikovsky: The Nutcracker Suite (793-813)

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Baron, Carol K. "Varèse's Explication of Debussy's Syrinx in Density 21.5 and an Analysis of Varèse's Composition: A Secret Model Revealed." The Music Review 43 (May 1982): 121-34.

Varèse's composition Density 21.5 is in the truest sense musical parody, as it uses another work as its structural basis: Debussy's Syrinx. Structural similarities exist between the two pieces, such as the use of the two whole-tone scales as basic pitch collections. Though Varèse himself never explicitly confirmed this connection, Density may be read as a commentary upon Debussy's piece.

Works: Varèse: Density 21.5.

Sources: Debussy: Syrinx.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Susan Richardson

[+] Barrett, Sam. “Classical Music, Modal Jazz, and the Making of Kind of Blue.Dutch Journal of Music Theory 16 (2011): 53-63.

A dynamic or cyclical notion of influence allows for a more sophisticated approach to understanding the relationship between twentieth-century classical music and Miles Davis’s Kind of Blue. While numerous scholars have generated a long list of influences to Davis’s album, multiple techniques and sources invite further consideration. There are three categories of art music that serve as sources to Kind of Blue: late-romantic and impressionist music, American classical modernism, and Stravinsky ballets. In the first category, Rachmaninoff’s and Ravel’s works include general harmonic, intervallic (specifically concerning vamp patterns), and tonal elements that can be found in the songs So What and Flamenco Sketches, while Khachaturian’s use of non-diatonic melodies over tonal harmonies can be found across Davis’s entire album. In the second category, widely spaced leaps and upper-register sonorities from Copland’s music of the 1940s can be found in So What. In the final category, Stravinsky's ballets provide a procedure of fragmentary melodic variation that relates to Davis’s own “melodic variation” in his solos on every song. That these particular classical styles influence Kind of Blue on different levels indicates that “modal” jazz is a meaningful term to describe the album's musical language.

Works: Miles Davis: Kind of Blue.

Sources: Ravel: Piano Concerto for the Left Hand (53-56), String Quartet in F Major (56-57); Rachmaninoff: Piano Concerto No. 4, Op. 40 (53-57); Khachaturian: Gayane Suites (57-58); Debussy: Images No. 1 (“Reflets dans l'eau”) (58); Copland: Fanfare for the Common Man (58), Appalachian Spring; Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring (59-60), Petrushka (59-60).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Barry, Barbara R. "The Hidden Program in Mahler's Fifth Symphony." The Musical Quarterly 77 (Spring 1993): 47-66.

Following his health and conducting crises in 1900, Mahler turned to Beethoven's Fifth Symphony as a model for his own Symphony No. 5. The opening motive of the Beethoven symphony serves to unify the entire symphony, and the opening trumpet motto of Mahler's symphony serves a similar function. That motto is itself based on Beethoven's opening motive, and the key regions Mahler uses are the same as Beethoven (the second movement of both is in the submediant). The Trauermarsch of the second movement is a varied form of the first movement's, which is similar to the way the Scherzo in the Beethoven is based on an altered form of the symphony's opening motive. The moments in Mahler's work when earlier material returns are based on Beethoven's practice.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 5 in C sharp Minor (51-66), Symphony No. 2 in C Minor (52-53), Symphony No. 1 in D Major (58).

Sources: Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 in C Minor (51-55, 57, 61-2); Mahler: Kindertotenlieder (58, 60), Des Knaben Wunderhorn (59), Rückertlieder (59-60); Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (60); Mahler: Symphony No. 4 in G Major (65).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Geelhoed

[+] Bartlett, Andrew. "Airshafts, Loudspeakers, and the Hip Hop Sample: Contexts and African American Musical Aesthetics." African American Review 28 (1994): 639-52.

Rap music, and in particular the practice of sampling in rap music, can be grounded within a larger context of African-American interest in imitation. Early examples of imitation in slave culture suggest interests similar to sampling, namely the desire to reconfigure aspects of dominant culture into strictly African-American forms. Sampling can be seen as a way to archive interactive historical material. Rap artists use new language to describe their use of samples, and acknowledge their sources to avoid legal trouble. EMPD, for example, thanks their sources and introduces their raps by indicating which pre-existing compositions the new rap embodies.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa

[+] Bartók, Béla. "The Relation of Folk-Song to the Development of the Art Music of Our Time." The Sackbut (June 1921): 5-11.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Bartók, Béla. “On the Significance of Folk Music.” In Béla Bartók Essays, ed. Benjamin Suchoff, 345-47. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1976.

Contrary to popular belief, composing new works with existing folk music is a rather difficult task. Borrowing a folk melody requires not only to stay true to the original peculiarity of the music, but the unique character of the music also complicates its use in a new composition. Some have suggested that folk tunes can simply exist as musical themes in compositions if the composer has a lack of inspiration. However, the need to have musical themes in music is a nineteenth century ideal. Bach and Handel modeled their compositions after predecessors, and their new compositions were so different from their models that the originals are easily forgotten. A contemporary composer can borrow from folk music in the same way. Folk music can be used to develop musical styles without the need to force the music in conventional forms. It requires great skill and knowledge to use folk music in compositions.

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

Contributed by: Nicolette van den Bogerd

[+] Bartók, Béla. “The Influence of Folk Music on Art Music Today.” In Béla Bartók Essays, ed. Benjamin Suchoff, 316-19. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1976.

The definition of folk music is music of the population that is least affected by city culture, and music of great temporal and spatial extent. It is generally believed that Chopin and Liszt were the first composers who were inspired by folk music, but the term folk music does not accurately describe the influence on their music. Although these composers were certainly influenced by aspects of folk music, a truer characterization of this music is popular folk music. Pure folk music did not influence art music until the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century, and particularly in the music of Debussy and Ravel. These composers used idioms from Eastern European and Eastern Asian folk music, which paved the way for composers such as Stravinsky and Kodály. True folk musical influences are characterized not by the use of folk melodies, but rather by an understanding of the inherent spirit of folk music.

Works: Stravinsky: Pribaoutki (318-19).

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

Contributed by: Nicolette van den Bogerd

[+] Bartók, Béla. “The Influence of Peasant Music on Modern Music.” In Béla Bartók Essays, ed. Benjamin Suchoff, 340-44. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1976.

Folk music has been used as source material for composers of many eras. Composers of the Viennese classic period were influence by and used folk music in their compositions; for example, Beethoven's Symphony No. 6 uses a Yugoslavian dance melody for the primary theme. Other composers who used folk material include Chopin, Smetana, Dvořák, and Mussorgsky. In the twentieth century, composers began to collect or study folk music in an attempt to integrate that music into their style. Three possibilities exist for the use of folk materials in Western art music. A composer can simply compose an accompaniment for an existing folk melody, a newly composed melody can take on folk characteristics, or folk music can be integrated into the style of a composer to such an extent that neither folk melodies or imitations of folk melodies are used, but the composer's works are imbued with the style of peasant music.

Works: Beethoven: Symphony No. 6 in F Major, Pastoral (340); Liszt: Hungarian Rhapsodies (340); Stravinsky: Le Sacre du Printemps (343); Kodály: Psalmus Hungaricus (344).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Christopher Holmes

[+] Bartók, Béla. “The Relation Between Contemporary Hungarian Art Music and Folk Music.” In Béla Bartók Essays, ed. Benjamin Suchoff, 348-53. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1976.

It is commonly known that Hungarian art music is heavily influenced by folk music. There are a few distinctions in how this occurs. Contrary to popular belief, the simple insertion of folk tunes in art music does not constitute influence. Rather, composers acquire the Hungarian folk idiom like a native language, and the use of folk aspects occurs naturally and subconsciously. In Bartók’s music, there are three categories of musical transcription. The first includes a piece of music in which the original folk tune is more dominant than the newly composed material. The second category includes music in which both folk music and newly composed art music are equal. The final category is the transcription of folk music that takes on the form of an original work.

Works: Bartók: Suite, Op. 14 (350), Rumanian Folk Dances (352), Improvisation on Hungarian Peasant Songs, Op. 20 (352).

Sources: Kodály: Háry János (352); Bartók: For Children (352).

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

Contributed by: Nicolette van den Bogerd

[+] Bartók, Béla. “The Relation of Folk-Song to the Development of the Art Music of Our Time.” In Béla Bartók Essays, ed. Benjamin Suchoff, 320-30. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1976.

There is a distinct difference between popular art music and real folk music. Authentic folk music (better identified as peasant music) comprises melodies that are representative and uniform among the peasant class in a nation. It is a natural phenomenon that is instinctive, and requires artistic perfection. Conversely, popular art music is derived from primarily Western art music and a hint of peasant music, giving the music an exotic flavor. Nationalism in the nineteenth century increased the demand for a national sound, but rather than looking at peasant music, the focus was on popular art music. Composers of art music rarely encountered authentic peasant music, and, as such, the vague allusion to peasant music is essentially an obscured view of the original.

There are some composers whose music originates in peasant music, most notably Mussorgsky, Stravinsky, and even Beethoven. While Stravinsky’s Le sacre du printemps is likely one of the best examples of works to include authentic peasant music, Stravinsky still attempts to put peasant music in a structure it was not meant to be in, thereby ignoring musical characteristics inherent to the music he borrows. In numerous symphonies by Haydn, Beethoven, and Mozart, Slavonic peasant music is suggested, primarily the final movements. Croatian melodies are found in Haydn’s Symphony No. 104 in D Major, as well as in two movements of Beethoven’s “Pastoral” Symphony.

Works: Stravinsky: Le sacre du printemps (325); Haydn: Symphony No. 104 in D Major (328); Beethoven: Symphony No. 6 in F Major (“Pastoral”), Op. 68 (328).

Sources: Franjo Ksaver Kuhač: Južno-slovjenske narvodne popievke (327).

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

Contributed by: Nicolette van den Bogerd

[+] Baskerville, David. "Jazz Influence on Art Music to Mid-Century." Ph.D. diss., University of California at Los Angeles, 1965.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Batchelor, Stephen. "Benjamin Britten and His Works for the Guitar." The Journal of the British Music Society 18 (1996): 35-49.

Benjamin Britten's 1963 Nocturnal after John Dowland for solo guitar is a set of variations on Elizabethan composer John Dowland's 1597 lute song Come Heavy Sleep. Unlike most theme and variation forms, however, the theme appears at the end, rather than the beginning of the composition. The eight variations, based on melodic fragments of Dowland's song, depict various stages of insomnia, and have the character of fleeting, nightmarish episodes. The interaction of notes, chords, and keys a semitone apart is a salient feature of the variations. The tension generated by this dissonant harmonic relationship dissipates when Dowland's song is quoted at the end of the composition.

Works: Britten: Nocturnal after John Dowland (35-40, 46-48).

Sources: Dowland: Come Heavy Sleep (46-48).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Scott Grieb

[+] Batta, András. "A Nietzsche Symbol in the Music of Richard Strauss and Bela Bartók." The New Hungarian Quarterly 23 (Spring 1982): 202-7.

The enthusiasm the young Bartók displayed for the music of Richard Strauss is attested by the extent to which Bartók emulated the orchestral decorativeness as well as the déjà vu effect of Strauss. A deeper relationship also exists, demonstrated by Bartók's incorporation of harmonic and structural elements of Strauss's Also Sprach Zarathustra into his early operatic works, not so much for the surface effect as to underscore the philosophical kinship both composers shared with Nietzsche.

Works: Bartók: 14 Bagatelles (203), Suite No. 1 (204-5), Bluebeard's Castle (206), The Wooden Prince (207).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Amy Weller

[+] Bauer, Cornelius. “Adams reloaded: Überlegungen zu John Adams’s aktuellem Komponieren anhand von Son of chamber symphony (2007).” In Musik, Kultur, Wissenschaft, ed. Harmut Möller and Martin Schröder, 81-105. Essen: Die Blaue Eule, 2011.

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s

[+] Bayles, Martha. “Rock ‘n’ Rollers or Holy Rollers?” Chapter 8 in Hole in Our Soul: The Loss of Beauty and Meaning in American Popular Music. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Bazelon, Irwin. Knowing the Score: Notes on Film Music. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1975.

Film score composers are often required to compose forty minutes worth of music in several weeks time, necessitating the use of previously invented music or the liberal borrowing of others' previously written music. The fragmented form of film music often discourages developed themes on large compositional canvases, but calls for the use of "mere snatches of music." Using the widely understood extramusical associations of previously written music, the first film score composers often borrowed easily recognizable music, conveying meaning quickly to early moviegoers. The "Bridal Chorus" from Wagner's Lohengrin was used to seal holy matrimony, Beethoven's Moonlight Sonata for moonlit nights and calm waters, and Rossini's William Tell Overture to underscore Western cowboy heroics, creating a language of musical cliché for generations of film score composers to come. With all art, both serious and popular, becoming an amusement commodity for leisure-time activity, the film industry has absorbed the materials of traditional art in order to imbue its product with all the outer trappings of genuine culture.

Works: Stanley Kubrick: compilation score to 2001: A Space Odyssey; Wendy (Walter) Carlos: score to A Clockwork Orange (35); Leonard Rosenman: score to Fantastic Voyage (39); Ezra Laderman: score to The Eleanor Roosevelt Story (38); Elmer Bernstein: score to The Magnificent Seven (75); Lalo Schifrin: score to Cool Hand Luke (75); Toru Takemitsu: score to Woman in the Dunes (78); Hanns Eisler: score to Hangmen Also Die (84).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kathleen Widden

[+] Beadle, Jeremy. Will Pop Eat Itself? Pop Music in the Soundbite Era. London: Faber and Faber, 1993.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

[+] Beaudoin, Richard. “You’re There and You’re Not There: Musical Borrowing and Cavell’s ‘Way.’” Journal of Music Theory 54 (Spring 2010): 91-105.

Stanley Cavell’s style of philosophical writing, which incorporates numerous borrowings of other philosophical texts, can be likened to musical borrowings by Ignaz Friedman, Luciano Berio, and Richard Beaudoin. Borrowing strategies in both music and philosophical texts exist along a continuum of borrowing procedures, with points such as “works without explicit borrowing,” “local borrowing,” and “critical borrowing.” Within this continuum, Cavell mostly employs “local,” “structural,” and “critical” borrowing procedures. There is a long tradition of philosophers who have engaged with “writing about the writings of other writers,” though Cavell takes this stylistic trait to an extreme; in fact, his writings involve using the words of others to such a high degree that some might consider there to be little of his own “self” remaining. The borrowing procedures of Cavell’s Philosophy the Day After Tomorrow can be likened to Ignaz Friedman’s Gavotte from the Sixth Sonata for Violin by J. S. Bach Arranged for Piano. Both of these works employ lengthy quotations to play a sophisticated game of meaning with their sources, with the composer serving as a sort of “intellectual guide” along the way. Cavell’s procedures of borrowings in Philosophical Passages are similar to those of Berio’s Sinfonia. Both borrow from one main literary document, ignoring major parts of the original source, and include material of their own making alongside the borrowed material. Finally, borrowing procedures in Cavell’s Philosophical Passages can also be likened to the author’s own Etude d’un prelude IV—Black Wires. Both approaches to borrowing involve nested histories and commentaries, which act like a dialog between authors who never coexisted. Borrowings—both musical and literary—are important because they reveal essential aspects of their transcribers.

Works: Ignaz Friedman: Gavotte from the Sixth Sonata for Violin by J. S. Bach Arranged for Piano (95-97); Luciano Berio: Sinfonia (98-99); Richard Beaudoin: Etude d’un prelude IV—Black Wires (99-102).

Sources: Johann Sebastian Bach: Partita in E, BWV 1006 (95-97); Chopin (composer) and Martha Argerich (performer): Prelude in E Minor, Op. 28, No. 4 (100-102).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Chelsea Hamm

[+] Beaumont, Antony. Review of Albrecht Riethmüller's Ferruccio Busonis Poetik.Music and Letters 70 (1989): 571-74.

Riethmüller aims to outline Busoni thought patterns by analyzing two works, the Second Violin Sonata, Op. 36a, completed in 1898, and the Improvisation for Two Pianos on Bach's Chorale-Song 'Wie wohl ist mir,' composed in 1916. The Improvisation reworks material from the Second Violin Sonata. The structure of the variations in the third movement of the violin sonata is modeled on Beethoven's Piano Sonata, Op.109. Riethmüller misses the fact that the opening notes of the Bach chorale are identical to the bass line of Beethoven's variation theme, and hence serve in Busoni's sonata as a good example of Busoni's idea of "the Oneness of Music." Riethmüller points out the "latent characteristic of quotation in Busoni's music," and discovers the borrowing of sketches for an unfinished piano work in the chorale variations and the borrowing from Bach's Trauerode, BWV 198 in the opening of Busoni's third movement. Riethmüller analyzes the Improvisation in terms of borrowing from the violin sonata, calling it obscurer, more aggressive, and more enigmatic. But the relationship of the two works is more like "that of a healthy mother to a very sickly child," since the average listener does not know its antecedent in detail and since some passages are incoherent and illogical.

Works: Busoni: Second Violin Sonata, Op. 36a, (571-73), Improvisation for Two Pianos on Bach's Chorale-Song 'Wie wohl ist mir' (573).

Sources: J.S. Bach: "Wie wohl ist mir" from Notenbuch für Anna Magdalena Bach (571), Trauerode, BWV 198 (572), Beethoven: Piano Sonata, Op. 109 (571), Busoni: Second Violin Sonata, Op. 36a (573).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Daniel Bertram

[+] Behr, Adam, Keith Negus, and John Street. “The Sampling Continuum: Musical Aesthetics and Ethics in the Age of Digital Production.” Journal for Cultural Research 21 (July 2017): 223-40.

In the current “post-sampling” era of digitalized popular music production, the practice of sampling exists withing a spectrum of musical practice, and the intermingling of practices has implications for the legal, moral, and aesthetic aspects of sampling. The basic legality of sampling—is a copyrighted recording cleared to use or not—is a technical question, but often the similarity between a musical work and the source of a sample is marginal at best (unlike in examples of plagiarism). Sampling law also favors copyright holders over the musicians whose contribution is sampled. The morality of sampling is discussed by musicians across genres, with significant overlap in how originality and copying are treated in other forms of musical borrowing. Distinctions between legitimate and illegitimate practices are made through generic codes, but there are grey areas to consider. The wide availability of digital sampling has made the sampling aesthetic a significant part of popular music production. The resulting cultural shift in attitudes toward sampling—post-sampling—is widespread but unevenly realized in moral and legal discourse.

Works: The Verve: Bittersweet Symphony (225-26).

Sources: Rolling Stones: The Last Time (225-26).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Beirens, Maarten. “Questioning the Foreign and Familiar: Interpreting Finnissy’s Use of Traditional and Non-Western Musical Sources.” In Critical Perspectives on Michael Finnissy: Bright Futures, Dark Pasts, 301-15. Abingdon: Routledge, 2019.

Michael Finnissy’s wide-ranging borrowing of various traditional musics in his Folklore cycle and Unsere Afrikareise from The History of Photography in Sound invite multiple hermeneutical readings revolving around two dichotomies: art versus folk music and Western versus non-Western music. In Unsere Afrikareise, Finnissy juxtaposes fragments of Moroccan, Ethiopian, and Venda traditional music with fragments of Mozart and Schubert dances. Finnissy’s work emphasizes the historical, colonialist link between the African and European traditions, complicating notions of musical otherness. Folklore extends this engagement with the politics of colonialism. A running theme in Folklore is the implication that folk music is often seen as inferior to art music. Finnissy borrows from a wide variety of musical cultures, transforming borrowed material through transcription and arranging it in multi-layered montages. This approach challenges the boundaries between familiar and “foreign” music and invites a personal and subjective approach to different cultures.

Works: Maarten Beirens: The History of Photography in Sound (304-7, 312), Folklore (307-12).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Beirens, Maarten. “Quotation as a Structural Element in Music by Michael Nyman.” Tempo 61 (October 2007): 25-38.

British composer Michael Nyman’s style could be characterized as a combination of musical quotations fused with minimalist compositional characteristics. Often his music establishes a dialogue with the past, engaging the listener with an active reevaluation of the original quoted work. In the soundtrack to Peter Greenaway’s film Draughtsman’s Contract (1982), Nyman based the entire score on elements of the music of Purcell, especially on ground basses and archetypes of functional harmony, gradually reducing out elements of Purcell’s stylistic language until just common harmonic patterns remained. This creates a sense of tension between the present and the past. In Drowning by Numbers, Nyman borrows from Mozart’s Sinfonia Concertante, K. 364. Nyman employs two different techniques of borrowing: variation and montage. Variation technique describes a process by which Nyman systematically varies every musical element associated with a borrowing (such as rhythm and pitch); this technique creates a sense of alienation between the two different musical eras (Classical and modern). Montage technique describes a process by which Nyman cuts up source material and brings it together again in a new framework; the individual compositional cells remain very close to the original, but their combination is quite different and introduces a new kind of formal coherence. These techniques of musical borrowing can also be seen in Nyman’s String Quartet No. 1 (1985), which borrows from works by Schoenberg and John Bull, creating a commentary on the music in which it is based. Nyman creates a dialectic between the two, with Bull representing traditional musical practices and Schoenberg representing more radical or modern practices, fully asserting himself as a European composer of the classical tradition in the process. Two charts (28, 33) summarize the borrowings in Drowing by Numbers and the String Quartet No. 1.

Works: Peter Greenaway (director) and Michael Nyman (composer): score to The Draughtsman’s Contract (26); Michael Nyman: Drowning by Numbers (27-32), In Re Don Giovanni (30), String Quartet No. 1 (33-37).

Sources: Purcell: Chasing Sheep is Best Left for Shepherds (26); Mozart: Sinfonia Concertante, K. 364 (27-32), Don Giovanni (30); John Bull: Walsingham (33-37); Schoenberg: String Quartet No. 2 (33-35).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Chelsea Hamm

[+] Bekker, Paul. Gustav Mahlers Sinfonien. Berlin: Schuster &Loeffer, 1921.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Benítez, Joaquim M. "Meiji 40-nen shuppan sanbutsuka ni okeru sanbika no shakuyo." Toyo ongaku kenkyu 66 (August 2001): 1-15.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Benkö, András. "Motivul B-A-C-H in muzica secolului XX." Lucrari de muzicologie 4 (1968): 137-56.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Berger, Arthur V. "Aspects of Aaron Copland's Music." Tempo, no. 10 (March 1945): 2-5.

Aaron Copland alters material borrowed from American folksong to make it individual and to evoke folksong as a genre. In adapting the source tunes, Copland changes their character (Lincoln Portrait), shifts rhythmic emphasis (Billy the Kid, Rodeo), and fragments motives (El salón México). The compositional technique is comparable to that in the more abstract works; for example, Danzon Cubano and the Violin Sonata employ similar rhythmic patterns. Works by Copland that draw upon folksong portray not only the open space of the prairies, but also the isolation of New York City, Copland's own environment.

Works: Copland: Piano Sonata (2), Danzon Cubano (2-3), Violin Sonata (2-3), Lincoln Portrait (3), Billy the Kid (3), El salón México (4), Rodeo (4).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Elizabeth Bergman

[+] Berger, Arthur. Aaron Copland. New York: Oxford University Press, 1953.

Within a life and works study, musical borrowings from American folk music are considered. A number of works after 1934 borrow from folk sources, including El salón México,Billy the Kid,Rodeo, and Lincoln Portrait. Copland transformed and developed his borrowings through melodic and rhythmic displacement, character changes, and motivic fragmentation. As a result of folk influence, Copland composed more melodic music that relies upon diatonic harmonies. The use of folksong assisted Copland in his search for a simpler style accessible to a wider audience. Copland's borrowings were also the result of his Americanism and his desire to bring the American popular-music heritage into the concert hall.

Works: Copland: Vitebsk (52), Lincoln Portrait (60-61), Rodeo (63-64), El Salón México (63-65), Billy the Kid (65n, 91), Appalachian Spring (65n), Third Symphony (72-80), The Heiress (film score) (89), Las Agachadas (91); Rimsky-Korsakoff: Russian Easter Overture (73); Stravinsky: Petrouchka (73, 91), Pulcinella (91).

Sources: Springfield Mountain (60-61); El Mosca (63); If He'd Be a Buckaroo (63-64); Sis Joe (64); El Palo Verde (65); The Gift to Be Simple (Simple Gifts) (65n); Goodbye Old Paint (65n, 91); Copland: Fanfare for the Common Man (75); Giovanni Martini: Plaisirs d'amour (89).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Elizabeth Bergman

[+] Bergman, Elizabeth. “Of Rage and Remembrance, Music and Memory: The Work of Mourning in John Corigliano’s Symphony No. 1 and Choral Chaconne.” American Music 31 (Fall 2013): 340-61.

John Corigliano’s Symphony No. 1 and its derivative choral chaconne, Of Rage and Remembrance, form a supplementary pair dealing with private and public mourning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the 1980s. The symphony is a work of mourning, dedicated to Corigliano’s lifelong friend Sheldon Shkolnik, who died of AIDS just weeks after attending the premiere in March 1990. Mourning and remembrance are musically invoked throughout the symphony. For example, in the first movement (titled “Apologue”), Corigliano quotes Leopold Godowsky’s arrangement of Isaac Albéniz’s Tango in D, a piece frequently performed by Shkolnik. The tango is performed by an offstage piano, emphasizing Shkolnik’s absence. The third movement presents a different approach to memory and mourning by blending a cello improvisation by Giulio Sorrentino with J. S. Bach’s lamenting chorale Es ist genug (Corigliano also alludes to Alban Berg’s use of this chorale in his Violin Concerto). The third movement reaches its climax with a “quilt” of nine interwoven melodies labeled in the score with the names of nine friends of Corigliano’s who were victims of AIDS—a reference to the NAMES Project’s AIDS Quilt memorial begun in 1987. Of Rage and Remembrance, a choral chaconne setting of the third movement of the symphony, makes the mourning explicit by reciting the names of Corigliano’s deceased friends.

Works: John Corigliano: Symphony No. 1 (345-53); Of Rage and Remembrance (353-58)

Sources: Isaac Albéniz (composer), Leopold Godowsky (arranger): Tango in D Major, Op. 165, No. 2 (345-47); Giulio Sorrentino: Giulio’s Song (Improvisation) (348-53); J. S. Bach: Es ist genug from O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort, BWV 60 (348-50); Alban Berg: Violin Concerto (349-50); John Corigliano: Symphony No. 1 (353-58)

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Berlin, Edward A. King of Ragtime: Scott Joplin and His Era. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Within a study of Scott Joplin and his compositions, several cases of borrowing or modeling are explored. The most imitated Joplin piece was Maple Leaf Rag, his biggest hit. Also imitated to some extent were Elite Syncopations,Palm Leaf Rag, and Original Rags. Many imitations were little more than plagiarisms. Joplin's imitations of himself, however, were brilliant. Gladiolous Rag,Rose Leaf Rag, and Cascades preserve what Joplin apparently felt were attractive structural elements of the Maple Leaf Rag. Also noteworthy is the possibility of Irving Berlin's Alexander's Ragtime Band borrowing from Joplin's Treemonisha.

Works: Settle: X.L. Rag (51, 68); Etter: Whoa! Maud (52, 69); Butler: The Tantalizer (67); Donaldson: Latonia Rag (68); Nonnahs: That's Goin' Some (68); Tournade: Easy Money (113); Scott: A Summer Breeze (113); Morton: Fuzzy Wuzzy Rag (113-14); Verge: Who You Heiffer (131); Joplin: Cascades (136-38), Gladiolous Rag (169-72), Rose Leaf Rag (169-72); Berlin: Alexander's Ragtime Band (210-12).

Sources: Joplin: Original Rags (50-51), Maple Leaf Rag (67-69, 136, 152, 169-70, 179, 182-83), The Entertainer (108-10), A Breeze From Alabama (110-12), Elite Syncopations (113-14), Palm Leaf Rag (130-32), Treemonisha (210-12).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan

[+] Berman, Laurence David. "Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun and Jeux: Debussy's Summer Rites." 19th-Century Music 3 (March 1980): 225-38.

The plots of both works are similar so that Debussy's method of translating poetry into music can be compared. The retrospective character of the prelude is apparent in the evocation of (1) Tristan, (2) Chopin's Nocturne No. 8 in Db major, (3) Saint-Saëns's Mon coeur s'ouvre à ta voix, and (4) the love music of Tchaikovsky's Romeo and Juliet.

Works: Debussy: Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun (227-32), Jeux (232-38).

Sources: Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (232), Chopin: Nocturne No. 8 in D flat (232), Saint-Saëns: Mon coeur s'ouvre à ta voix (232), Tchaikovsky: Romeo and Juliet (232).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Bernard, Jonathan W. "Tonal Traditions in Art Music Since 1960." In The Cambridge History of American Music, ed. David Nicholls, 535-66. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

A group of composers, known as "Converts," began as "post-tonalists" and experimentalists and then moved toward more tonal idioms in the 1960s and 1970s. One of the first composers to leave the "post-tonal" world was George Rochberg, who began using collage and other borrowing techniques in his compositions of the mid-1960s. He began quoting his contemporaries and slowly moved to allusion of past composers and eras with his Third String Quartet. Another composer to use collage and allusion was David Del Tredici, who used various traditional and popular tunes to support the texts of Lewis Carroll. William Bolcom, John Harbison, Chick Corea, Keith Jarrett, and Anthony Davis began mixing art music and popular music through quotation, allusion, and homage to create a tonal idiom unlike those found in the music of Rochberg and Del Tredici. In the 1980s and 1990s, young composers also looked back to the Romantic period, but they did not use quotation or other actual borrowing techniques to the extent of the Converts. The young Romantic composers usually composed original music that only alluded slightly to the former composers of the 1800s.

Works: Rochberg: Music for the Magic Theater (546), String Quartet No. 3 (546-47); Del Tredici: Pop-Pourri (547), Vintage Alice (548); Zwilich: Concerto Grosso (561); Larson: Symphony: Water Music (563).

Sources: Mozart: Divertimento K. 287 (546); Bach: Es ist genug (547); Traditional: Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star (548), God Save the Queen (548); Handel: Violin Sonata in D (561), Water Music (563).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Altizer

[+] Bernier, Kiyono Monique. "Disparate Measures: Two 20th Century Treatments of the Paganini Theme." DMA diss., University of Arizona, 2000.

Niels Viggo Bentzon's Variationer for klaver, Op. 241, and Robert Muczynski's Desperate Measures (Paganini Variations) participate in a long tradition of variations in general and variations on Paganini's Caprice No. 24, and their contributions to the latter tradition exhibit divergent approaches to variation technique. Bentzon obscures all melodic references to Paganini's theme and does not label variations, preferring instead to make subtle allusions to Paganini's harmonies and rhythms within the context of Bentzon's own language. Muczynski's Desperate Measures, on the other hand, is a work conceived of as entertainment, and references to Paganini's melody remain clear within a more traditional approach to variations and tonality, to which Muczynski adds modern dance idioms.

Works: J. S. Bach: Goldberg Variations (11-13); Mozart: Variations in F Major, "Salve tu Domine," K. 398; Beethoven: Diabelli Variations, Op. 120 (14); Chopin: Twelve Concert Etudes, Op. 10 (18); Liszt: Grandes études de Paganini, Op. 6 (28, 30-32, 101); Busoni: Paganini-Liszt Theme mit Variationen, Etüden, No. 6 (28-32); Lutosławski: Variations on a Theme of Paganini (28, 32); Brahms: Variations on a Theme by Paganini, Op. 35 (28, 32-33, 101); Rachmaninov: Rhapsody on a Theme by Paganini, Op. 43 (28, 32-33); Niels Viggo Bentzon: Variationer for Klaver, Op. 241 (29, 34, 37-62, 65, 98-101); Robert Muczynski: Desperate Measures (Paganini Variations) (29, 65-98, 100-102).

Sources: Anonymous: Ich bin so lang nicht bei dir g'west (12), Kraut und Rüben (12); Paisiello: "Salve tu, domine" from I filosofi immaginarii (13); Anton Diabelli: Waltz (14); Paganini: 24 Caprices, Op. 1 (26-29); Liszt: Grandes études de Paganini, Op. 6 (30).

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Virginia Whealton

[+] Berrett, Joshua. "Louis Armstrong and Opera." The Musical Quarterly 76 (Summer 1992): 216-41.

Louis Armstrong's prolifically wide-ranging tastes regarding art and music find their outlet in his incorporation of operatic fragments in his improvised solos. Armstrong was inclined to imitate operatic gestures such as recitative style, as exemplified by his solo in Blue Again. Armstrong also played operatic cadenza-like passages in certain breaks, such as in I Can't Give You Anything But Love (234). In other instances, Armstrong quoted operatic themes, such as Verdi's Rigoletto quartet and "Vesti la giubba" from Pagliacci. By quoting Pagliacci and Rigoletto, he was showing that his artistic influences were not limited to the pantheon of New Orleans cornet virtuosos of the early twentieth century. Armstrong did not distinguish between "high" and "low" art; it was all jazz to him, and his quotations of well-known music are a demonstration of this belief.

Works: Louis Armstrong: Cornet/Trumpet solos on Araby (220), Blue Again (222, 235), New Orleans Stomp (223), Dinah (223-24, 234, 236), Tiger Rag (225), New Tiger Rag (225); Armstrong and Bechet: Jazz improvisations on Kansas City Man Blues (228), Texas Moaner Blues (229); Louis Armstrong: Cornet/Trumpet solos on Potato Head Blues (229); Armstrong and Bechet: Jazz improvisations on Cake Walking Babies from Home (230, 234); Louis Armstrong: Cornet/Trumpet solos on West End Blues (231-36); Armstrong and Bechet: Jazz improvisations on Mandy Make Up Your Mind (232), Early Every Morn (233); Louis Armstrong: Cornet/Trumpet solos on Beau Koo Jack (235), Once in a While (235), Can't Give You Anything But Love (235).

Sources: Verdi: Rigoletto (218, 222-23, 231-32); Gounod: Faust (220); Ponchielli: Dance of the Hours (221), Gershwin: Lady Be Good! (223); Sindig: Rustle of Spring (225); Leoncavallo: Pagliacci (225); Porter Steele: High Society (227, 232); Bizet: Carmen (231); Eva Dell'Acqua: Villanelle (232-33); Suppé: Poet and Peasant Overture (233).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan, Marc Geelhoed

[+] Betz, Marianne. "The Voice of the City: New York in der Musik von Charles Ives." Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 61, no. 3 (2004): 207-25.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Beyer, Richard. “Das musikalische Selbstzitat: Eigene Musik in anderen Werken nochmals verwendet.” Das Orchester: Zeitschrift für Orchesterkultur und Rundfunk-Chorwesen 49 (2001): 20-24.

Self-quotation in the classical tradition is when a composer cites a melody or segment from an existing composition in a new work for some extramusical purpose or meaning. Although the technique is rarely found in Renaissance or Baroque music, it attained increased prominence in the late-Classical period and into the twentieth century, due to emerging aesthetics of originality and “absolute music.” The effectiveness of self-quotation, moreover, depends on the composer’s ability to present the existing material in a recognizable way, as well as the listener’s understanding of the origin and meaning of the original work.

Through self-quotation, a composer can create a diverse array of new presentations of older material ranging from commentary, illustration, humor, and either distancing or affirmation of the original material’s meaning. Mozart’s insertion of “Non piú andrai” from Le nozze di Figaro in the finale of Don Giovanni, for instance, momentarily dissolves the boundaries of operatic illusion and reality, invoking the plot of the former opera to foreshadow Don Giovanni’s impending doom. Beethoven utilizes a theme from his ballet Die Geschöpfe des Prometheus as the basis for the finale of his Eroica Symphony to invoke the image of Prometheus as the symbolic hero of the work, which is especially asserted in the coda. In his opera Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, Wagner quotes the “love motive” from Tristan und Isolde to draw a parallel between the love triangles of both operas. While the motive symbolized a tragic fate in Tristan und Isolde, however, in Die Meistersinger it reminds Hans Sachs of a tragedy to avoid, thus ensuring the opera’s happy ending. Anton Bruckner inserted quotations from many of his sacred works into his symphonies to give them a special character of reverence and piety. Richard Strauss practiced self-quotation frequently, but particularly fascinating is his symphonic poem Ein Heldenleben, which uses material from Guntram, Don Juan, and several other works to depict Strauss himself as the titular hero of Ein Heldenleben. Self-quotation’s continued relevance as a compositional technique can be seen in contemporary works, with Berg’s opera Lulu, Liebermann’s opera Leonore 40/45, and Zimmermann’s Ballet noir being notable examples.

Works: Mozart: Don Giovanni, K. 527 (21); Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 in E-flat Major, Op. 55 (Eroica) (21); Wagner: Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (21-22); Bruckner: Symphony No. 0 in D Minor, WAB 100 (23), Symphony No. 2 in C Minor, WAB 102 (23), Symphony No. 3 in D Minor, WAB 103 (23), Symphony No. 9 in D Minor, WAB 109 (23), Symphony No. 7 in C-sharp Minor, WAB 107 (23); Richard Strauss: Ein Heldenleben, Op. 40 (23-24), Feuersnot, Op. 50 (24), Der Bürger als Edelmann, Op. 60b (24), Eine Alpensinfonie, Op. 64 (24), Intermezzo, Op. 72 (24), Capriccio, Op. 85 (24), Vier letzte Lieder, Op. posth. (24); Alban Berg: Lulu (24); Rolf Liebermann: Leonore 40/45 (24); Bernd Alois Zimmermann: Ballet noir: Musique pour les soupers du Roi Ubu (24).

Sources: Mozart: Le Nozze di Figaro, K. 492 (21); Beethoven: Die Geschöpfe des Prometheus, Op. 43 (21); Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (21-22); Bruckner: Ave Maria, WAB 6 (23), Mass in F Minor, WAB 28 (23), Mass in D Minor, WAB 26 (23), Te Deum in C Major, WAB 45 (23); Richard Strauss: Guntram, Op. 25 (23-24), Macbeth, Op. 23 (23), Don Juan, Op. 20 (23), Tod und Verklärung, Op. 24 (23-24), Till Eulenspiegels lustige Streiche, Op. 28 (23), Also sprach Zarathustra, Op. 30 (23), Don Quixote, Op. 35 (23-24), Hymne an die Liebe, Op. 71, No. 1 (24), Ein Heldenleben, Op. 40 (24), Daphne, Op. 82 (24), Ariadne auf Naxos, Op. 60 (24); Alban Berg: Wozzeck (24); Rolf Liebermann: Sonate für Klavier (24).

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew G. Leone

[+] Bezuidenhout, Morné P. “Metamorphosis in ‘Metamorphoses’: A Set Theory approach to the Harmonic Continuo in Lutoslawski’s ‘Funeral Music.’” South African Journal of Musicology 4 (1984): 17-21.

Although Lutoslawski’s Funeral Music was written in 1954 for the tenth anniversary of Béla Bartók’s death in 1945, there was no intention to imitate Bartók’s musical style in this piece. Some of Lutoslawki’s stylistic interests are closely aligned with those of Bartók, which results in several accidental resemblances in the work. Of particular interest is the twelve-note structure (with alternating semitones and tritones) in the harmonic continuo in the second movement. Unlike the practice by composers in the Second Viennese School, this twelve-note structure does not exhibit serialism. Rather, the twelve-tone quality is found in vertical spaces of the harmonic continuo, in which thirds are absent.

Works: Lutoslawski: Funeral Music (17-21).

Sources: Lutoslawski: Two Etudes for Piano (17), Variations on a Theme of Paganini for 2 Pianos (17), Symphony No. 1 (17), Overture for Strings (17).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Nicolette van den Bogerd

[+] Bick, Sally. "Political Ironies: Hanns Eisler in Hollywood and Behind the Iron Curtain." Acta Musicologica 75 (2003): 65-84.

By borrowing a musical passage from his film score Hangman also Die within the opening of his song Auferstanden aus Ruinen, Hanns Eisler utilized the same music for two extremely different political and social circumstances—a paradox that illustrates music's ability to mediate meaning through cultural encoding. The 1943 motion picture Hangmen also Die by Fritz Lang is a product of the Hollywood entertainment industry and American capitalism, whereas Auferstanden aus Ruinen is a patriotic song adopted by the communist German Democratic Republic as its national anthem. In the film, the story centers on the struggle of the united Czech people to overcome the brutal Nazi occupation; the relevant musical passage is heard in a scene in which the leading Czech resistance leader lies on his deathbed after a Nazi raid. The slow, syncopated rhythm in the bass line and the three-note descending sequential figure in the melody symbolize the patriotism and heroism of the Czech people fighting against fascism. Eisler borrows these same gestures in the opening of the anthem, and in both cases exploits the emotional power of music to mediate a political and social message. The paradox of Eisler's self-borrowing emphasizes music's ability to cross social and political boundaries.

Works: Eisler: Auferstanden aus Ruinen.

Sources: Eisler: Score for Hangman also Die.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular, Film

Contributed by: Mary Ellen Ryan

[+] Bicknell, Jeanette. “The Problem of Reference in Musical Quotation: A Phenomenological Approach.” The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 59 (Spring 2001): 185-91.

Musical quotation is an intentional act of re-use by the composer who intends for it to be heard as reference to other music. Hence, part of musical quotation’s success lies in listeners’ recognition of the borrowed material. Nelson Goodman posited that there are two prerequisites for direct or indirect quotations: containment and reference. While containment is explicit, reference poses musical challenges since there is no system of reference in performed music. Therefore, context, emphasis, and pause serve as auditory devices for reference in music. In listening to Schnittke’s String Quartet No. 3, one finds it easy to recognize the initial fragment from Lassus, as each time it appears, the Lassus fragment stands in contrast to the music that came before and after. However, the reference to Beethoven’s Grosse Fuge in less obvious, as there is no clear stylistic contrast between the quotation and Schnittke’s own compositional idiom. As a result, one is less likely to be able to recognize the quotation. The recognition of Shostakovich’s “D–E-flat–C–B” signature is dependent on listeners’ familiarity with the aural projection of the motive. While familiarity plays a key role in the identification of the quotation, a keen awareness of the practice of musical quotation and musical literacy is more crucial. The identification of musical references also relies on memory and a shared cultural context between the composer and his listeners. While musical reference can be exclusionary by forging a bond between the composer and his musically literate audience, it can also be seen as an invitation to others to discover the original context of the quoted work and join the group of enlightened listeners.

Works: Schnittke: String Quartet No. 3 (186).

Sources: Lassus: Stabat Mater (186); Beethoven: Grosse Fuge, Op. 133 (186).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Jingyi Zhang

[+] Birchler, David Carl. "Nature and Autobiography in the Music of Gustav Mahler." Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1991.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Biron, Ferand. Le chant gregorien dans l'enseignement et les oeuvres musicales de Vincent d'Indy. Ottawa: Les Editions de l'Université d'Ottawa, 1941.

Vincent d'Indy was heavily influenced by Gregorian plainsong, and this influence was clearly reflected in his musical philosophies, teaching, and compositions. D'Indy's music quotes, paraphrases, or alludes to the style of Gregorian chant in several ways. These are organized according to compositional genre. The use of Gregorian chant fits into d'Indy's musical aesthetic in several ways.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Lee Ann Roripaugh

[+] Bittel, Hermann. "Der Cantus firmus in der zeitgenössischen geistlichen Chormusik." Ph.D. diss., Munich, 1950.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Bittmann, Antonius. “Reconciling God and Satan: Max Reger’s Phantasie und Fuge über den Namen B-A-C-H, Op. 46.” Journal of Musicology 18 (Summer 2001): 490-515.

Max Reger’s Phantasie und Fuge über den Namen B-A-C-H, Op. 46, was his attempt to balance the expressive values of Bach and Wagner within the fin de siècle anxiety over the future direction of German music. Aesthetic and ideological comparisons between Bach and Wagner were common in Reger’s time, and the two pillars of German music were often described as two dialectic poles with an understanding of one completing the understanding of the other. Along these lines, Reger described Bach as a remedy for the affliction of “Wagneritis,” what he saw as a misunderstanding of Wagner’s true identity. The opening of Phantasie draws heavily on Tristan und Isolde, prominently utilizing the Tristan chord in the opening measure and developing unresolved seventh chords in the same way as Wagner does in the Tristan prelude. The harmonic and polyphonic language Reger (and Wagner) uses is prefigured in Bach’s music. Reger models his Phantasie on Bach’s Fantasy and Fugue in G Minor, BWV 542 (and to a lesser extent, Liszt’s 1870 Präludium und Fuge über B-A-C-H), and the B-A-C-H theme is present throughout the work. Elements of Bach’s harmonic language—common chord tones and leading-tone chromaticism, for two—that are also used by Wagner are highlighted by Reger, who draws on both composers’ work. Reger also alludes to the moment of transfiguration for the morbidly ill protagonist in Richard Strauss’s Tod und Verklärung, further underscoring Phantasie’s purpose of curing the illness of Wagneritis. Through Phantasie, Reger hoped to synthesize and transcend Bach and Wagner, and to proclaim a new era free of pessimism and cultural illness.

Works: Reger: Phantasie und Fuge über den Namen B-A-C-H, Op. 46 (502-14)

Sources: Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (502-9); J. S. Bach: Fantasy and Fugue in G Minor, BWV 542 (506-10); Richard Strauss: Tod und Verklärung (512-14)

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Blackburn, Manuella. “The Terminology of Borrowing.” Organised Sound 24 (August 2019): 139-56.

In electroacoustic music compositions, various types of sound and music borrowing are commonly practiced, and a carefully constructed terminology of borrowing would lay the groundwork for a better understanding of the nuances of these practices. First, within electroacoustic music, there is a difference between borrowing a sound recording and borrowing existing music. Composers of electroacoustic music describe their motivations for borrowing with a breadth of terminology. There is also a variety of specific types of borrowing, including sampling, appropriation, stealing, and so on, and the boundaries between them can sometimes be fuzzy. Layers and lineages of borrowing occur when a piece borrows from a source that itself borrows from an even earlier source. Different durations of borrowed material are also distinguishable, and are relevant to the legalities of borrowing. In electroacoustic music, there are distinctive modification and embedding techniques. For example, borrowed material can be reconfigured (changed in some way), disintegrated (broken up and reorganized), or obliterated (no sense of the original work remains). The terminology of borrowing in electroacoustic music is distinct from other typologies of borrowing, and it provides a framework for understanding the differences in borrowing between electroacoustic and instrumental music.

Works: Åke Parmerud: Necropolis: City of the Dead (143); Louis Dufort: Gen_3 (143, 146); Francis Dhomont: Novars (143, 146); Margaret Schedel: After | Applebox (146); Brahms: Symphony No. 4 in E minor, Op. 98 (146); Pauline Oliveros: Bye Bye Butterfly (149); Vladimir Ussachevsky: Wireless Fantasy (149).

Sources: Wagner: Die Walküre (143), Parsifal (149); Palestrina: Missa Papae Marcelli (143); J. S. Bach: Suite No. 1 in G major, BWV 1007 (143), Nach dir, Herr, verlanget mich, BWV 150 (146); Beethoven: Piano Sonata No. 8 in C minor, Op. 14, Pathétique (143); Francis Dhomont: Novars (143, 146); Pierre Schaeffer: Étude aux objets (143, 146); Machaut: Messe de Nostre Dame (143, 146); Brahms: Symphony No. 4 in E minor, Op. 98 (146); Puccini: Madama Butterfly (149).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Blanchard, Gérard. Images de la musique de cinéma. Paris: Collection Médiathèque, 1984.

Within the context of an examination into film music as a component equally crucial to the film as the images on the screen, musical borrowing is discussed with special attention paid to the musical cliché. The use and creation of musical clichés in film music derives first and foremost from the recontextualization of "classical" music in film. The musical cliché is analogous to the literary. In some cases, the classifications and associations assigned to the musical cues of the silent films derive from already established semiotic codes, but in most cases film composers were creating and re-creating cultural and psychological points of reference in the ears and minds of the film spectators. In the process of recognizing the real social importance of these musical clichés, their respective archetypes are uncovered.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: David Oliver

[+] Blaustein, Susan. "Uses of Sonata Form in Schubert's Op. 29/I and Schoenberg's Op. 30/I." M.A. thesis, Yale University, 1980.

There is evidence to suggest that Schoenberg modeled the first movement of his Third String Quartet (1927) on the first movement of Schubert's String Quartet in A minor, Op. 29 (1824). Schoenberg's incessant eighth-note ostinato in the second violin and viola at the opening of the movement shows a clear allegiance to the perpetual eighth notes at the opening of the Schubert. But what is especially noteworthy is Schoenberg's unique manipulation and recasting of the traditional elements of sonata form within the new environment of the twelve-tone system.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Mark S. Spicer

[+] Blay, Philippe, and Hervé Lacombe. "A l'ombre de Massenet, Proust et Loti: Le manuscrit autographe de L'Ile du rêve de Reynaldo Hahn." Revue de musicologie 79, no. 1 (1993): 83-108.

The recently revealed manuscript for L'Ile du rêve contains Hahn's marginal comments written in the style of Massenet. An examination of these markings displays Hahn's infatuation and dependence on not only Massenet, but also contemporary writers Loti and Proust. Regarding his teacher Massenet, Hahn wrote that he was dependent on him for compositional technique and melodic ideas. (EH)

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Blezzard, Judith H. Borrowings in English Church Music, 1550-1950. London: Stainer &Bell, 1990.

Index Classifications: 1500s, 1600s, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Block, Adrienne Fried. "Amy Beach's Music on Native American Themes." American Music 8 (Summer 1900): 141-66.

Amy Beach composed five works using Native American music as themes. Her usage reflected an interest, shared by MacDowell, Dvořák, Farwell and others, in developing an American musical idiom. In her Indianist works, Beach integrated source tunes through dissonance, chromaticism, drones, and other devices, facilitating her development of a unique musical language.

Works: Beach: Eskimos, Op. 64 (148-50), An Indian Lullaby, Op. 57, No. 3 (149), From Blackbird Hills: An Omaha Tribal Dance, Op. 83 (150-52), Trio, Op. 150 (152-54), String Quartet, Op. 89 (154-63).

Sources: Native American tunes transcribed by Boas in The Central Eskimo (144, 149-50, 152, 156, 160); Beach: The Returning Hunter, Op. 64, No. 2 (152-53).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan

[+] Block, Adrienne Fried. "Dvořák's Long American Reach." In Dvořák in America, 1892-1895, ed. John C. Tibbetts, 157-81. Portland, Ore: Amadeus, 1993.

Dvořák had a wide-ranging impact on the creation of an American nationalism in music. His ideas about a national American music fall into three different categories, each dealing with a style of folk music. Dvořák felt that American composers should look toward these three folk styles as foundations for their compositions, following the model of his own New World Symphony from 1893. The first category of national American music is Native American music. Composers continued to follow Dvořák's ideas by collecting the music, using previous collections made by ethnologists, and alluding to the culture of the Native American in symphonic and chamber music and opera. The second folk style Dvořák discussed is African-American music. Composers broke into two categories of African-American music, yet they all still were following many of the ideals set forth in the writings of Dvořák. Many composers looked towards the traditions of the Creole people in the South, while others focused mainly on spirituals and other slave songs for the inspiration of various compositions. Finally, composers began looking toward Anglo-American folk traditions, which was the final type of folk music briefly discussed by Dvořák as a basis for a national music. Dvořák was a significant influence on the creation of American music from his entrance into the country until mid-twentieth century.

Works: Works: Dvořák: Symphony No. 9 in E Minor, From the New World (158-59); MacDowell: Indian Suite (163); Loomis: Lyrics of the Red Men (163-64); Nevin: Poia (164); Farwell: The Hako (164); Griffes: Two Sketches Based on Indian Themes (164-65); Beach: String Quartet, Op. 89 (165-66); van Brockhoven: Suite Creole (169); Gilbert: Dance in Place Congo (169); Beach: Cabildo (169); Shelly: Carnival Overture (170); Schoenefeld: Suite, Op. 15 (170); Goldmark: Negro Rhapsody (171); Gilbert: Negro Episode (171); Mason: String Quartet in G Minor on Negro Themes (172); Cook: Uncle Tom's Cabin (173); Gershwin: Rhapsody in Blue (174).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Altizer

[+] Block, Geoffrey. "Ives and the 'Sounds That Beethoven Didn't Have.'" In Charles Ives and the Classical Tradition, ed. Geoffrey Block and J. Peter Burkholder, 34-50. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996.

Ives's borrowings from Beethoven in his Concord Sonata extend beyond reverence and homage. Ives integrates the famous four-note opening to Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 into his own theme, which he calls the "human faith melody." By reworking Beethoven's motto into a new context, Ives pays tribute to Beethoven and also challenges Beethoven's music by improving the material with new sounds Beethoven might have used had he been Ives's contemporary. The Concord Sonata thus displays Ives's success in overcoming what Harold Bloom calls the "anxiety of influence" by confronting Beethoven's influence head-on.

Works: Ives: Arrangement of Beethoven's Piano Sonata in F Minor, Op. 2, No. 1 (34-37), Second Piano Sonata (Concord) (37-50).

Sources: Beethoven: Piano Sonata in F Minor, Op. 2, No. 1 (34-37), Symphony No. 5 in C Minor (40-44,47-50), Piano Sonata in B-flat Major, Op. 106 (Hammerklavier) (44-47); Simeon B. Marsh: Martyn (42-45); Charles Zeuner: Missionary Chant (42-44).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Brent C. Reidy

[+] Block, Geoffrey. "Remembrance of Dissonances Past: The Two Published Editions of Ives's Concord Sonata." In Ives Studies, ed. Philip Lambert, 27-50. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Block, Geoffrey. Ives: Concord Sonata. Cambridge Music Handbooks. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Block, Steven. "George Rochberg: Progressive or Master Forger?" Perspectives of New Music 21 (1982-1983): 407-9.

Rochberg is an imitator who does not place his personal stamp on the compositions he quotes. Rochberg's style of quotation presents a shallow picture of the composer he tries to portray without adding anything of his own.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Sergio Bezerra

[+] Block, Steven. “Bemsha Swing: The Transformation of a Bebop Classic to Free Jazz.” Music Theory Spectrum 19 (Fall 1997): 206-231.

Critics of Cecil Taylor’s recordings have incorrectly accused him of abandoning tonality and emphasizing texture in his improvisations. Pitch-class set analysis of Taylor’s improvisations, however, reveals a much closer connection between Taylor and his predecessors than previously acknowledged. Two recordings of Thelonious Monk and Denzil Best’s Bemsha Swing, one by Monk in 1955 and one by Taylor in 1958, demonstrate this close connection. Monk uses only a small collection of pitch-class sets and pitch-class operators for many of his improvisations, all in the context of standard bebop extended tonality. Taylor uses sets that imply traditional jazz scales and derive from Monk’s improvisations. By applying pitch-class operations, particularly multiplication, to these sets, Taylor gradually removes them from a tonal context.

Works: Thelonious Monk and Denzel Best (composers) and Cecil Taylor (performer): Bemsha Swing (219-31).

Sources: Thelonious Monk and Denzil Best (composers) and Thelonious Monk (performer): Bemsha Swing (207-19).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Blyton, Carey. “Sondheim’s ‘Sweeney Todd’: The Case for the Defence.” Tempo 149 (June 1984): 19-26.

Stephen Sondheim’s Sweeney Todd is not a musical, but an opera, and has suffered by not being performed by opera companies for opera audiences. In Sweeney Todd, Sondheim shows his knowledge of the Western art music tradition through musical borrowing, leitmotif-like motivic recurrence, stylistic allusion to canonic composers and popular musics, harsh dissonance and bi-tonality, mixed meter, and other techniques. Such techniques provide the work with dramatic cohesion and musical integrity.

Works: Stephen Sondheim: Sweeney Todd.

Sources: Anonymous: Dies Irae (20, 24-25).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Bohlman, Philip V., and Andrea F. Bohlman. “(Un)Covering Hanns Eisler’s Hollywood Songbook.” Danish Yearbook of Musicology 35 (2007): 13-29.

Hanns Eisler’s works have been going through a resurgence in a post-socialist, post-modern world. Why does his music, particularly Hollywood Songbook, resonate with later audiences? Part of the reason may be that Eisler’s works have a propensity not only to be covered by others but also to begin as covers themselves; bringing the popular music theories of covering into art music may help answer some of these questions about Eisler. The process of covering, regardless of genre, also raises further problems of authorship and authenticity, muddying who is the true author of the work and what the work means for a given time period. Connecting the concept of covers to the concept of performances and performative genres can help alleviate some of these problems.

Eisler’s Hollywood Songbook takes its influence both from Bertold Brecht’s poetry of the same name, the Hollywood Liederbuch, as well as the intangible “Great American Songbook” that many composers claim to reference. All three of these objects are difficult to classify in terms of genre, and thus invite intertextualization, which helps us understand Eisler’s songbook with its references to both exile and modernity borrowed from Brecht’s work and the Great American Songbook. As Eisler’s work itself is a sort of cover of these themes, other artists create their own covers and performances of the work, from popular singers such as Sting to visual artists like Ana Torf. These performative works invite further intertextual readings of both the performance and Eisler’s songbook.

Works: Hanns Eisler: Hollywood Songbook (19-29), Neue deutsche Volkslieder (19); Sting: The Secret Marriage (26-27); Heiner Goebbels: Eislermaterial (26-27); Ana Torf: Performance Art Installation (26-27).

Sources: Hanns Eisler: Hollywood Songbook (25-29).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Film

Contributed by: Emily Baumgart

[+] Boldt, Kenwyn. "The Solo Piano Variations of Rachmaninoff." D.M. document, Indiana University, 1967.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Bolley, Richard. "Ancient and Modern 3." Early Music 8, no. 4 (October 1980): 3-5.

While at university in Manchester, Peter Maxwell Davies immersed himself in early music. From the Liber Usualis, the volumes in the Tudor Church Music series, and performances at Manchester Cathedral, Davies heard and studied this repertoire. Upon purchasing the volume of John Dunstable's works in the Musica Britannica collection, Davies began to use Dunstable's music in his own compositions as an alternative to the serial procedures currently in vogue. He says that he borrowed the idea of plainsong transformation from Dunstable, as well as the manner in which he structured rhythm. Davies was also concerned with aesthetic expression and the process in which a composition would speak to the listener. In order to reach the height of expression, a composition must also be in correct proportion, an idea Davies shares with Dunstable. However, the proportional structure need not be heard to communicate to the listener. Davies also uses the vocabulary of early music when he speaks of a cantus or tenor working its way through his compositions. For Davies, this is no mere intellectual exercise, but a compositional process which he believes allows him to communicate to a wide audience.

Works: Davies: Prolation (3).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Christopher Holmes

[+] Bomberger, E. Douglas, and Adrienne Fried Block. “On Beach’s Variations on Balkan Themes, Op. 60.” American Music 11 (Autumn 1993): 368-71.

Amy Beach recommended in her essay “Ten Commandments for Young Composers” that when composers approached a new form, they should choose a work to use as a model for their composition. Her Variations on Balkan Themes may have been modeled after Beethoven’s Six Variations, Op. 34, a work that Beach had in her repertoire throughout her career. There is a similar tonal scheme between the two works, though Beach’s is in minor and Beethoven’s in major.

Works: Amy Beach: Variations on Balkan Themes, Op. 60.

Sources: Beethoven: Six Variations, Op. 34 (369-70).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Devin Chaloux

[+] Bomberger, E. Douglas. “Motivic Development in Amy Beach’s Variations on Balkan Themes, Op. 60.” American Music 10 (Autumn 1992): 326-47.

Amy Beach’s Variations on Balkan Themes, her largest and most difficult piano composition, utilizes four Balkan tunes throughout the work. Beach originally thought these melodies were peasant melodies, but two have been positively identified as Bulgarian urban songs. Though there are four melodies used, titled O Maiko Moya, Stara Planina, Nasadil e Dado, and Macedonia,, they do not receive equal treatment in length and development. For instance, the main theme of the variations is based solely on O Maiko Moya, whereas Nasadil e Dado only appears once in the entire work. The other two melodies had charged political meanings, suggesting that Beach was sympathetic to the Balkan people, especially the Macedonians. The form of the work is best described as “free” or “fantasia” variations since the theme is metrically and harmonically free, allowing for development of motives. In this regard, Beach’s variations are constructed similarly to Dvořák’s Symphonic Variations and Tchaikovsky’s Piano Trio, Op. 50. The descending-thirds key relationships between several of the variations also resemble Beethoven’s Six Variations, Op. 34, while the oscillation between slow and fast tempos in the sixth variation recalls the lassu-friss style found in Liszt’s Hungarian Rhapsodies. The penultimate variation is a funeral march reminiscent of Chopin’s Piano Sonata in B-flat Minor in its pianism, especially the use of the lower range of the piano.

Works: Amy Beach: Variations on Balkan Themes, Op. 60.

Sources: Anonymous: O Maiko Moya (328-32, 337, 342-43), Stara Planina (328-332, 336-37, 340-41, 344), Nasadil e Dado (328-29, 337-38), Macedonia (328-332, 341-42); Dvořák: Symphonic Variations (333); Tchaikovsky: Piano Trio, Op. 50 (333); Beethoven: Six Variations, Op. 34 (336), Eroica Variations, Op. 35 (340), Diabelli Variations, Op. 120 (340); Liszt: Hungarian Rhapsodies, S.244 (337); Chopin: Piano Sonata in B-flat Minor, Op. 35 (339-40).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Devin Chaloux

[+] Bónis, Ferenc. "Bartók and Wagner." New Hungarian Quarterly 10 (Summer 1969): 201-9. Reprinted in Bartók Studies, comp. and ed. Todd Crow, 84-92. Detroit: Information Coordinators, 1976. German translation in Österreichische Musikzeitschrift 36 (March 1981): 134-47.

Bartók's compositions contain numerous "hidden autobiographical elements," quotations from his own and from other composers' works. These can often be revealed only through careful analysis. In Bluebeard's Castle, Bartók quotes an ostinato motive from Bach's St. Matthew Passion and also uses the motive B-A-C-H. The Wooden Prince begins with an evocation of nature modeled upon that which begins Wagner's Das Rheingold except that in Bartók the first seven harmonics are combined (as opposed to the first five in the Wagner) to create the "Bartók chord." Other examples noted include reference to Ravel's Scarbo in Bartók's Allegro barbaro and the reformulation of the slow movement of Beethoven's String Quartet in A Minor, Op.132, in the second movement of Bartók's Third Piano Concerto.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Bónis, Ferenc. "Quotations in Bartók's Music: A Contribution to Bartók's Psychology of Composition." Studia Musicologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 5 (1963): 355-82.

Bartók's quotations have never been completely examined. His quotations are rarely made for "effect," but are instead hidden away and are of a personal significance. Many examples are noted with reference to folk melodies and to the works of Haydn, Liszt, Wagner, Bach, Beethoven, Debussy, Ravel, Kodaly, and Stravinsky. Bartók also quotes music from his own earlier works. The quotations discussed are divided into four groups: (1) the reference to the music of other composers, often inspired by similar compositional situations, (2) programmatic and autobiographical quotations, (3) quotations of a humorous or ironic nature, and (4) "shopwork" quotations, themes which recur in several works and are molded to "final perfection." Bartók is viewed as an innovator who at the same time is a great synthesizer of disparate influences.

Works: Bartók: Kossuth (357), Rhapsody for Piano and Orchestra, Op. 1 (357), Scherzo for Piano and Orchestra (357), First Suite for Orchestra, Op. 3 (357), Second Suite for Orchestra, Op. 4 (357), Violin Concerto No. 1 (359), Sonata for Two Pianos and Percussion (361), Bluebeard's Castle (365), Piano Concerto No. 3 (369), Second String Quartet (371), Allegro barbaro (372), Contrasts (372), Violin Concerto No. 2 (373), Concerto for Orchestra (377), Cipósütés (378).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Bonner, Dyl. "Ready-made Music." Music and Musicians 23 (August 1975): 28-30.

An aesthetic of musical borrowing is emerging where the borrowed material functions as the central idea and inspiration of a work. The works of Bernd Aloys Zimmerman and Peter Maxwell Davies receive particular attention in a discussion that mentions numerous examples of works incorporating musical borrowings. Bonner theorizes that the technique has become particularly important in music of this century due to the growing lack of communication between composers and modern audiences. Borrowed material in new compositions provides a basis of familiarity, thereby serving as a path to comprehension of the new work.

Works: William Albright: Tic (30), Caroms (30); Alban Berg: Wozzeck (30), Violin Concerto (30); Luciano Berio: Sinfonia (30); William Bolcom: Whisper Moons (30), Sessions IV (30); Gavin Bryars: Jesus's Blood (30); John Cage: HPSCHD (30); Peter Maxwell Davies: Alma Redemptoris Mater (29), Frammenti di Leopardi (29), St. Thomas Wake (29), Eight Songs for a Mad King (29), I Love Dr. Herberden Best (29), Comfort ye (29); Brian Dennis: Programmes (30); Hans Werner Henze: Second Violin Concerto (30); Alec Hill: Mayerl Order (29); Christopher Hobbs: Remorseless Lamb (29); Gustav Holst: Hymn of Jesus (28); Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: "Supper scene" from Don Giovanni (28); Robert Schumann: Fantasy in C Major, Op. 17 (28); Dimitri Shostakovich: Symphony No. 15 (30); Karlheinz Stockhausen: Hymnen (30), Opus 170 (28), Prozession (30); Igor Stravinsky: L'Histoire du Soldat (30); John Tavener: Coplas (30), Celtic Requiem (30); Michael Tippett: Third Symphony (30); William Walton: Façade (28); Bernd Aloys Zimmerman: Die Soldaten (28), Musique pour les soupers du Roi Ubu (28), Monologue (28).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Nancy Kinsey Totten

[+] Börner, Hermann. "Original oder originell? Bachbearbeitungen von Komponisten des 20. Jahrhunderts." Musik und Gesellschaft 29 (1979): 79-84.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Bowman, Durrell. “Cut Every Corner: Intertextuality and Parody in the Music of The Simpsons.” MUSICultures 47 (2020): 94-115.

Musical parody in The Simpsons comes in several different forms and is a key component in the show’s function as television’s “king’s fool” or “court jester,” chipping away at authority and risking rebellion. The Simpsons uses music in five main ways: original songs, variations on its title theme, background music cues, references to existing music, and musician guest stars. Danny Elfman’s theme music for The Simpsons draws heavily from 1960s cartoon music, Hoyt Curtin’s theme music for The Jetsons in particular, lending the show a cheeky, self-conscious aesthetic. Frequently, series composer Alf Clausen writes self-deflating genre-parodies of Elfman’s theme for the end-titles, often relating to the content of the episode (for example, aping the 1964 Addams Family theme and adding a theremin for the season 5 Halloween episode, “Treehouse of Horror IV”). Guest stars including Tito Puente and Sonic Youth have also contributed similar end-title parodies. In addition to making fun of itself, The Simpsons parodies music from other TV shows and movies. For example, Cut Every Corner from the season 8 episode “Simpsoncalifragilisticexpiala(Annoyed Grunt)cious” parodies A Spoonful of Sugar from Disney’s 1964 Mary Poppins, deflating the classic film. Guest stars on The Simpsons are also the target of self-parody, with musicians in particular poking fun at their own music. Musical references in The Simpsons are fluid. The characters’ ages are frozen, but their music comes from a wide range of eras. Music in The Simpsons participates in the show’s self-aware tone and jests at the expense of various kinds of authority.

Works: Danny Elfman: The Simpsons main title theme (98-100); Alf Clausen: soundtrack to The Simpsons (99-109); Alf Clausen, Al Jean, and Mike Reiss: Cut Every Corner (102-3); Jeff Martin: Capitol City (104-5).

Sources: Hoyt Curtin: The Jetsons main title theme (98-100), Meet the Flintstones (102); Danny Elfman: The Simpsons main title theme (99-102); Lee Adams and Charles Strouse: Those Were the Days (102); R. M. and R. B. Sherman: A Spoonful of Sugar (102-3); Johyn Kander and Fred Ebb: New York, New York (104-5); John Mellencamp: Jack and Diane (105); Burt Bacharach and Hal David: (They Long to Be) Close to You (106-7); John Williams: score to Star Wars (107); Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67 (107); Maurice Jarre: score to Witness (108); Wendy Carlos and Rachel Elkind: score to The Shining (109).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Film

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Boyd, Malcolm. "Britten, Verdi and the Requiem." Tempo, no. 86 (1968): 2-6.

There are similarities between the requiems of Britten (WarRequiem) and Verdi. These primarily concern not melodic resemblances but similarities in texture, speed, rhythm, tonality, and the deployment of vocal and instrumental resources. The Verdi-like passages serve as terms of reference for the listener, helping to form a familiar background against which to contrast the tritone relationships in the music and the disruptive elements of the Owen verses. However, in emulating another composer, Britten tried to purge his musical style of certain traits (including some Verdian ones), which resulted sometimes in completely different forms of expression.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Boyd, Malcolm. "Dies Irae: Some Recent Manifestations." Music and Letters 49 (October 1968): 347-56.

Amplification of Gregory 1953. Quotation of the Dies Irae has been overdone, but some modern works have enriched the symbolism grown around the ancient plainchant melody. Russia especially has most closely associated this melody with the death of a revolutionary hero. Khatchaturian, in his Second Symphony, uses it in the general expresion of mourning of the war 1914-1918. Tchaikovsky's Suite No. 3 lacks a program to explain the chant's presence. In Respighi's Impressioni Brasiliane, the chant portrays the physical characteristics and deadly qualities of snakes. Dallapiccola's Canti di Prigionia uses the chant structurally in an outcry against tyranny and oppression. Pierres and Stevenson use it for similar effect. Some borderline cases are Rachmaninoff's Isle of the Dead and Mahler's Second Symphony. A list (pp. 355-56) of some secular references to the Dies Irae is provided.

Works: Bantock: Macbeth (355); Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique (347, 348, 355); Dallapiccola: Canti di Prigionia (351, 352, 355); Peter Maxwell Davies: St. Michael (355); Khatchaturian: Symphony No. 2 (348, 350, 355); Kraft: Fantasia Dies Irae for Organ (355); Liszt: Totentanz (351, 355); Mahler: Das klagende Lied (355), Symphony No. 2 (354, 355); Medtner: Piano Quintet (356); Miaskovsky: Symphony No. 6 (348-350, 356); Mussorgsky: Songs and Dances of Death, #3 (356); Pierres: A Litany for the Day of Human Rights (352, 356); Pizetti: Requiem (348); Rachmaninoff: The Isle of the Dead (353, 354, 356), The Bells (353, 356), Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini (354, 356), Symphonic Dances (354, 356); Respighi: Impressioni brasiliane (351, 356); Saint-Saëns: Danse Macabre (356); Schelling: Victory Ball (356); Sorabji: Variation upon Dies Irae (356), Sequentia cyclica (356); Stevenson: Passacaglia on DSCH (352, 356); Stravinsky: Three Pieces for String Quartet (356); Tchaikovsky: In Dark Hell (356), Suite No. 3 (356); Vaughan-Williams: Five Tudor Portraits (356); Bergman film: The Seventh Seal (356); Fernandel film: The Sheep has Five Legs (356).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Jean Pang

[+] Brady, Martin, and Carola Nielinger-Vakil. “‘What a Satisfying Task for a Composer!’: Paul Dessau’s Music for The German Story (. . . Du und mancher Kamerad).” In Classical Music in the German Democratic Republic: Production and Reception, ed. Kyle Frackman and Larson Powell, 195-218. Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2015.

Paul Dessau’s score for the pseudo-documentary propaganda film . . . Du und mancher Kamerad employs extensive quotation throughout in order to effectively underscore the themes and emotional content of the film, and to provoke critical reflection in line with his political leanings. For Dessau, quotation was a tool for innovation, as well as a means to generate a sense of historical continuity. In this way, it could be both didactic and creative. The eclectic assemblage of musical quotations employed in the score mirrors the compiled nature of the film, drawn from sources scoured over the course of two years. Aside from two prominent leitmotifs (one of which is an altered quotation of a German folk song), Dessau treats his abundance of quotations—drawn from folk songs, soldiers’ songs, and his own compositions—as musical documents. They are treated in a similar manner as the passing footage fragments, appearing in relation to an image or series of images and never recurring. In some cases, Dessau actively produces critical detachment, or the creation of a musical setting that is incongruous with the musical document it treats or visual images it accompanies in order to engender critical reflection. It is in Dessau’s uncomfortable incongruities that his sense of irony and his penchant for Marxist dialectics is most directly expressed. Through this approach, he is able to both score the film, and to provide his own political commentary alongside it.

Works: Paul Dessau: Score to . . . Du und mancher Kamerad, “Da sind sechs Mörder” from Deutsches Miserere (210).

Sources: Anonymous: Schnitterlied (201-2); Balthasar Gerhard Schumacher (text): Heil dir im Siegerkranz (204); Anonymous: God Save the Queen (204); Max Kegel and Carl Gramm: Sozialistenmarsch (205); Pierre de Geyter and Eugène Pottier: The Internationale (205); Heinrich Anacker, Hans Tieszler, Hans-Wilhelm Kulenkampff (text), and Norbert Schultze (music): Von Finnland bis zum schwarzen Meer (205); Hugo Zuschnied (text): Nun geht’s ans Abschiednehmen (205); Vassili Lebedev-Kumatch (text), Erich Weinert (German text), and Isaak Dunajewski (music): Fatherland, No Enemy Shall Imperil You (206); Hoffmann von Fallersleben: O wie ist es kalt geworden (206); Wilhelm Hauff (text) and Johann C. Günther (music): Morgenrot Morgenrot (206-7): Paul Dessau: Lilo Herrmann (207-8), Sinfonischer Marsch (208-9), Sinfonie in einem Satz (209), Kol Nidre-Sinfonie (209-10); Herrmann Scherchen: Brüder, zur Sonne, zur Freiheit (209); Max Schneckenberger (text) and Karl Wilhelm (music): Die Wacht am Rhein (209); Arno Pardun: Volk ans Gewehr (209); Bertolt Brecht (text) and Paul Dessau (music): Deutsches Miserere (209-10); Chopin: Polonaise in A Major, Op. 40, No. 1 (210); Haydn: Symphony No. 94 in G Major, Hob.I:94 (“Surprise”) (212-13).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Molly Covington

[+] Braun, Joachim. "The Double Meaning of Jewish Elements in Dimitri Shostakovich's Music." The Musical Quarterly 71, no. 1 ([Winter] 1985): 68-80.

The identification of Jewish elements in Shostakovich's music is preceded by a definition of what these elements may be considered as being. The understanding of the meaning of these elements in Shostakovich's music depends upon the understanding of the position of Jewish culture in the Soviet Union. Twelve works which include Jewish elements are listed in Table I. Jewish elements often appear in works that employ the self-identification motive of D-S-C-H [D-Eb-C-B] which corresponds to the D. SCHostakovitch of the composer's name in German usage. The use of Jewish elements may be interpreted as concealed dissidence.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Braun, William Ray. "Three Uses of Pre-Existent Music in the Twentieth Century." Ph.D. diss., University of Missouri-Kansas City, 1974.

The techniques of quodlibet, quotation, and parody are discussed for a selection of fifteen works written between 1908 and 1970. The reasons for borrowing are considered, along with the categories of renewal, homage, humor, and satire.

Works: Foss: Baroque Variations; Berio: Sinfonia; Rochberg: Nach Bach; Stravinsky: The Fairy's Kiss; Hindemith: Symphonic Metamorphosis, Mathis der Maler; Debussy: "Golliwog's Cakewalk" from Children's Corner; Bartók: Concerto for Orchestra; Berg: Violin Concerto; Crumb: Black Angels.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Moskovitz

[+] Breuer, János. "Bach és Bartók." Muzsika (Budapest) 18 (September 1975): 20-24. Translated as "Bach und Bartók." In Bericht über die Wissenschaftliche Konferenz zum III. Internationalen Bach-Fest der DDR, Leipzig 18./19. September 1975, ed. Werner Felix, Winfried Hoffmann, and Armin Schneiderheinze, 307-13. Leipzig: VEB Deutscher Verlag für Musik, 1977.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Brincker, Jens. "Et liedcitat i Gustav Mahlers V. symfoni." In Musikvidenskabelige Essays udgivet auf Musikvidenskabeligt Institut ved Kobenhavns Universitet, ed. Niels Krabbe, 9-15. Copenhagen: Musikvidenskabeligt Institut, Kobenhavns Universitet, 1974.

In the last few years, interest has increased in the connections between Mahler's song and symphonies. While there is general agreement on these connnections in the vocal symphonies II, III, IV, and VIII, and the instrumental symphonies I and IX, there is less certainty for the middle symphonies V, VI, and VII. The Kindertotenlieder and the Wunderhornlieder have been linked by Theodor Adorno to symphonies VI and VII, respectively, while Monika Tibbe has determined that one motive in the first movement of the fifth symphony is quoted from the first song of the Kindertotenlieder. Brincker shows that this motive, the actual statement of which appears near the end of the movement, appears in varied form throughout the movement, a result of Mahler's own variation technique.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 5 (9-15), Symphony No. 1 (9-10), Symphony No. 2 (9-10), Symphony No. 3 (9-10), Symphony No. 4 (9-10), Symphony No. 6 (9-10), Symphony No. 7 (9-10), Symphony No. 8 (9-10), Symphony No. 9 (9-10).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Nikola D. Strader

[+] Brincker, Jens. "Et liedelement i Gustav Mahlers V. symfoni." In Elleve Kortere musikhistoriske og musikteoretiske bidrag tilegnet Dr. phil. Povl Hamburger i anledning af hans halvfjerds ars fodselsdag tirsdag den 22. juni 1971 af kollegaer og tidlgere elever, ed. [??], 37-45. Copenhagen: Musikvidenskabeligt Institut, Kobenhavns Universitet, 1971.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Brindle, Reginald Smith. "The Search Outwards--The Orient, Jazz, Archaisms." In The New Music: The Avant-garde since 1945, 133-45. London: Oxford University Press, 1975.

Some modern composers have felt limited by the mainstream avant-garde movement and have turned elsewhere for inspiration. This includes uses of music of the East, a tradition which goes back to Debussy and consists mostly of stylistic modeling. It also includes the use of jazz, which brings a popular style to art music. Avant-garde composers have also looked to music of the past, mostly to medieval music. While many use general stylistic references, a few have used direct borrowings. For example, Peter Maxwell Davies's Missa super L'Homme Armé offers his criticism on the material he borrows, demonstrating that the mass has degenerated in modern society; hence, he interrupts the sacred reference with the foxtrot. Donatoni reduces borrowed material to small sound bites, offering no respect for the composer's ego or personality. These and other examples demonstrate that the search for outside inspiration has advantages as well as disadvantages; some composers seem to seek mere novelty or shock value, but fresh developments in the field have been interesting in any case.

Works: Berio: Sinfonia (141-2); Davies: Missa super L'Homme Armé (142); Donatoni: Etwas ruhiger im Ausdruck (143-4).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Jessica Sternfeld

[+] Brinkmann, Reinhold, ed. Die Neue Musik und die Tradition. Mainz, 1978.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Brinkmann, Reinhold. “Wirkungen Beethovens in der Kammermusik.” In Beiträge zu Beethovens Kammermusik, ed. Sieghard Brandenburg and Helmut Loos, 79-110. Veröffentlichungen des Beethoven-Hauses in Bonn 4:10. München: G. Henle Verlag, 1987.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Briscoe, James Robert. "Debussy d'après Debussy: The Further Resonance of Two Early Melodies." 19th-Century Music 5 (Fall 1981): 110-16.

A knowledge of Debussy's earliest works is important to the understanding of the development of his personal style. One can compare the first conception of an idea to its further realization in a later work. Two examples are considered: (1) Fête galante (a mélodie of 1882) and its later revision as the menuet of the Petite Suite (1889); and (2) La Fille aux cheveux de lin (a mélodie of ca. 1882-84) and the prelude for piano (Book I, 1910) of the same title. These works demonstrate that Debussy's personal style is already implicit in his earliest works.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Brixel, Eugen. “Original Band Compositions vs. Transcriptions: A European View.” Journal of the World Association for Symphonic Bands and Ensembles 4 (1997): 5-22.

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Brodhead, Thomas M. "Ives's Celestial Railroad and His Fourth Symphony." American Music 12 (Winter 1994): 389-424.

About half the music of "Hawthorne," the second movement of Ives's Second Piano Sonata, Concord, Mass., 1840-60, also appears in The Celestial Railroad, a "Phantasy" for solo piano, and virtually all of the latter appears in the second movement of his Fourth Symphony. In Memos, Ives wrote that the sonata was written first, then the symphony movement, and then The Celestial Railroad. An examination of his manuscripts suggests a different order, in which The Celestial Railroad was adapted from "Hawthorne" and then was used in turn as the basis for the symphony movement. All three works have a common root in the abandoned "Hawthorne" Piano Concerto, conceived between 1910 and 1916 as part of Ives's planned "Men of Literature" series. The "Hawthorne" Concerto was reworked as the sonata movement. In the early 1920s, Ives was working on a "Concord" suite for piano, derived from the sonata. Four Transcriptions from "Emerson" recasts material from the first movement, and The Celestial Railroad, using material from "Hawthorne," was intended to be the second section of the suite. Clippings from the published score of the sonata appear in the manuscript of The Celestial Railroad. Ives worked on it in stages, affixing new patches with revisions onto the manuscript. The final stages correspond to material as presented in the Fourth Symphony movement. Thus Ives worked out the material in detail for The Celestial Railroad, then orchestrated the work for his Fourth Symphony. Because The Celestial Railroad predates the second movement of the Fourth Symphony, the program of the piano work--a short story by Hawthorne--may be used to interpret the narrative of the symphonic movement.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Elizabeth Bergman

[+] Brook, Barry S. "Stravinsky's Pulcinella: The 'Pergolesi' Sources." In Musiques, Signes, Images: Liber Amicorum François Lesure, ed. Joel-Marie Fauquet, 41-66. Geneva: Minkoff, 1988.

The body of materials upon which Stravinsky based Pulcinella are organizes and clarified. First, Stravinsky's remarks on the process of composing Pulcinella are proven unreliable. Second, a table shows the Pulcinella source materials housed at the Paul Sacher Stiftung in Basel. Elements once falsely attributed to Pergolesi are movements from ten trio sonatas by Domenico Gallo, an air and a gavotte for keyboard by Carlo Monza, and a concerto attributed to Count Unico Wilhelm von Wassenaer. Verifiable Pergolesi sources are a movement from a cello sonata, eleven pieces from his operas Il flaminio and Lo Frate 'nnamorato, and one from his cantata Luce degli occhi miei. As a postscript, the discovery of an intermediary score of Pulcinella in the Stefan Zweig Collection of the British Library shows something of Stravinsky's compositional process and connects the sketches held at the Paul Sacher Stiftung with the fair copy piano score, also in the British Library.

Works: Stravinsky: Pulcinella.

Sources: Pergolesi: Twelve Sonatas for Two Violins and Bass (46, 49-50, 54-55, 62-63); Domenico Gallo: Trio No. 7 (49, 50-51, 62-64); Alessandro Parisotti: Arie Antiche, "Se tu m'ami" (46, 62-63); Carlo Monza: Pièces Modernes pour le clavecin, Suite in E Major, Air (51-52, 62, 64); Unico Wilhelm van Wassenaer: Concerti Armonici, no. 2 (52-53, 62-63); Carlo Monza: Pièces Modernes pour le clavecin, Suite in D Major, Gavotte (53-54, 62, 64); Pergolesi: Il Flaminio, "Mentre l'erbetta pasce l'agnella" (55, 62-63), "Con queste paroline" (55, 62-63), Luce degli occhi miei, "Contento forse vivere" (55, 62-63), Lo Frate 'nnamorato, "Pupilette, fiammette d'amore" (55, 62, 64), "Chi disse c'à la femmena" (55, 62-63), "Gnora credeteme ch'accosi è" (55, 62-63), Nina's aria from Act III, scene 3, introduction (56, 62-63), "Sento dire non c'è pace" (56, 62-63); Pergolesi: Il Flaminio, "Benedetto maledetto" (62-63).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David Lieberman

[+] Brooks, William. "Unity and Diversity in Charles Ives's Fourth Symphony." Yearbook for Inter-American Musical Research 10 (1974): 5-49.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Brown, Kristi A. "The Troll Among Us." In Changing Tunes: The Use of Pre-existing Music in Film, ed. Phil Powrie and Robynn Stilwell, 74-87. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.

Edvard Grieg's Peer Gynt Suites carry cultural codes for the complex and ironic relationship between human and monster. These codes were recognized by authors such as Lageröf, Lie, and Ibsen, and they enter intertextually into films like Griffith's Birth of a Nation. Fritz Lang uses Peer Gynt to represent a murderer in M, and after this film, the music takes on generically spooky connotations. The film Needful Things goes beyond coding for malevolence by taking advantage of the written-in acceleration of Peer Gynt (beginning it early and making it quite fast) and synchronizing the music with the onscreen action. Film scenes using Peer Gynt exemplify Nicholas Cook's categories of conformance and contest, which characterize the relationship between image and music (the elements are invertible or each medium deconstructs the other, respectively).

Works: D. W. Griffith (director) and Joseph Carl Breil (composer): Sound track to Birth of a Nation (74-75); Fritz Lang (director): Sound track to M (77-80); Dario Argento (director): Sound track to Demoni (81-82); Fraser Clarke Heston (director): Sound track to Needful Things (80-85); Jerry Zucker (director): Sound track to Rat Race (84-85).

Sources: Edvard Grieg: Peer Gynt Suite (74-87); Schubert: Ave Maria (82); Patrick Doyle: Dies irae (82).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Karen Anton Stafford

[+] Brown, Rae Linda. "William Grant Still, Florence Price, and William Dawson: Echoes of the Harlem Renaissance." In Black Music in the Harlem Renaissance: A Collection of Essays, ed. Samuel A. Floyd, Jr., 71-86. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1990.

While William Grant Still's Afro-American Symphony, Florence Price's Symphony in E Minor, and William Dawson's Negro Folk Symphony are examples of American musical nationalism, they also represent the culmination of the Harlem Renaissance, an affirmation of the black cultural heritage in which composers sought to elevate the Negro folk idiom to symphonic form. Still's Afro-American Symphony is based on a theme in the Blues idiom. The second theme of the first movement of Dawson's Negro Folk Symphony is based on the spiritual "Oh, M' Littl' Soul Gwine-a Shine," and the two themes of the third movement are based on the spirituals "O Le' Me Shine, Lik' a Mornin' Star" and "Hallelujah, Lord I Been Down into the Sea." In Symphony in E Minor, Price is more subtle in her use of elements from the Afro-American folk tradition: her instrumentation calls for African drums; the principal theme of the first movement and its countermelody are built upon a pentatonic scale (the most frequently used scale in Afro-American folk songs); and the third movement is based on the syncopated rhythms of the Juba, an antebellum folk dance.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Reginald Sanders

[+] Brown, Robert L. "Classical Influences on Jazz." Journal of Jazz Studies 3 (Spring 1976): 19-35.

From the earliest beginnings of jazz, classical music has played a role in its development. Early and pre-jazz musicians were known to have performed classical music publicly, and others, such as Scott Joplin, studied with European teachers. As jazz moved into the twentieth century, the borrowing of classical music instrumentation became prominent. In the 1950s, jazz musicians employed fugal writing, as exemplified by Dave Brubeck's Fugue on Bop Themes, among other works. In the 1960s, twelve-tone rows were utilized, as exemplified by Bill Evans's T.T.T. Also, the procedure known as "jazzin' the classics" has been a constant feature within jazz tradition, from Jelly Roll Morton's recording of a version of the Misere from Il Trovatore through Joe Walsh's synthesized arrangement of Ravel's Pavane of the Sleeping Beauty. An appendix includes selective annotated discography.

Works: Brubeck: Fugue on Bop Themes (22); Lewis: Vendome (23), Three Windows (23), Concorde (23), Versailles (23); Hampton: Fugue (23); Williams: Prelude and Fugue (23); Ferguson: Passacaglia and Fugue (23); Johnson: Music for Brass (23); Schuller: Abstraction (23); Bank: Equation Part I (23); De Franco: 12-Tone Blues (23); Giuffre: Densities I (23); Farberman: . . . Then Silence (23); Smith: Elegy for Eric (23); Schifrin: The Ritual of Sound (23); Coltrane: Miles Mode (24); Evans: T.T.T. (24-25); Heckman: The Twelves (26); Waller: Russian Fantasy (26); Morton/Verdi: Misere (26-27); Gershwin: The Man I Love as performed by Paul Whiteman (27); Ellington: Ebony Rhapsody (27); Walsh/Ravel: Pavane of the Sleeping Beauty (30); Ginastera: Toccata as performed by Emerson, Lake, and Palmer (30).

Sources: Liszt: Rigoletto Concert Paraphrase (26); Rossini: William Tell Overture (26); Grieg: Peer Gynt Suite (26); Rachmaninoff: Prelude in C sharp Minor (26); Verdi: Il Trovatore (26-27); Liszt: Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 (27); MacDowell: To a Wild Rose (27); Rimsky-Korsakov: Song of India (27); Wagner: Tristan and Isolde (27); Bach: Toccata and Fugue in D Minor (27), Passacaglia in C (27); Stravinsky: Rite of Spring (28, 30); Ginastera: Toccata (30); Ravel: Mother Goose Suite (30).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan

[+] Brown, Rosemary. "Dallapiccola's Symbolic Use of Self-Quotation." Studi musicali 4 (1975): 277-304.

Luigi Dallapiccola's use of symbolism has been a fundamental part of his compositional process throughout his life. Symbolic techniques range from a madrigalian style of text painting to complex structural associations to ideograms and personal rhythmic representation. One of the most salient forms of symbolism in Dallapiccola's music can be found in his practice of self-quotation. Beginning as early as 1937, Dallapiccola quotes thematic material from his Tre laudi in Volo di notte. His 1942 Liriche greche quotes sections from the Cinque frammenti di Saffo, and this practice continues in the composer's quotation of the Canti di prigionia in Il prigioniero as well as the Quaderno musicale di Annalibera and Il prigioniero in the Canti di liberazione. The culmination of this practice is Dallapiccola's 1968 opera Ulisse, in which quotations from a wide range of the composer's previous works can be found, especially in the work's Epilogue. Many times these self-borrowings have a symbolic meaning in that they draw upon earlier dramatic or textual contexts present in the original works and insert those associations into a new musical environment. The wide-reaching use of self-quotation in Dallapiccola's work not only serves a symbolic function but also works as a unifying factor in the composer's output as a whole.

Works: Dallapiccola: Volo di notte (277-80), Liriche greche (280-82), Due liriche di Anacreonte (282), Il prigioniero (282-89), Canti di liberazione (282-90), Il Cenacolo--Le vicende del capolavoro di Leonardo da Vinci (290), Variazioni (290), Ulisse (290-302), Sicut Umbra (303-4).

Sources: Dallapiccola: Tre laudi (277-80), Cinque frammenti di Saffo (280-82), Canti di Prigionia (282-84), Il prigioniero (284-90, 295), Quaderno musicale di Annalibera (289-90), Goethe-Lieder (290-94), Volo di notte (294-95), An Mathilde (297-98), Requiescant (299-302), Canti di liberazione (301-2), Ulisse (302-4).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Elizabeth Elmi

[+] Brown, Royal S. Overtones and Undertones: Reading Film Music. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

Certain characteristics of "classical" music (in styles from Baroque to late Romantic) were adopted and changed in the music of the early cinema. On the surface, film music from the mid 1920s through the early 1940s shares certain aesthetic principles with the music of Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven, such as a similar manipulation of themes and motives. Although many existing compositions were employed in early film scores, the aesthetics of the music newly composed for film are the primary focus (Chapters 2-3, pp. 12-66). The "Interviews" section (pp. 269-334) offers candid discussions of and useful insights into the compositional process of film music composers, such as the comment from Harold Shore that "You're constantly in the music library digging up old records, writing new pieces, parodying pieces of this or that."

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: David Oliver

[+] Brown, Stephen C. "Tracing the Origins of Shostakovich's Musical Motto." Intégral 20 (2006): 69-103.

Shostakovich's D-S-C-H motive (D-Eb-C-B) as it first appears in his Tenth Symphony was potentially derived from two possible sources: from Shostakovich's own works, dating back to his First Symphony, or from the use of similar motives in the works of composers Shostakovich admired, such as Bach or Schumann. When considered as a specific transposition and ordering of a 0134 tetrachord, the D-S-C-H motive can be seen as the culmination and ultimate distillation of certain compositional techniques favored by the composer in works predating the Tenth Symphony, such as "modal lowering" (in which Shostakovich flattens various scale degrees, thereby creating a 0134 tetrachord), "modal clash" (in which various forms of the same scale degree are juxtaposed), and "scalar tightening" (in which Shostakovich contracts a given scale down to four pitches). These techniques all resulted in 0134 tetrachords, and Shostakovich gradually came to favor and repeat the "D-S-C-H level" tetrachord that has come to be associated with the first letters his name. However, Shostakovich's use of a specific four-note motive can also be viewed as an imitation of other four-note motives, either by contemporary or past composers who used prominent 0134 tetrachords (ranging from Bach to Stravinsky) or by composers from the past who used motives to represent names or ciphers (such as the B-A-C-H motive or Schumann's A-S-C-H motive from Carnaval, both of which share pitches with Shostakovich's D-S-C-H motive). Both theories of origin are plausible and are not mutually exclusive; however, the theory that the D-S-C-H motive is derived from earlier examples of 0134 tetrachords in Shostakovich's own works might better explain why his namesake motive emerged as gradually and late in his output as it did.

Works: Shostakovich: Symphony No. 10 in E Minor (69-72, 74, 85, 87-89), String Quartet No. 8 in C Minor (69, 95).

Sources: Shostakovich: Symphony No. 1 in F Minor (71, 79-81), String Quartet No. 5 in B-flat Major (71-72), Violin Concerto No. 1 in A Minor (71, 73), Twenty Four Preludes, Op. 34 (74-77), Piano Sonata No. 2 in B Minor (76, 78), Six Romances on Texts by Japanese Poets (82-83), Symphony No. 6 in B Minor (82-84), String Quartet No. 2 in A Major (83-87), From Jewish Folk Poetry, Op. 79 (95); Robert Schumann: Carnaval (90-91), Doppelgänger (91-92); J. S. Bach: The Art of Fugue (90-91), The Well-Tempered Clavier (91-92); Ravel: Rapsodie espagnole (91-92); German Galynin: Piano Concerto (91); Veniamin Fleyshman: Rothchild's Violin (91-93); Stravinsky: Symphony of Psalms (96-98), Octet (98); Rimsky-Korsakov: The Tsar's Bride (98-100).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Alexis Witt

[+] Browner, Tara. "'Breathing the Indian Spirit': Thoughts on Musical Borrowing and the 'Indianist' Movement in American Music." American Music 15 (Fall 1997): 265-84.

The "Indianist" composers of the period 1890-1920 took two approaches to the Native melodies that they used: music as raw material, and music as culture. Edward MacDowell used the Native melodies collected by Theodore Baker in his ‹ber die Musik der nordamerikanischen Wilden (1882). For MacDowell, these tunes were strictly raw musical material, with no reference or attention to tribal sources. Whatever cultural interpretation he made of the music is a generic one based on Lewis Henry Morgan's theory of "cultural evolutionary stages." Arthur Farwell's source of Native melodies came from the work of Alice Fletcher and Francis LaFlesche, whose research focused on the Omaha nation and dealt extensively with cultural context. Ultimately, the Indianist composers sacrificed cultural authenticity as a result of their attempt to make the music accessible for a consumer culture.

Works: Edward MacDowell: Second ("Indian") Suite, Op. 48 (268-71), Second Sonata (Eroica), Op. 50 (271); Arthur Farwell: American Indian Melodies: "The Old Man's Love Song" (277, 279).

Sources: Kiowa melody, collected by Theodore Baker: "Kiowa Song of a Mother to Her Absent Son" (269-71); Omaha melody, collected by Alice Fletcher: "Be-Thae Wa-An" (277-78).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Felix Cox

[+] Bruce, David. "Source and Sorcery." The Musical Times 137, no. 1842 (August 1996): 11-15.

For his ballet The Fairy's Kiss, Stravinsky borrows harmonic progressions, melodic fragments, and general style characteristics from Tchaikovsky's early piano pieces and songs. Similarities in style might also be the result of both composers' Russian nationality and embrace of classicism. Though a large portion of Stravinsky's score does borrow from Tchaikovsky, Stravinsky writes several unique passages of his own. Literal quotations rarely last for more than a few measures, as Stravinsky commonly expands upon Tchaikovsky's material. Aside from Stravinsky's quotation and expansion upon Tchaikovsky's works, there are a few moments in The Fairy's Kiss wherein style and orchestration become more overtly romantic or the texture becomes static. These moments sound plain and "un-Stravinskian" and likely led to contemporary criticism of the ballet. Stravinsky's later re-working of The Fairy's Kiss into a concert version (Divertimento) is devoid of these moments.

Works: Stravinsky: The Fairy's Kiss.

Sources: Tchaikovsky: Zwölf mittelschwere Stücke, Op. 40, No. 7 (12-13), Natha-Valse, Op. 51, No. 4 (13-14), Humoreske, Op. 10, No. 2 (14-15).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Laura B. Dallman

[+] Bruhn, Christopher. “The Transitive Multiverse of Charles Ives’s ‘Concord’ Sonata.” Journal of Musicology 28 (Spring 2011): 166-94.

Charles Ives’s Concord Sonata, together with his Essays before a Sonata, can be read through the lens of turn-of-the-century psychologist William James’s work on the functioning of the human brain, yielding new insights into the behavior of Ives’s music. James conceptualizes consciousness as a flowing “Stream of Thought” in which fringe images fill the space between more concrete ideas. Throughout Concord Sonata, Ives constructs a sense of musical vagueness comparable to the Jamesian fringe through uncertain meter and key signatures as well as obscured and distorted musical borrowing. The structure of the sonata is also related to James’s metaphor of “flights” and “perches” in that relatively stable musical phrases emerge from the hazy musical texture. Although Ives does not directly address James’s psychological theories in Essays before a Sonata, he does incorporate many of James’s ideas, which were widespread at the time. Furthermore, James’s cosmological ideas about the multiverse (an extension of his psychological work) are expressed in Ives’s Concord Sonata as well as his Fourth Symphony through their incorporation of borrowed material from many varied musical sources and connections to other works.

Works: Charles Ives: Piano Sonata No. 2: Concord Mass., 1840-1860 (179-84), Symphony No. 4 (189-91)

Sources: David T. Shaw (or Thomas A’Becket): Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean (179-80, 190); Stephen Foster: Massa’s in da Cold Ground (180); Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67 (180-81); Traditional: Loch Lomond (183-184); Wagner: Lohengrin (183-84); A. F. Winnemore: Stop That Knockin’ at My Door (183-84); Lowell Mason: Watchman (189), Missionary Hymn (190), Bethany (191); Charles Ives: Piano Sonata No. 2: Concord Mass., 1840-1860 (190), String Quartet No. 1 (190); Oliver Holden: Coronation (190)

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Bruna, Ellen Carole. "The Relationship of Text and Music in the Lieder of Hugo Wolf and Gustav Mahler." Ph.D. diss., Syracuse University, 1974.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Bruno, Franklin. “‘Stone Cold Dead in the Market’: Domestic Violence and Americanized Calypso.” Popular Music and Society 34 (February 2011): 7-21.

Ella Fitzgerald and Louis Jordan’s 1945 recording of Stone Cold Dead in the Market, a reworked Barbadian folk song about an abused wife murdering her husband, was able to become a rhythm and blues hit in part because the Caribbean styling produced an exoticized cultural mask which allowed for frank portrayals of taboo subjects. The Barbadian folk song, usually known as Murder in the Market or Payne Dead, has been collected in several versions and was likely known in Trinidad by the 1910s. The first commercial recording of the song was made by calypso artist Wilmouth Houdini in 1939. Houdini’s version, called He Had It Coming, had modified lyrics aimed at an American audience, making it an early example of calypso crossover. Fitzgerald and Jordan’s Stone Cold Dead is a re-recording of He Had It Coming that changes the song in several ways to make it a more popular American hit. Fitzgerald and Jordan’s arrangement is faster than Houdini’s and includes instrumentation (muted trumpet, maracas, and claves) typical of post-war Americanized calypso and “Latin” music. They also modified the lyrical structure of the song, repeating the refrain and title line to create a verse-chorus structure with a clear melodic hook. Some lyrics were also changed to be in first-person perspective, and Fitzgerand and Jordan sing with affected West Indian accents. Several artists recorded cover versions of Stone Cold Dead, occasionally with nods to Houdini’s version or earlier folk variations. Although the song addresses the often-unspoken issue of domestic violence, it does so through stereotyping and exoticizing West Indian culture.

Works: Wilmouth Houdini: He Had It Coming (9-13); Ella Fitzgerald and Louis Jordan: Stone Cold Dead in the Market (13-15); Betty Mays and Her Orchestra: Stone Cold Dead in the Market (He Had It Coming) (15); Grace Berrie: Stone Cold Dead in the Market (15-16); Alan Lomax: Stone Cold Dead in the Market (16); Maya Angelou: Stone Cold Dead in the Market (16).

Sources: Traditional: Murder in the Market / Payne Dead (9-13, 16); Wilmouth Houdini: He Had It Coming (13-15); Ella Fitzgerald and Louis Jordan: Stone Cold Dead in the Market (15-16).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Bruns, Steven Michael. "'In stilo Mahleriano': Quotation and Allusion in the Music of George Crumb." American Music Research Center Journal 3 (1993): 9-39.

The works of Gustav Mahler have exerted a profound influence on those of George Crumb, especially in the latter's settings of Federico Garcia Lorca's poetry. These influences include formal and tonal designs, instrumentation, notation, poetic imagery, motivic structure, and theatrical effects. Self-quotation is also present in Crumb's music, as in the finger-cymbal crashes in Echoes of Time and the River and Night Music I. Mahler's Das Lied von der Erde has also been a fertile source for Crumb, as his Songs, Drones and Refrains of Death borrows from it heavily. The use of a guitar and mandolin in Mahler's Symphony No. 7 is echoed in Crumb's Songs, Drones and Refrains of Death, Eleven Echoes of Autumn, 1965, and Makrokosmos I. An oboe figure from the Mahler is obviously evoked in Ancient Voices of Children.

Works: Crumb: Night Music I (9-14, 16-17, 22), Echoes of Time and the River (9, 14, 20), Ancient Voices of Children (10, 24-33), Eleven Echoes of Autumn, 1965 (12-15, 20, 24, 33), Songs, Drones and Refrains of Death (14-15, 17-20, 26), Makrokosmos I (15-17), Night of the Four Moons (21-24, 33), Five Pieces for Piano (36).

Sources: Bartok: Out of Doors (11); Mahler: Symphony No. 7 (10, 15, 17, 33, 35-6), Das Lied von der Erde (12, 15, 17, 20-33), Symphony No. 6 (17, 33), Symphony No. 5 (20), Das Klagende Lied (20), Symphony No. 9 (21); Haydn: Symphony No. 45, Farewell (21-22); Mahler: Symphony No. 3 (29), Symphony No. 4 (29).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Geelhoed

[+] Buchan, Matthew. “Rutland Boughton’s The Immortal Hour, the Celtic Twilight, and the Great War.” The Musical Quarterly 103 (Winter 2020): 311-45.

Although the short-lived Celtic Twilight movement in fin-de-siècle Britain was primarily expressed in literature and visual art, Rutland Boughton’s 1912 opera The Immortal Hour exemplified the aesthetics of the movement musically and had a lasting impact on public life in Great Britain. William Butler Yeats defined the Celtic Twilight movement in literature, employing themes of pan-Celtic mythmaking, nostalgia, sexual dissidence, and mysticism. These themes were shared with the broader European movements of Decadence and Symbolism. In music, some Celtic revivalists collected and transcribed Irish folksongs. Others, including Boughton, attached themselves to a Wagnerian aesthetic after Wagner drew on Celtic mythology in Tristan und Isolde. The Immortal Hour was based on an 1899 play by Fiona Macleod (the pen name of William Sharp), loosely based on the Celtic myth “The Wooing of Étaín.” Much of the score has a modal, folk-like character, but Boughton regularly alluded to Wagner’s operas, especially Tristan. Specific allusions include Klingsor’s leitmotif in Parsifal and the Tristan chord. Structural allusions include the way Boughton foreshadows the Faery Song before it is sung complete, which mirrors Wagner’s treatment of the Preislied in Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg. The Winterstürme from Die Walküre also clearly influenced the storm music in the second scene of The Immortal Hour. After the First World War, revival performances of the opera found great success with the British public, and it particularly appealed to the emerging middlebrow sensibility. The spiritualism and communion with the faery world in The Immortal Hour especially resonated with the collective mourning of the British public in the wake of the Great War.

Works: Rutland Boughton: The Immortal Hour (316-21)

Sources: Wagner: Parsifal (317), Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (317-18), Tristan und Isolde (319-21), Die Walküre (320-21)

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Budde, Elmar. "Bermerkungen zum Verhältnis Mahler-Webern." Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 33 (1976): 159-73.

There are many connections between Mahler and the Second Viennese School. At least one example of melodic resemblance exists, but more important is Webern's distinctive orientation to sound, for which Mahler is the predecessor. The flow of the movement is suspended in a number of episodes in Mahler's Tempo di Minuetto (Symphony No. 3) and Lied von der Erde. The extremely transparent orchestration and the equal importance of all the parts--often combined with ritardando--constitute "spaces of sound" (Klangräume), structuring the piece formally. The "space of sound" in Webern's fourth variation of the second movement of the Symphony Op. 21 becomes the axis of symmetry on which the whole work is constructed and to which all the other "sound-identical" spaces are structurally related. The comparisons between Webern's symphony and Mahler's Lied von der Erde seem to imply not only that Webern was influenced by Mahler but that the "spaces of sound" in Webern can be traced from specific episodes in Mahler's work.

Works: Webern: Langsamer Satz for String Quartet (165); Six Pieces for Orchestra, Op. 6 (170); Symphony, Op. 21 (172).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Budde, Elmar. "Zitat, Collage, Montage." In Die Musik der sechziger Jahre, ed. Rudolf Stephan, 26-38. Mainz: B. Schott's Söhne, 1972.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Budde, Elmar. "Zum dritten Satz der Sinfonia von Luciano Berio." In Die Musik der sechziger Jahre, ed. Rudolf Stephan, 128-44. Mainz: B. Schott's Söhne, 1972.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. "'Quotation' and Emulation: Charles Ives's Uses of His Models." The Musical Quarterly 71, no. 1 ([Winter] 1985): 1-26.

It has long been known that Charles Ives borrows from other composers and from himself. These borrowings have generally been labeled quotations. However, quotation is not the only technique Ives uses when he is alluding to other pieces. Others include modeling (emulation), paraphrasing, cumulative setting, and quodlibet. The emphasis of this article is on Ives's use of models since this has not yet been discussed. If a composer models his piece on another, he borrows the structure or reworks musical material to build the framework of the composition. The use of models is the most important factor to consider in tracing the compositional process. Motivic borrowings are only the most visible part of a deeper dependence on the sources, allusions that lead us to the pieces on which Ives modeled his compositions.

Works: Ives: Holiday Quickstep, Slow March, Turn Ye, Turn Ye, Waltz, Study No. 20 for Piano, The One Way, Charlie Rutlage, Serenity, On the Counter, The Celestial Country, West London.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. "'Quotation' and Paraphrase in Ives's Second Symphony." 19th-Century Music 11 (Summer 1987): 3-25. Reprinted in Music at the Turn of the Century: A 19th-Century Music Reader, ed. Joseph Kerman, 33-55. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.

Most of the borrowings in Ives's Second Symphony are not quotations but paraphrases. They are not inserted into an existing framework but form the very basis of the piece. All of the themes paraphrase American vernacular tunes, and the themes in turn provide the material for developments and transitions. In each movement one or more transitional passages are paraphrased from episodes from music by Bach, Brahms, or Wagner. This connection is the first real synthesis of American and European musical traditions in Ives's oeuvre, uniting the sound of American melody with the forms and procedures of the European symphony.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. "Ives and the Four Musical Traditions." In Charles Ives and His World, ed. J. Peter Burkholder, 3-34. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996.

As a performer and composer, Charles Ives worked in four distinct musical traditions: American popular music, American Protestant church music, European classical music, and experimental music. In his mature music, Ives synthesizes these traditions into a new modernist idiom. Ives initially worked in these four traditions independently, occasionally modeling his compositions on existing works in their tradition; for instance, his First Symphony is modeled on Dvořák’s New World symphony and echoes music by Beethoven, Mendelssohn, Schubert and Tchaikovsky. Later in his career, Ives frequently combined elements from two or more of these four traditions in a single work, often through various musical borrowing practices. In his 1914 song General William Booth Enters Into Heaven, Ives weaves all four musical traditions together. Popular music is evoked by the marching band “street beat” cadence—realized by an experimentalist recreation of drum sounds using dissonant piano chords—and by the paraphrase of James A. Bland’s minstrel song Oh, Dem Golden Slippers. Protestant hymns are evoked by Ives’s borrowing of There Is a Fountain Filled with Blood. Finally, the song itself is constructed as a Romantic art song, meant to convey to the listener a vicarious experience of the text. The variety in Ives’s music should not be understood as a lack of discipline, but as versatility to appeal to a broad range of musical tastes.

Works: Ives: Holiday Quickstep (6-7), Symphony No. 1 in D Minor (12-13), General William Booth Enters Into Heaven (23-29)

Sources: David Wallis Reeves: Second Regiment Connecticut National Guard March (7); Dvořák: Symphony No. 9 in E Minor, From the New World (12-13); William Cowper: There is a Fountain Filled with Blood (24, 26-28); James A. Bland: Oh, Dem Golden Slippers (25-26)

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. "The Evolution of Charles Ives's Music: Aesthetics, Quotation, Technique." Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1983.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. “A Simple Model for Associative Musical Meaning.” In Approaches to Meaning in Music, ed. Byron Almén and Edward Pearsall, 76-106. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006.

One significant contributing element to musical meaning is the principle of association, which can be modeled in five steps: (1) recognizing familiar elements, (2) recalling other music that uses those elements, (3) perceiving associations the other music may carry, (4) noticing what is new or changed, and (5) interpreting what this means. One method of testing this model is to analyze several pieces whose meaning can in part be derived from their association with military bugle calls. Military calls themselves have specific arbitrary meanings. Hearing a military call can evoke memories that suggest emotional associations. Some music, like Charles Ives’s Decoration Day, uses listeners’ familiarity with certain tunes (in this case, Taps) to convey specific meaning. Other music relies on familiarity with a general melodic shape or style; George M. Cohan’s World War I song Over There uses a figure that is recognizable as a bugle call (perhaps a cross between Taps and Reveille), but is not actually a quotation of a bugle call. Aaron Copland’s Fanfare for the Common Man recalls the familiar timbre and texture of a bugle call, giving the piece an associative meaning of military dignity, nobility, and duty. Alternatively, other meanings for Fanfare for the Common Man arise if one hears it as reminiscent of Richard Strauss’s Also sprach Zarathustra. In absolute music, the generic, formal, or internal conventions of a familiar reference in a piece—a fanfare topic in a Mozart sonata, for instance—can also generate meaning. Meaning related to musical syntax can also be examined with the association model. There are several implications of this associative model of musical meaning: (1) meaning depends on what the listener knows, (2) music acquires meanings through use, (3) the most familiar music is often the most meaningful, (4) meaning depends on context, (5) meaning depends on interpretation, (6) musical meaning can change as listeners learn, and (7) this model provides a framework for communicating about musical meaning.

Works: Ives: Decoration Day (83-84); George M. Cohan: Over There (85); Copland: Fanfare for the Common Man (89-93)

Sources: Anonymous: Taps (83-85), Reveille (85); Lowell Mason: Nearer, My God, to Thee (83-84); Strauss: Also sprach Zarathustra (89-93)

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. “Charles Ives the Avant-Gardist, Charles Ives the Traditionalist.” In Bericht über das Internationale Symposion “Charles Ives und die amerikanische Musiktradition bis zur Gegenwart,” Köln 1988, edited by Klaus Wolfgang Niemöller, Manuel Gervink, and Paul Terse, 37-51. Kölner Beiträge zur Musikforschung, Vol. 164. Regensburg: Gustav Bosse, 1990.

Charles Ives is as much a part of the European tradition of art music as are his progressive contemporaries in Europe. Ives’s character as a composer was greatly influenced by German Romanticism, which he absorbed through his composition teacher, Horatio Parker. Ives’s connection to the European Romantic tradition can be traced through his use of allusion and quotation throughout his career. Early compositions, up to and including his First Symphony, demonstrate how Ives learned to compose by imitating European models. In his Second Symphony, Ives begins to establish a distinctive voice by emphasizing allusion and quotation of American material. At the same time, the Second Symphony also adopts the elaborate forms of European art music and borrows material from Brahms, Bach, and Wagner. In his Third Symphony, Ives invests American tunes with the seriousness of European art music. The Fourth of July, which culminates with a quotation of Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean, exemplifies Ives’s increasing turn to American subjects and careful use of quotation and texture. While Ives’s importance as an avant-garde composer is certain, he is also a worthy peer of his European contemporaries of international stature.

Works: Ives: Holiday Quickstep (43), Slow March (43), Variations on America (43), Symphony No. 1 in D Minor (44-45), Symphony No. 2 (46), The Fourth of July (48-49)

Sources: Handel: Saul, HWV 53 (43); Johann Christian Heinrich Rinck: Theme and Variations in C Major on God Save the King (43); Dvořák: Symphony No. 9 in E Minor, From the New World (44-45); Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (46); David T. Shaw (or Thomas A’Becket): Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean (48)

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. “Ives and the Nineteenth-Century European Tradition.” In Charles Ives and the Classical Tradition, ed. Geoffrey Block and J. Peter Burkholder, 11-33. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996.

Charles Ives is as much a part of the European art music tradition as are his progressive European contemporaries. Ives’s adoption of European genres, ideal of music practiced for its own sake, penchant for program music, nationalism, and desire to express new things in music all show the influence of European Romanticism, which Ives learned in large part from his composition teacher, Horatio Parker. When analyzing the idea of allusion and quotation through Ives’s compositions in chronological order, a clear pattern of development emerges. Ives began by imitating musical models; for example, his early Polonaise in C is modeled on the sextet from Donizetti’s Lucia di Lammermoor. His First Symphony continues this practice of modeling, but now in the spirit of competition. The second movement theme is an elegant condensation of the second movement theme of Dvořák’s New World symphony, and as such it can be read as a sincere challenge to the famous tune. In his Second Symphony, Ives begins to claim a distinctive voice as a composer by using borrowed material to celebrate American music within the European symphonic tradition. This process of self-assertion continues in the Third Symphony, which includes the first instance of Ives’s new “cumulative form,” borrowing the principles of development that underlie the European tradition. The Fourth of July, a symphonic poem also using cumulative form, exemplifies Ives’s mature style and an extraordinary complexity of quotation used to evoke the process of memory. Still, the nationalism and programmaticism underlying The Fourth of July are rooted in European Romanticism. While Ives certainly deserves his avant-garde reputation, he is also a composer whose music is rooted in the European tradition and a worthy peer to his European contemporaries.

Works: Ives: Polonaise in C (15-18), Ich grolle nicht (19-22), Symphony No. 1 in D Minor (22-26), Symphony No. 2 (26-28), Symphony No. 3 (28-31), The Fourth of July (31-32)

Sources: Donizetti: Lucia di Lammermoor (15-18); Robert Schumann: Ich grolle nicht from Dichterliebe, Op. 48 (19-22); Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 6 in B Minor, Op. 74, Pathétique (22); Beethoven: Symphony No. 9 in D Minor, Op. 125 (22); Schubert: Symphony No. 8 in B Minor, D. 759, Unfinished (22); Dvořák: Symphony No. 9 in E Minor, From the New World (22-25); Henry Clay Work: Wake Nicodemus (26-27); William B. Bradbury: Woodworth (28-31); C. G. Gläser, Lowell Mason (adapter): Azmon (28-31); David T. Shaw (or Thomas A’Becket): Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean (31-32)

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. “Making Old Music New: Performance, Arranging, Borrowing, Schemas, Topics, Intertextuality.” In Intertextuality in Music: Dialogic Composition, ed. Violetta Kostka, Paulo F. De Castro, and William Everett, 68-84. Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 2021.

Musicians use a broad spectrum of practices to make new music out of old: performance, including everything from making performing choices to improvising variants or added material; creating a new version of a piece by arranging it, transcribing it for different media or setting it with a new accompaniment; borrowing material from one or more existing pieces to use in a new one; building a new piece out of schemas, shared routines that can be deployed in endless new combinations; using topics, references to familiar styles and types of music, to delineate form and create meaning through association; and other forms of intertextuality, which encompasses these and other kinds of relationships between and among pieces of music. Borrowing has been a subject of musical scholarship for centuries, and in the past four decades scholars have developed parallel fields of study focused on the others. Each of these approaches is useful, drawing our attention to significant and longstanding practices in our musical tradition and to ways creators shape music and listeners understand it. Moreover, all of these scholarly approaches and musical practices are related, serving to demonstrate how central to our tradition are our many ways of making old music new.

Works: Franz Liszt: William Tell Overture, S. 552 (72); Bob Rivers: Not So Silent Night (72-73, 78); Stravinsky: Pulcinella (73), The Fairy’s Kiss (73); Josquin Desprez: Missa Pange lingua (74); Charles Ives: Symphony No. 2 (74, 78)

Sources: Rossini: William Tell Overture (72); Franz Xaver Gruber (composer), John Freeman Young (English lyricist): Silent Night (72-73, 78); Henry Clay Work: Wake Nicodemus (74); David Walker (composer), Anonymous (lyricist): Where, O Where are the Verdant Freshmen? (78)

Index Classifications: 1500s, 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: J. Peter Burkholder, Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. “Musical Borrowing or Curious Coincidence?: Testing the Evidence.” Journal of Musicology 35, no. 2 (Spring 2018): 223-66.

Studies of allusion, modeling, paraphrase, quotation, and other forms of musical borrowing hinge on the claim that the composer of one piece of music has used material or ideas from another. What evidence can be presented to support or refute this claim? How can we know that the material is borrowed from this particular piece and not from another source? How can we be sure that a similarity results from borrowing and is not a coincidence or the result of drawing on a shared fund of musical ideas? These questions can be addressed using a typology of evidence organized into three principal categories: analytical evidence gleaned from examining the pieces themselves, including extent of similarity, exactness of match, number of shared elements, and distinctiveness; biographical and historical evidence, including the composer’s knowledge of the alleged source, acknowledgment of the borrowing, sketches, compositional process, and typical practice; and evidence regarding the purpose of the borrowing, including structural or thematic functions, use as a model, extramusical associations, and humor. Ideally, an argument for borrowing should address all three categories. Exploring instances of borrowing or alleged borrowing by composers from Johannes Martini and Gombert through Mozart, Brahms, Debussy, Ives, Stravinsky, and Berg illustrates these types of evidence. The typology makes it possible to evaluate claims and test evidence for borrowing by considering alternative explanations, including the relative probability of coincidence. A particularly illuminating case is the famous resemblance between the opening themes of Mozart’s Bastien und Bastienne and Beethoven’s Eroica Symphony, discussed by hundreds of writers for more than 150 years. Bringing together all the types of evidence writers have offered for and against borrowing shows why the debate has proven so enduring and how it can be resolved.

Works: Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique (227, 241); Liszt: Totentanz (227); Camille Saint-Saëns: Danse macabre (228); Rachmaninoff: Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini (228), Symphonic Dances (228); Luigi Dallapiccola: Canti di Prigionia (228); Alban Berg: Lyric Suite (229-30, 233), Warm die Lüfte (237-41); Claude Debussy: Golliwogg’s Cakewalk, from Children’s Corner (229-31, 233-34), Pour la danseuse aux crotales, from Six epigraphes antiques (237-41); Nicolas Gombert: Ave regina celorum (231-33); Mozart: Requiem in D Minor, K. 626 (235-36); Brahms: Symphony No. 4 in E Minor, Op. 98 (237); Ives: Symphony No. 1 in D Minor (235), Violin Sonata No. 4 (242-43); Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring (244-46); Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 in E-flat Major, Op. 55, Eroica (250-65)

Sources: Attributed to Thomas of Celano: Dies irae (227-28, 241); Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (229-31, 233-34); Poissy Antiphonal: Ave regina celorum (231-33); Dvořák: Symphony No. 9 in E Minor, Op. 95, From the New World (235); Bach: Chaconne, from Partita No. 2 in D Minor for Solo Violin, BWV 1004 (237); Ravel: Gaspard de la nuit (237-41); William Howard Doane: Old, Old Story (242-43); Mozart: Bastien und Bastienne (250-65)

Index Classifications: 1500s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: J. Peter Burkholder, Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. “Stylistic Heterogeneity and Topics in the Music of Charles Ives.” Journal of Musicological Research 31, no. 2-3 (2012): 166-99.

Juxtaposing disparate styles is a defining characteristic of Ives’s music. Analyzing The Alcotts from the Concord Sonata, Larry Starr showed how styles ranging from diatonic tonality to three distinct post-tonal styles delineate the form, and argued that Ives was exceptional in embracing “stylistic heterogeneity” as a basic principle. Yet Ives’s practice fits well in the tradition of musical topics described by Leonard Ratner and others, especially the coordination of contrasting styles to provide variety and articulate the form. A topical approach also reveals how using styles that carry particular associations creates expressivity and mean- ing. Ives uses as topics numerous traditional styles, beginning in his early tonal music, as well as modernist stylizations of familiar styles. Often, these musical topics overlap considerably with Ives’s use of borrowed musical material. For example, in The Alcotts the hymn topic contains material derived from Missionary Hymn and the pounding chords of the Hammerklavier topic explicitly evoke Beethoven’s Hammerklavier sonata. Understanding Ives’s stylistic heterogeneity as the use of topics allows a deeper and more comprehensive analysis of The Alcotts and other works and links his practice to that of past composers such as Mozart.

Works: Ives: Memories (177-81), Symphony No. 2 (181-83), Luck and Work (186-89), Piano Sonata No. 2: Concord, Mass., 1840-60 (189-97)

Sources: Stephen Foster: Gentle Annie (178-81), Massa’s in de Cold Ground (183) Anonymous: Pig Town Fling (181-83); Schubert: Gretchen am Spinnrade (186-76); Robert Robinson: Come, Thou Fount of Ev’ry Blessing (187-88); Wagner: Lohengrin (191-92); A. F. Winnemore: Stop That Knocking at My Door (192); Lowell Mason: Missionary Hymn (192-94); Beethoven: Piano Sonata No. 29 in B-flat Major, Op. 106, Hammerklavier (192-97), Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67 (193-94)

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: J. Peter Burkholder, Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. “The Organist in Ives.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 55 (Summer 2002): 255-310.

Many elements of Charles Ives’s compositional technique, including some that seem to be his most radical, can be traced back to his early career as a church organist. Although pieces for solo organ make up a small part of Ives’s output, there are several pieces (including movements of symphonies 2, 3, and 4 and A Symphony: New England Holidays) that Ives reworked from now lost organ pieces. Four aspects of organ performance influence Ives’s later music, even when the organ itself is not especially prominent: improvisation, virtuosity, multiple keyboards with contrasting timbres, and mutation stops. Additionally, three characteristics of organ literature, fugue, pedal point, and elaboration of hymns, influenced the new directions Ives took in his music. For example, Ives links organ fugue and hymn practices in a lost organ fugue that was adapted into his String Quartet No. 1 and Symphony No. 4. The subject of this fugue was the first phrase of Missionary Hymn and the countersubject was a phrase of Coronation. In Symphony No. 4, both the fugue and hymn tunes evoke the extramusical “formalism and ritualism” of Ives’s program. Elements of Ives’s cumulative form are also anticipated in organ music introducing and accompanying hymns. Mendelssohn’s Organ Sonata No. 1 in particular anticipates several elements of Ives’s cumulative form practice, including adapting a hymn tune as a theme, stating the theme at the end, and developing variants of the tune before the tune itself. While organ music gives a foundation for many of his compositional techniques, Ives’s willingness to extrapolate from the organ tradition makes him unique among modernist composers.

Works: Ives: Sonata No. 2 for Piano, Concord, Mass., 1840-60 (264), Four Transcriptions from “Emerson” (264), String Quartet No. 1 (290-92), Symphony No. 4 (290-92), Sonata No. 4 for Violin and Piano (292-93); Mendelssohn: Organ Sonata No. 1 in F Minor, Op. 65, No. 1 (304-6)

Sources: Ives: Emerson Overture for Piano and Orchestra (264); Lowell Mason: Missionary Hymn (290-92); Oliver Holden: Coronation (290-92); William Hovard Doane: Old, Old Story (292-93); Claudin de Sermisy: Was mein Gott will, das g’schel’ allzeit (304-6)

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. All Made of Tunes: Charles Ives and the Uses of Musical Borrowing. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995.

The use of existing music is one of the most characteristic facets of Charles Ives’s music. What has been broadly described as musical “quotation” is in fact fourteen distinct procedures that Ives uses: modeling, variations, paraphrasing, setting, cantus firmus, medley, quodlibet, stylistic allusion, transcribing, programmatic quotation, cumulative setting, collage, patchwork, and extended paraphrase. Analyzing Ives’s use of existing music through these procedures allows for a clearer understanding of Ives’s compositions, the discovery that most of these procedures can be traced back to existing practices in the European tradition, and the tracing of a logical development in Ives’s practice from common types of musical borrowing to highly individual methods. The development of Ives’s use of existing music largely corresponds to six periods in Ives’s career: youth (to 1894), apprenticeship (1894-1902), innovation and synthesis (1902-8), maturity (1908-18), last works (1918-27), and revising (1927-54).

In his early career, Ives, like countless other composers, often modeled compositions on existing works to learn from the masters and develop his own voice. At the same time, Ives honed his skills at paraphrasing existing melodies (particularly hymn tunes) for use in classical idioms. Ives’s First and Second Symphonies represent the height of his use of modeling and paraphrase; the First Symphony demonstrates Ives’s command of the symphonic tradition, and the Second demonstrates his ability to bend American vernacular material to fit the symphonic form, paraphrasing American tunes as themes and adapting transitional passages from European compositions. Between 1907 and 1920, the most common form in Ives’s concert music was cumulative setting, a distinctive form in which a borrowed or paraphrased theme is first heard in fragments, gradually accumulating until the entire theme is heard at the end of the movement, often with a countermelody that accumulates in a similar way. Cumulative setting is based on techniques that have precedents in various musical traditions. Ives’s synthesis of these ideas served several musical and extramusical functions, celebrating American melodies and hymn tunes in a new, thematically-driven form. In other mature compositions, Ives uses conventional borrowing techniques in novel ways, such as alluding to a style or genre (often through a specific piece) as a means of commenting on it. Two extensions of paraphrase technique—patchwork, in which a melody is stitched together from fragments of multiple tunes, and extended paraphrase, in which the main melody of an entire work is paraphrased from an existing tune—also became important compositional techniques for Ives. Programmatic quotation, in which a tune is explicitly quoted for a clear extramusical purpose, is uncommon is Ives’s music, but the technique is used in works where the program involves listening to a musical event. Among the most extraordinary uses of borrowed music in Ives’s works are his orchestral collages, which blend several compositional techniques (modeling, paraphrase, cumulative setting, programmatic quotation, and quodlibet) and many borrowed tunes to create a stream-of-consciousness effect representing the process of memory. By systematically analyzing Ives’s increasing use of borrowed music throughout his career, the prevailing “crazy-quilt” view of Ives’s borrowing—that old and new material are stitched together without discrimination—can be replaced by a more accurate assessment that Ives drew on traditional techniques and developed new ones to give expression to his American culture within his own musical language.

Works: Ives: Holiday Quickstep (14-16), Polonaise in C (17-20), Variations on “America” (21-22, 43-46), Turn Ye, Turn Ye (23-24), Ein Ton (25-27), Ich grolle nicht (27-31, 33-34), Feldeinsamkeit (27-28, 31-34), The Celestial Country (34-36), Fantasia on “Jerusalem the Golden” (38-41), March No. 1 in F and B-flat (41-43), String Quartet No. 1 (49-75, 86-87), The Side Show (76-79), Fugue in Four Keys on “The Shining Shore” (80-81, 162-64), Religion (82-83), Evening (83-84), String Quartet No. 2 (84-85, 348-50), Symphony No. 1 in D Minor (88-102), Symphony No. 2 (102-36), Symphony No. 3 (139-54, 238-40), Violin Sonata No. 3 (139, 142, 154-61, 166, 174-78, 206-12, 243), The Camp-Meeting (149-50), Violin Sonata No. 1 (163-72, 201-6, 241-42, 250), Violin Sonata No. 2 (165, 170-74, 197, 200, 242, 315-16), Violin Sonata No. 4 (167-68, 177-84, 189, 193-94), Thanksgiving and Forefathers’ Day from Holidays Symphony (168-69, 185-86), His Exaltation (174), Piano Sonata No. 1 (187-93, 212-14, 243-44, 248-49), At the River (193-94), Adagio cantabile (The Innate) (194-95, 196), Piano Sonata No. 2, Concord, Mass., 1840-1860 (195-200, 350-57), Ragtime Dances (212-14), The Rockstrewn Hills Join in the People’s Outdoor Meeting from Orchestral Set No. 2 (214), “Pre-First” Violin Sonata (236-38), General William Booth Enters into Heaven (253-62), From Hanover Square North, at the End of a Tragic Day, the Voice of the People Again Arose from Orchestral Set No. 2 (262-66), Waltz (268-70), Grantchester (277-78), On the Counter (278-80), The One Way (279-80), Serenity (281-86), The Rainbow (287-89), The White Gulls (291-94), The Last Reader (301-5), The Things Our Fathers Loved (306-11), Old Home Day (311-12), Lincoln, the Great Commoner (312), In Flanders Fields (313), He Is There! (313-15), An Elegy to Our Forefathers from Orchestral Set No. 2 (316-17), The “St.-Gaudens” in Boston Common (Col. Shaw and his Colored Regiment) from Three Places in New England (317-22), The Housatonic at Stockbridge from Three Places in New England (327-30), Down East (330-33), West London (333-39), Yale-Princeton Football Game (342-43), Calcium Light Night (343), The Gong on the Hook and Ladder (343), The General Slocum (343-44), Central Park in the Dark (344-45), Decoration Day from Holidays Symphony (345-46), The Celestial Railroad (357-60), The Pond (Remembrance) (360-63), Requiem (363), Tom Sails Away (363-64), Trio for Violin, Cello, and Piano (373-74), The Fourth of July from Holidays Symphony (376-82), Washington’s Birthday from Holidays Symphony (383-85), Putnam’s Camp from Three Places in New England (386-89), Country Band March (386-87), Overture and March “1776” (387-89), Symphony No. 4 (389-411); George M. Cohan: The Yankee Doodle Boy (322-24, 325-26)

Sources: David W. Reeves: Second Regiment Connecticut National Guard March (14-16, 346, 373-74); Donizetti: Lucia di Lammermoor (17-20); Johann Christian Heinrich Rinck: Variations on “God Save the King” (21-22); Josiah Hopkins: Expostulation (23-24); Peter Cornelius: Ein Ton (25-27); Robert Schumann: Dichterliebe, Op. 48 (27-31, 33-34); Brahms: Feldeinsamkeit (27-28, 31-34), Symphony No. 1 in C Minor, Op. 68 (126-30, 132-33), Symphony No. 3 in F Major, Op. 90 (127), Vier ernste Gesänge (128), Symphony No. 2 in D Major, Op. 73 (349); Horatio Parker: Hora novissima (34-36); Alexander Ewing: Jerusalem the Golden (38-41); Anonymous: The Year of Jubilee (41-43); Attributed to John Bull (composer), Samuel Francis Smith (lyricist): America (43-46, 312-13); Attributed to Asahel Nettleton or John Wyeth: Nettleton (50-52, 61-70, 73-74, 86-87, 105-7, 115, 194-95, 196, 197, 200, 306-11, 349-50, 390-92, 392-401, 402-10); John R. Sweney: Beulah Land (52-55, 61-70, 73-74, 86-87, 99-101, 111-14, 207-12, 392-401); George J. Webb: Webb (55-57, 73-74); Oliver Holden: Coronation (55-57, 71-74, 402); George F. Root: Shining Shore (56-70, 73-74, 80-83, 86-87, 99-101, 162-63, 164-65, 168-69, 170-72, 185-86, 291-94), Tramp, Tramp, Tramp (236, 241-42, 250, 314, 359-60, 377-82, 386-89, 392-401), The Battle Cry of Freedom (236, 306-11, 313, 314, 315-16, 317-22, 377-82, 386-89), There’s Music in the Air (239); Lowell Mason: Missionary Hymn (71-74, 402), Bethany (81-85, 301-5, 330-33, 349-50, 390-92, 402-10), Watchman (201-6, 301-5, 390-92), Work Song (202-3, 205-6); J. S. Bach: Toccata and Fugue in D Minor (“Dorian”) BWV 538 (71, 402), Three-Part Invention in F Minor BWV 795 (126-27), Fugue in E Minor from The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1 (128-30); Pat Rooney: Is That You, Mr. Riley? (76-79); Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 6 in B Minor, Op. 74, Pathétique (76-79, 95-97, 101-2, 349), Symphony No. 4 in F Minor, Op. 36 (130-31); C. G. Gläser, Lowell Mason (arranger): Azmon (80-83, 140-41, 143-46, 151-54, 162-64, 240, 404, 408); Dvořák: Symphony No. 9 in E Minor, From the New World (89-95, 101-2, 130-31); Beethoven: Symphony No. 9 in D Minor, Op. 125 (97-98, 101-2, 349), Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67 (195-200, 350-60), Piano Sonata No. 29 in B-flat Major, Op. 106, Hammerklavier (195-200, 350-60); Schubert: Symphony No. 8 in B Minor, D. 759, Unfinished (98-99, 101-2); Stephen Foster: Massa’s in de Cold Ground (104-7, 115, 122-24, 316-22, 357, 383-85, 386-89, 392-401), De Camptown Races (115-22, 359-60, 383-85, 392-401), Old Black Joe (122-24, 316-22, 359-60, 392-401), My Old Kentucky Home (306-11, 373-74, 386-89), Old Folks at Home (383-85); Anonymous: Pig Town Fling (107-8, 373-74, 383-85, 392-401); David T. Shaw (or Thomas A’Becket): Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean (108, 116-24, 312, 313, 314, 348-49, 355, 359, 364, 376-82, 386-89, 392-401); Henry Clay Work: Wake Nicodemus (108-9), Marching Through Georgia (312-14, 317-22, 345, 348-49, 359-60, 373-74, 377-82, 386-89, 392-401), Kingdom Coming (377-82); George A. Minor: Bringing in the Sheaves (109-10, 213-14, 243-44); David Walker (composer), Anonymous (lyricist): Where, O Where Are the Verdant Freshmen? (110-11); Gregorian chant, Lowell Mason (arranger): Hamburg (110-11); Johann G. Naegeli, Lowell Mason (arranger): Naomi (110, 238-40); Samuel A. Ward: Materna (112-15); Charles Zeuner: Missionary Chant (115, 123, 195-200, 402-10); Thomas Haynes Bayly: Long, Long Ago (120, 373-74, 392-401); George Washington Dixon or Bob Farrell: Turkey in the Straw (121-24, 315, 348-49, 383-85, 392-401); Handel, Lowell Mason (arranger): Antioch (123-24, 402, 402-10); Anonymous (bugle calls): Reveille (124, 257, 312-13, 314, 377-82, 392-401), Assembly (312, 377-82), Taps (313, 345-46, 360-63); Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (127); William Bradbury: Woodworth (140-41, 143-51, 153, 240), Jesus Loves Me (168, 181-84, 316-17); Charles Converse: Erie (141, 151-54, 188-89, 192-93, 239-40); Robert Lowry: Need (142, 154-61, 207-12, 243), The Beautiful River (166, 174-77, 189, 193-94, 195, 196, 392-401), Where Is My Wandering Boy? (249); François-Hippolyte Barthélémon: Autumn (165, 170-74, 237); Ira D. Sankey: There’ll Be No Dark Valley (166, 174-78); William H. Doane: Old, Old Story (167, 178-81); George E. Ives: Fourth Fugue in B-flat (167, 178-81); John Hatton: Duke Street (168-69, 185-86); Henry K. Oliver: Federal Street (168-69, 185-86); George Kiallmark: The Old Oaken Bucket (170, 236, 241-42, 250, 363-64); John Zundel: Lebanon (187-92, 244, 249); Charles Zeuner: Missionary Chant (195-200, 402-10); Simeon B. Marsh: Martyn (195-200, 355-56, 358-60, 392-401, 402-10); Anonymous: Happy Day (213-14, 243-44); Lewis Hartsough: Welcome Voice (213-14, 243-44, 402); William G. Tomer: God Be With You (236, 359-60, 392-401); Walter Kittredge: Tenting on the Old Camp Ground (236, 313-14); Anonymous: Sailor’s Hornpipe (236, 315, 373-74, 377-82, 383-85); Anonymous: Money Musk (236, 315, 383-85); Anonymous: The White Cockade (236, 315-16, 377-82, 383-85); Anonymous, Lowell Mason (arranger): Fountain (238-40, 254-62, 333-39, 373-74); Andrew Young, Lowell Mason (arranger): There Is a Happy Land (238-40, 392-401, 402-10); James P. Webster: In the Sweet Bye and Bye (262-66, 306-11, 373-74, 390, 392-401); Michael Nolan: Little Annie Rooney (268-70); Debussy: Prélude à “L’après-midi d’un faune” (277-78); Ives: A Song—for Anything (278-80), Country Band March (313, 355, 359-60, 386-87, 392-401), Piano Sonata No. 2, Concord Mass., 1840-1860 (357-58, 392-402), Old Home Day (377-82), Overture and March “1776” (387-89), Violin Sonata No. 1 (390-92), The Celestial Railroad (392-401), String Quartet No. 1 (402), String Quartet No. 2 (406); Oley Speaks: On the Road to Mandalay (279-80); William V. Wallace: Serenity (282-86, 288-89); Ludwig Spohr: Cherith (301-5); Henry W. Greatorex: Manoah (301-5); Alexander R. Reinagle: St. Peter (301-5); Paul Dresser: On the Banks of the Wabash, Far Away (306-11); William Steffe (composer), Julia Ward Howe (lyricist): Battle Hymn of the Republic (311-12, 312, 314, 377-82, 386-89); H. S. Thompson: Annie Lisle (311-12); Anonymous: Arkansas Traveler (311-12, 386-89); Anonymous: The Girl I Left Behind Me (311-12, 377-82, 386-89); Anonymous: Garryowen (311-12, 377-82, 383-85, 392-401); Anonymous: Saint Patrick’s Day (311-12, 373-74, 377-82, 385, 392-401); Anonymous: Auld Lang Syne (311-12); Philip Phile: Hail! Columbia (312, 348-49, 377-82, 386-89, 392-401); John Stafford Smith (composer), Francis Scott Key (lyricist): The Star-Spangled Banner (312, 314, 386-89); Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle: La Marseillaise (313, 314); Henry S. Cutler: All Saints New (313); George M. Cohan: Over There (314, 364); Dan Emmet: Dixie (314, 348-49, 373-74, 377-82); Anonymous: Yankee Doodle (314, 377-82, 386-89, 392-401); James Ryder Randall: Maryland, My Maryland (314); Isaac B. Woodbury: Dorrnance (327-30, 402-10); Nelson Kneass: Ben Bolt (344); Ellen Wright: Violets (344); Joseph E. Howard: Hello! Ma Baby (344); John Philip Sousa: Washington Post March (344, 392-401), Semper Fidelis (386-89); William Crotch: Westminster Chimes (349-50, 390-92, 392-401, 402-10); Edward S. Ufford: Throw Out the Life-Line (359-60, 392-401); Frederick Crouch: Kathleen Mavourneen (361-63); Handel, Anonymous (arranger): David (361-63), Christmas (402); Mendelssohn, Anonymous (arranger): Hexham (361-63); William G. Harris (arranger): A Band of Brothers in DKE (373-74); George Morris: Few Days (373-74); Anonymous: The Worms Crawl In (373-74); Anonymous: That Old Cabin Home Upon the Hill (373-74); Anonymous: The Campbells Are Coming (373-74, 383-85); Henry J. Sayers: Ta-ra-ra Boom-de-ay! (373-74); Anonymous: Hold the Fort, McClung in Coming (373-74); William Gooch: Reuben and Rachel (373-74); Anonymous: Fisher’s Hornpipe (377-82, 383-85); Anonymous: London Bridge (377-82, 386-89); Anonymous: Katy Darling (377-82); Henry R. Bishop: Home! Sweet Home! (383-85, 392-401); Edwin P. Christy: Goodnight, Ladies (383-85); Anonymous: For He’s a Jolly Good Fellow (383-85); Anonymous: Irish Washerwoman (383-85, 392-401); Anonymous: The British Grenadiers (386-89); Theodore E. Perkins: Something for Thee (391-401, 402-10); Arthur Sullivan: Proprior Deo (391-92, 402-10); Anonymous: Crusader’s Hymn (391-92); Justin Heinrich Knecht, Edward Husband (arranger): St. Hilda (402-10)

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. Charles Ives: The Ideas Behind the Music. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Burkholder, J. Peter. Listening to Charles Ives: Variations on His America. Lanham, MD: Amadeus Press, 2021.

Charles Ives’s extraordinarily diverse musical output can seem daunting, but by studying the historical and artistic context surrounding his compositions, listeners can gain an appreciation for and better understanding of Ives’s music. One of the most salient features of Ives’s music is its variety. In his collection 114 Songs, Ives apparently hoped that everyone could find something to like in it, and even sampling just a few of the songs demonstrates its breadth of musical style. During his youth, Ives encountered the four musical traditions that would shape his compositional career: popular music, Protestant church music, European classical music, and experimental music. As Ives studied under Horatio Parker at Yale, he based several compositions (including his First Symphony) on European classical models. Starting with his First String Quartet, Ives began incorporating American tunes into European forms, and in his Second Symphony he completely integrates European and American music. With his Third Symphony and four violin sonatas, Ives developed cumulative form, a new form in which fragments of a borrowed tune (in these pieces, a hymn) are developed before the complete tune is heard at the end of the movement. Around the same time, he began to compose the four movements of A Symphony: New England Holidays, which celebrate American holidays through music associated with them and evoke memory through musical collage. Ives’s two Orchestral Sets use similar procedures to evoke American historical events, and, like the Holidays Symphony, combine elements of popular music, Protestant church music, European classical music, and experimental music. One of Ives’s best-known pieces, his Concord Sonata, conveys his impressions of four American Transcendentalist writers. In his Second String Quartet and his Fourth Symphony, Ives conveys two similar transcendent journeys, both culminating in the hymn tune Bethany (“Nearer, my God, to Thee”). In 1922, Ives self-published 114 Songs, a collection of old and new songs that, along with the Concord Sonata, brought him to the attention of the classical music community. It was not until after Ives stopped composing new music in 1926 that he began to be recognized as a major American composer.

Works: Ives: Down East (20-21), General William Booth Enters into Heaven (21-24), Holiday Quickstep (32-35), Variations on “America” (39-43), Feldeinsamkeit (58-61, 63), Ich grolle nicht (58-60, 61-63), Symphony No. 1 in D Minor (63, 65, 69-71), The Celestial Country (81-82), String Quartet No. 1 (82-89), Yale-Princeton Football Game (93-96), Central Park in the Dark (117-19), Symphony No. 2 (125-44), Symphony No. 3: The Camp Meeting (149-58), Sonata No. 4 for Violin and Piano: Children’s Day at the Camp Meeting (158-63), Sonata No. 3 for Violin and Piano (158-60, 163-66), Sonata No. 2 for Violin and Piano (158-60, 166-67), Sonata No. 1 for Violin and Piano (158-60, 167-68), Washington’s Birthday from A Symphony: New England Holidays (173-81), Decoration Day from A Symphony: New England Holidays (173-76, 181-85), The Fourth of July from A Symphony: New England Holidays (173-76, 185-90), Thanksgiving and Forefathers’ Day from A Symphony: New England Holidays (173-76, 190-93), Orchestral Set No. 1: Three Places in New England (195-209), Orchestral Set No. 2 (210-15), Piano Sonata No. 2: Concord, Mass., 1840-1860 (217-42), String Quartet No. 2 (249-56), Symphony No. 4 (257-68), On the Counter (273), Watchman! (273-74), At the River (273-74), His Exaltation (273-74), The Camp-Meeting (274, 275-76), Slow March (274-75), In Flanders Fields (276), He Is There! (276-77), Tom Sails Away (277), The Greatest Man (278), The White Gulls (278-79), Evening (278), The One Way (282), Three Quarter-Tone Pieces (282-83)

Sources: Lowell Mason: Bethany (20-21, 184-85, 249, 254-56, 258, 259-61, 266-68, 279), Missionary Hymn (84-85, 257, 265-66), Work Song (168), Watchman (168, 257, 260-61, 273-74); James A. Bland: Golden Slippers (23); Anonymous, Lowell Mason (arranger): Fountain (23-24, 154-55); David Wallis Reeves: Second Regiment Connecticut National Guard March (34, 95, 183-85); Attributed to John Bull (composer), Samuel Francis Smith (lyricist): America (39-43, 276, 283); Brahms: Feldeinsamkeit (59-61), Symphony No. 1 in C Minor, Op. 68 (132, 134, 136, 138), Symphony No. 3 in F Major, Op. 90 (133), Vier ernste Gesänge (136), Symphony No. 2 in D Major, Op. 73 (254); Robert Schumann: Ich grolle nicht from Dichterliebe (61-63); Dvořák: Symphony No. 9 in E Minor, From the New World (63, 65, 69-70); Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 6 in B Minor, Pathétique (63, 70, 254); Beethoven: Symphony No. 9 in D Minor, Op. 125 (63, 65, 70, 254), Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67 (223-28, 230, 232-34, 236, 241), Piano Sonata in B-flat Major, Op. 106, Hammerklavier (224-28, 241); Schubert: Symphony No. 8, D. 759, Unfinished (63, 70); George F. Root: Shining Shore (70-71, 86-87, 89, 167-68, 191-93), The Battle Cry of Freedom (166-67, 168, 184, 188, 201-2, 205, 276-77, 283), Tramp, Tramp, Tramp (168, 188, 262-63, 276-77); John R. Sweney: Beulah Land (70-71, 86-87, 89, 134-35, 163-64, 262-64); Anonymous (bugle calls): Taps (71, 183-85), Reveille (138, 188, 276); David T. Shaw (or Thomas A’Becket): Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean (71, 132, 136, 138, 144, 186-89, 237, 253, 254, 263, 276-77); Horatio Parker: Hora novissima (81-82); J. S. Bach: Toccata and Fugue in D Minor (“Dorian”) BWV 538 (85), Prelude in B Minor BWV 869 from The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1 (131), Three-Part Invention in F Minor BWV 795 (132, 136), Fugue in E Minor BWV 855 from The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1 (137-38); Oliver Holden: Coronation (85, 87-88, 89); Asahel Nettleton or John Wyeth: Nettleton (87, 135, 167, 210, 254, 262-63); George J. Webb: Webb (88); Karl Langlotz (composer), Harlan Page Peck (lyricist): Old Nassau (94-95); Anonymous: Hy-Can Nuck a No (94-95); Anonymous: Harvard Has Blue Stocking Girls (94-95); Carl Wilhelm (composer), Anonymous (lyricist): Bright College Years (Dear Old Yale) (95); Philip Bliss (composer), Anonymous (lyricist): Hold the Fort, McClung Is Coming (95); Nelson Kneass: Ben Bolt (118); Ellen Wright: Violets (118-19); Joseph E. Howard: Hello! Ma Baby (118); Anonymous: The Campbells Are Coming (118-19, 178-79); John Philip Sousa: Washington Post March (119), Semper Fidelis (204-5), Liberty Bell March (204-5); Stephen Foster: Massa’s in de Cold Ground (131-32, 135, 137-38, 141-43, 178-79, 201-2, 205, 210, 214, 240-41, 254), De Camptown Races (136-37, 178, 263, 264), Old Black Joe (137-38, 142-43, 201-2, 210), Old Folks at Home (177-78, 180); Anonymous: Pig Town Fling (131-32, 137-38, 179); Henry Clay Work: Wake Nicodemus (132-34, 142), Marching Through Georgia (184, 187-89, 201-2, 205-6, 253, 254, 262, 264, 276-77); George A. Minor: Bringing in the Sheaves (133-34, 168, 210); David Walker (composer), Anonymous (lyricist): Where, O Where Are the Verdant Freshmen? (133-34); Gregorian chant, Lowell Mason (arranger): Hamburg (133-34); Johann G. Naegeli, Lowell Mason (arranger): Naomi (133-34, 154-55); Samuel A. Ward: Materna (134-35); Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (135), Lohengrin (227); Charles Zeuner: Missionary Chant (135, 224-28, 266-67); George Washington Dixon or Bob Farrell: Turkey in the Straw (137-38, 166-67, 178-79, 253, 264); Carl Gotthelf Glaser, Lowell Mason (arranger): Azmon (153-54, 156-57, 267); Charles Converse: Erie (153-54); William B. Bradbury: Woodworth (154, 156-57, 274, 275-76), Jesus Loves Me (161-62, 210); Andrew Young, Lowell Mason (arranger): There Is a Happy Land (155); William H. Doane: Old, Old Story (161); Robert Lowry: The Beautiful River (162, 164-65, 273-74), Need (163-66); Ira Sankey: There’ll Be No Dark Valley (164-65); François-Hippolyte Barthélémon: Autumn (166, 273-74); Anonymous: College Hornpipe (Sailor’s Hornpipe) (166-67, 178, 188); Anonymous: Money Musk (166-67, 178-79); Anonymous: The White Cockade (166-67, 178, 188); George Kiallmark: The Old Oaken Bucket (168, 277); Henry R. Bishop: Home! Sweet Home! (177-78, 180); Anonymous: For He’s a Jolly Good Fellow (178); Anonymous: Fisher’s Hornpipe (178-79, 188); Anonymous: Irish Washerwoman (178-79, 188); Anonymous: Garryowen (178-79, 188); Anonymous: Saint Patrick’s Day (178-79, 188); Edwin P. Christy: Goodnight, Ladies (179, 180); John Francis Wade: Adeste fideles (183-85); Walter Kittredge: Tenting on the Old Camp Ground (184, 276-77); William Steffe (composer), Julia Ward Howe (lyricist): Battle Hymn of the Republic (184-85, 187-89); Philip Phile (composer), Joseph Hopkinson (lyricist): Hail! Columbia (188, 205, 253, 254, 263); Anonymous: The Girl I Left Behind Me (188); Anonymous: London Bridge (188); John Hatton: Duke Street (191-93); Henry K. Oliver: Federal Street (191-93); Anonymous: The British Grenadiers (203-6); Ives: Overture and March “1776” (203-4), Country Band March (203-4, 236, 264, 276), Ragtime Dances (210, 283), Emerson Overture (218, 228-29), Orchestral Set No. 1: Three Places in New England (236, 264, 276), Sonata No. 1 for Violin and Piano (257, 273-74), The Celestial Railroad (257, 258), Piano Sonata No. 2: Concord, Mass., 1840-1860 (257, 258, 263), String Quartet No. 1 (257, 265-66), String Quartet No. 2 (257, 267), A Song—for Anything (273), Sonata No. 4 for Violin and Piano (273-74), Sonata No. 2 for Violin and Piano (273-74), Symphony No. 3: The Camp Meeting (274, 275-76); Anonymous: Arkansas Traveler (205); Anonymous: Yankee Doodle (205, 264); John Stafford Smith (composer), Francis Scott Key (lyricist): The Star-Spangled Banner (206, 276); Isaac B. Woodbury: Dorrnance (207-9, 266-67); Edward S. Ufford: Throw Out the Life-Line (210, 262, 263); Anonymous: Happy Day (210); Lewis Hartsough: Welcome Voice (210, 266); James P. Webster: In the Sweet By-and-By (211-14, 260, 262-63); Simeon B. Marsh: Martyn (224, 236-7, 262, 263-64, 267); Anonymous: Loch Lomond (227); A. F. Winnemore: Stop That Knocking at My Door (227); Dan Emmet: Dixie (253, 276-77); William Crotch: Westminster Chimes (255-56, 260, 266-67); William G. Tomer: God Be With You (262); Handel, Lowell Mason (arranger): Antioch (Joy to the World) (266); Handel: Saul (274-75); Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle: La Marseillaise (276, 283); Anonymous (composer), James Ryder Randall (lyricist): Maryland, My Maryland (276-77); George M. Cohan: Over There (277); Oley Speaks: On the Road to Mandalay (282)

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Burnett, Robert and Bert Deivert. "Black or White: Michael Jackson's Video as a Mirror of Popular Culture." Popular Music and Society 19, no. 3 (Fall 1995): 19-40.

Analysis of visual and musical elements of Michael Jackson's video for his song Black or White reveals it as a series of intertextual references that generate meaning through allusions to aspects of popular culture. Intertextuality is defined according to Gerard Genette's theories of transtextuality and therefore is taken to be a relationship between "two or more texts existing or showing their presence within a work," including quotation, plagiarism, and allusion as types of intertextuality. In every scene of the video, intertextual references can be found, including the use of quintessential heavy metal guitar and drum sounds, cinematic allusions to Hitchcock and the film Raising Arizona, evocation of the militant political groups the Black Panthers as Jackson morphs into a panther, a rhythmic reference to Buddy Rich drum solos, and the inclusion of a brief section of rap.

Works: Bill Botrell and Michael Jackson: Black or White.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Burns, Lori. “Feeling the Style: Vocal Gesture and Musical Expression in Billie Holiday, Bessie Smith, and Louis Armstrong.” Music Theory Online 11 (September 2005).

Billie Holiday was quoted as saying that she wanted the “feeling” of Bessie Smith with the “style” of Louis Armstrong. Two Holiday songs, Tain’t Nobody’s Biz-ness if I Do and I Gotta Right to Sing the Blues, serve as clear homages respectively to Smith and Armstrong, each of whom recorded the songs well before Holiday. Both the style and feeling are identifiable by three vocal metrics: quality (dynamics/intensity), space (range/range-based timbre), and articulation (enunciation/rhythmic emphasis). Detailed transcriptions of the Smith, Armstrong, and Holiday recordings of these song, including dynamics, bending of pitches, and rhythmic manipulation show not only that Holiday was strongly influenced by her predecessors, but also that elements of vocal quality, space, and articulation that Holiday actively wanted to emulate appear in her performances of these songs.

Works: Porter Grainger and Everett Robbins (composers) and Billie Holiday (performer): Tain’t Nobody’s Biz-ness if I Do; Harold Arlen and Ted Koehler (composers) and Billie Holiday (performer): I Gotta Right to Sing the Blues.

Sources: Porter Grainger and Everett Robbins (composers) and Bessie Smith (performer): Tain’t Nobody’s Biz-ness if I Do; Harold Arlen and Ted Koehler (composers) and Louis Armstrong (performer): I Gotta Right to Sing the Blues.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Butler, Mark. "Taking it Seriously: Intertextuality and Authenticity in Two Covers by the Pet Shop Boys." Popular Music 22 (January 2003): 1-19.

Artistic authenticity is a central concern in the genre of rock music. "Covering" previously recorded songs directly involves rock and popular bands' rendering of a cover song as either authentic or artificial (inauthentic). Two cover songs by the Pet Shop Boys exemplify two opposing notions of authenticity. Their cover of U2's Where the Streets Have No Name casts the original version as artificial, as the Pet Shop Boys ignore the original song's emphasis on individuality, undermine the structural importance of motivic elements, recast the song in a quasi-disco style, and make other significant musical changes. On the other hand, the Pet Shop Boys' version of Go West heightens the authenticity of the Village People's version. The song evokes the climate of "1970s urban gay culture," with an emphasis on community and the freedom to be liberated by going west. The Pet Shop Boys' cover not only recaptures the Village People's message, placing it in its 1970s pre-AIDS culture, but also uses musical devices to also evoke the song's new context in an post-AIDS culture. For example, the interaction among the musicians seems more formally restrained, which resembles the heightened sense of caution members of the gay community must take in an AIDS-stricken world. Ultimately, the Pet Shop Boys' Go West celebrates the history of gay culture and casts the Village People's version as authentic.

Works: Bono (Paul Hewson) and U2: Where the Streets Have No Name as performed by the Pet Shop Boys (4-7); Henri Belolo, Jacques Morali, and Victor Willis: Go West as performed by the Pet Shop Boys (7-15).

Sources: Bono (Paul Hewson) and U2: Where the Streets Have No Name (2-6); Bob Crewe and Bob Gaudio: Can't Take My Eyes Off You as performed by Frankie Valli and by Boystown Gang (5-6); Henri Belolo, Jacques Morali, and Victor Willis: Go West (7-12); Pachelbel: Canon in D (13).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Victoria Malawey

[+] Caddy, Davinia. “Parisian Cake Walks.” 19th-Century Music 30 (Spring 2007): 288-317.

The popularity of the cake walk in early-twentieth-century Paris introduces complex layers of cultural signifiers and meaning both within and outside of constructions of race. The Parisian public was introduced to cake walks in 1900 by Sousa’s band, whose aura of civility and control challenges the dance’s assumed primitivism in current scholarship. The physical, spectacular, and participatory nature of the cake walk dance as described in the 1900s French press further runs counter to the expectations of a solely primitivist understanding. Filmmaker Georges Méliès’s combination of cake walk with early film splicing technique (as in his 1903 Le Cake Walk Infernal) adds an uncanny association to Parisian cake walks. Debussy’s quotation of Tristan und Isolde in Golliwogg’s Cake Walk is typically understood as a lighthearted critique of Wagner and Wagnerism. Lawrence Kramer reads these inclusions as quotations of absence—the harmonic substance of the Tristan chord is stripped away and rendered trite. However, a more nuanced reading of this quotation comes from taking seriously the irony inherent in the cakewalk genre: black plantation slaves parodying the mannerisms of their white masters. The theatricality and excess in Debussy’s score can further be identified with the modernist fixation on clowns. This interpretation takes into account the complexity of cultural signifiers in the cake walk genre and its appropriation in modern Paris.

Works: Debussy: Golliwogg’s Cake Walk, from Children’s Corner (288-89, 308-11)

Sources: Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (288-89, 308-11)

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Cadenbach, Rainer. "'Das Werk will nur Musik sein': Zitate in Max Regers Kompositionen." Reger-Studien 2 (1986): 73-104.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Cahn, Peter. "Zitate aus Pfitzners op. 36 in einem zeitgenössischen Kammermusikwerk. Zu Peter Ruzicka: Introspezione. Dokumentation für Streichquartett (1970). Hamburg: Skorski, 1977." Mitteilungen der Hans Pfitzner-Gesellschaft 41 (April 1980): 55-56.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Calkins, Susan. “Modernism in Music and Erik Satie’s Parade.” International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music 41 (June 2010): 3-19.

Satie’s score for Parade is regarded as an important work of early avant-garde modernism, reflecting a collaborative artistic endeavor involving Cocteau, Picasso, Diaghilev, Massine, and Satie, and helping to spawn the development of minimalism. This work attracted considerable attention in Paris, and its appropriation of cinema and jazz into the musical fabric of the work demonstrates Satie’s fascination with American culture. The “Ragtime du Paquebot” at the end of the second movement demonstrates rhythmic modeling from Irving Berlin’s 1912 popular song That Mysterious Rag. This intentional imitative gesture invited complaints of plagiarism. Other instances of Satie’s thematic borrowings are observed his melodic and orchestral quotations of Stravinsky and Debussy in the cabaret tunes and circus music themes in the third movement, “Acrobates.” These borrowing attempts, however, are mocking in nature. All the artists involved in this collaboration characteristically adopted a creatively defiant stance against tradition and convention. Satie rejected the adherence to a defined school of artistic or aesthetic thought, and his style of modern simplicity pervades the entire work. In spite of many criticisms, Parade was lauded for its stylistic innovation and departure from traditional forms and conventions. It is viewed as the culmination of avant-garde artistic expression and demonstrated a modernistic approach to creativity.

Works: Satie: Parade.

Sources: Irving Berlin: That Mysterious Rag (12).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Jingyi Zhang

[+] Callahan, Daniel M. “The Gay Divorce of Music and Dance: Choreomusicality and the Early Works of Cage-Cunningham.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 71 (Summer 2018): 439-525.

Merce Cunningham’s early choreography, particularly his collaborations with John Cage and fascination with the music of Erik Satie, demonstrates an interdependence of life and work as well as a marriage between music and dance that are fundamental to understanding his modernist divorce of choreography from music and narrative. The first Cage-Cunningham collaboration, Credo in Us (1942), reflects Cage’s unhappy marriage and blames the bourgeois conventions of American society and their insistence on maintaining the appearance of a happy heterosexual marriage. Cage’s score suggests this with a dismissive call for bourgeois favorites “Beethoven, Sibelius, Shostakovich, or whatever” to be played on a phonograph. Other early Cunningham choreographies, including Cage collaboration Four Walls and his Revivalist solo for Appalachian Spring, also deal with themes of marriage and exhibit clear relationships between dance and music. As Cunningham’s choreography began to meaningfully diverge from its accompanying music, his settings of Satie’s music and collaborations with Cage—for example, Idyllic Song (1944) choreographed to Satie’s Socrate—were still thematically “married” to the music and linked to Cunningham’s erotic dance. When Cage and Cunningham worked to choreograph the remainder of Socrate in 1969 as Second Hand, Satie’s publisher refused performance rights for Cage’s arrangement. Instead, Cage composed a derivative work, Cheap Imitation, that preserved the meter, rhythms, and at times intervallic distance of Socrate while transposing the pitches by consulting the I Ching. The new score was not entirely generated by this procedure, however, as there are clear instances of Cage composing in musical cues for Cunningham’s dance. This relationship between dance and music is clearly different from other Cunningham works such as Split Sides (2003), produced after Cage’s death, in which the dance is entirely independent from the music. Although Cage and Cunningham remained for the most part silent about their sexuality and relationship, analyzing the formal structures of their professional collaborations in light of their personal relationship helps to reveal a fuller understanding of the couple’s life and work.

Works: John Cage (composer) and Merce Cunningham (choreographer): Credo in Us (448-51), Idyllic Song (456, 484-90), Second Hand (496-508); John Cage: Cheap Imitation (496-508); Merce Cunningham (choreographer): Septet (490-94), Split Sides (509-11)

Sources: Erik Satie: Socrate (456, 484-508), Trois morceaux en forme de poire (490-94); Sigur Rós: ba ba ti ki di do (509-11); Radiohead (Colin Greenwood, Jonny Greenwood, Ed O’Brian, Philip Selway, Thom Yorke): Untitled (509-11)

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Carner, Mosco. "The Exotic Element in Puccini." The Musical Quarterly 22 (January 1936): 45-67.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Carr, Cassandra I. "Charles Ives's Humor as Reflected in His Songs." American Music 7 (Summer 1989): 123-39.

Although Ives's writings discuss concepts of sardonic wit in composition, his songs reveal a wide range of expression of humor, which became more complex over the course of his career. His humorous compositions can be categorized into at least four categories: parody, whimsical reminiscence, philosophical humor, and exaggerated insignificance. Ives's techniques of humor often do not rely on musical borrowing, but rather from outlandish performance directions, general stylistic allusions, or incongruous juxtapositions of styles. Nonetheless, musical borrowing can contribute to the humor.

Works: Ives: The Side Show (125, 129-31).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Virginia Whealton

[+] Carroll, Charles Michael. "Musical Borrowing--Grand Larceny or Great Art?" College Music Symposium 18 (Spring 1978): 11-18.

The exclusive right of the artist to the benefits that accrue from his or her intellectual property is a characteristic of modern culture. Borrowing is a common phenomenon, and exists in three types: (1) self-borrowing, or use of themes from one piece in another; (2) borrowing which is done as an obvious tribute or burlesque of the original, and (3) unacknowledged borrowing. Modern sensitivities consider this latter type of borrowing to be outright theft. The eighteenth century acknowledged but did not condemn this type of borrowing.

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Felix Cox

[+] Carver, Philip. "The Metamorphosis of a Jazz Standard." Jazz Research Papers (1996): 18-31.

As a well-constructed song, Cole Porter's What Is This Thing Called Love? became a popular source tune for jazz musicians. James P. Johnson's 1930 recording displays stride and boogie-woogie patterns, and only slightly modifies the chord progression. More drastic alterations are exhibited by Clifford Brown and Sonny Rollins in their 1956 recording with the Max Roach Quartet. In this case, the tune was highly ornamented and expanded, non chord-tones were emphasized during solos, and the tempo was twice as fast as prior versions. Brief analyses of treatments by Sidney Bechet, James "Bubber" Miley, Ella Fitzgerald, John Hardee, Bill Evans, Marian MacPartland, and Thad Jones attest to the variety of ways in which jazz musicians developed different perspectives on What Is This Thing Called Love?

Works: Porter: What Is This Thing Called Love?

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan

[+] Cavallini, Ivano. "Gustav Mahler fra epigonismo romantico e musica nuova." M.A. thesis, University of Padova, 1976.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Cavendish, Thomas H. "Folk Music in Selected Twentieth Century American Operas." Ph.D. diss., Florida State University, 1966.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Chanan, Michael. "Dialectics in Peter Maxwell Davies." Tempo, no. 90 (Autumn 1969): 12-22.

Peter Maxwell Davies consistently demonstrates an interest in the medieval and Renaissance periods in his compositional output. He begins with material borrowed from works in these periods and through his treatment of that material creates symbolic effects of powerful meaning. In addition to borrowing, Davies also utilizes parody as a compositional device, creating a commentary on the past and the present. In compositions such as Alma Redemptoris Mater and Fantasia on an In Nomine of John Taverner Nos. 1 and 2, the borrowed material is built into the structural framework of the work and therefore is less audible. Shakespeare Music uses the same technique, but fragmentary allusions to the models are occasionally allowed to come through the texture. Parody is employed in the Purcell realizations Fantasia and Two Grounds and Two Pavans,Taverner, and Antechrist. In these compositions borrowed material is used more extensively and can be heard in surface details.

Works: Davies: Fantasia and Two Grounds (12), Two Pavans (12), Taverner (12), Ecce manus tradentis (13), Antechrist (13), Shakespeare Music (13), L'homme armé (14), Revelation and Fall (14), Songs for a Mad King (14), Worldes Blis (14), St. Thomas Wake (15).

Sources: Davies: O Magnum Mysterium (12); Anonymous: Deo confitemini Domini (13); Bull: Pavan (15).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Christopher Holmes

[+] Charles, Sydney Robinson. "The Use of Borrowed Materials in Ives's Second Symphony." The Music Review 28 (May 1967): 102-11.

Understanding Ives's use of borrowed materials demands that one first verify that seemingly quoted materials are in fact there, and from what source they derive. Judgments are difficult to make in many cases because it is impossible to be familiar with all of the music Ives knew. Then the material should be classified according to its structural importance. Some of Ives's quotations are brief and structurally insignificant, others are structurally important within a single movement, and still others serve as unifying factors among movements. Given that many of the tunes Ives used have more than one text, the approach seeking extra-musical "reasons" that Ives quoted one tune or another is less serviceable than the preceding.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] Chell, Samuel L. "Music and Emotion in the Classic Hollywood Film: The Case of The Best Years of Our Lives." Film Criticism 8, no. 2 (Summer 1984): 27-38.

The "suture effect," adapted from psychoanalytic theory by Jean-Pierre Oudart, identifies the relationship of the spectator to the chain of signifying images, while also accounting for the subject's connection with the film score. Once becoming aware of the absence of vital information presented visually, the spectator unconsciously closes the gap between the seen and unseen, simultaneously sealing the spectator within the film. Music serves as an off-screen signifier, replacing the absence of corresponding affect, and the spectator is freed to claim the imaged emotion as his own. The film score permits the spectator to impart human depth to the flatness of photographed images by using programmatic music or music which carries off-screen meaning. Hugo Friedhofer's 1946 score for The Best Years of Our Lives draws stylistically from neo-classicism in its employment of numerous leitmotifs; the opening notes of the theme suggest somber memories of war, corresponding directly to the opening intervals of "Taps." Hoagy Carmichael's "Among My Souvenirs" is borrowed as a sentimental relic from the popular songs of the 1930s, as well as "Up a Lazy River" and "Chopsticks."

Works: Hugo Friedhofer: score to The Best Years of Our Lives (27-28, 31-38).

Sources: Taps (32); Traditional: It's Raining, It's Pouring (33); Hoagy Carmichael: Among My Souvenirs (33), Up a Lazy River (35); Antonín Dvořák: Symphony No. 9 in E Minor, From the New World (33).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kathleen Widden

[+] Chmaj, Betty E. M. "Sonata for American Studies: Perspectives on Charles Ives." Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies 4 (Winter 1978): 1-58.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Chou, Chien. "Variation Procedure in Rachmaninoff's Piano Works." D.M. document, Boston University, 1994.

The musical continuity in Rachmaninoff's Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini represents the culmination of his approach to writing a set of variations explored in his earlier pieces as well as in those of his predecessors. Through such continuity he resolves the stop-and-start method that composers such as Mozart, Beethoven, and Brahms employed in variation writing: the breaks that occur when one variation ends on a cadence and the next one begins at once. Musical continuity in the variation process was not new but was revitalized by Rachmaninoff, who focuses more on the variations as a whole rather than on their individuality. Within such continuity, his variation sets are connected to his models. For example, in the Corelli Variations, the majority of the variations retain the regular phrase structure, similar length, and simplicity of the Folia melody. In the Paganini Rhapsody, Rachmaninoff's use of chromaticism, particularly in the introduction, is a direct reference to the chromatic contrary motion that resolves the augmented-sixth harmony in the penultimate measure of the original Paganini theme.

Works: Rachmaninoff: Variations on a Theme of Chopin, Op. 22 (19-26), Variations on a Theme of Corelli, Op. 42 (26-33), Rhapsody on a Theme by Paganini, Op. 43 (34-205).

Sources: Chopin: Prelude, Op. 28, No. 20 (23-24); Corelli: Violin Sonata, Op 5, No. 12 (30); La Folia melody (30); Paganini: Caprice in A Minor, Op.1, No. 24 (42-44).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Hyun Joo Kim

[+] Christoforidis, Michael. “Manuel de Falla’s Homage to Debussy . . . and the Guitar.” Context 3 (Winter 1992): 3-13.

Manuel de Falla’s Homenaje a Debussy functions not only as a tribute to the French composer but also as a tribute to the guitar through its ending quotation of Debussy’s Soirée dans Grenade, prominent habanera rhythm, and scoring for solo guitar. Debussy’s influence on Falla cannot be quantified but can be heard in a number of his pieces. Falla wrote his homage shortly after Debussy’s death and coupled the composition with a tributary article that highlighted Debussy’s compositional talents as well as his connection to Spain and Spanish music. Around this same time, Falla had recently become interested in the guitar. Having previously turned down requests from friend and guitarist Miguel Llobet to compose a piece for the instrument, Falla saw an opportunity to satisfy his and his friend’s interests while also paying tribute to Debussy, who was equally fascinated with the Spanish guitar. In addition to writing for solo guitar, Falla links Debussy to the instrument and to Spain by using harmonies common to the Andalusian tuning of the guitar. Homenaje a Debussy makes prominent use of the habanera rhythm, which Debussy used frequently in his Spanish-inspired pieces. Falla’s quotation of Soireé dans Grenade reinforces Debussy’s musical connection to Spain.

Works: Manuel de Falla: Homenaje a Debussy.

Sources: Debussy: Soirée dans Grenade (5).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Christine Wisch

[+] Clague, Mark. "Playing in 'Toon: Walt Disney's Fantasia (1940) and the Imagineering of Classical Music." American Music 22 (Spring 2004): 91-109.

Fantasia uses pre-existing classical music as the subject of animation that demonstrates three types of music: program music, music that does not have a plot but paints pictures, and absolute music. The film is an example of Disney's imagineering (engineering and imagination), in which images and stories add meaning to the abstract music. Images in the film create a familiar narrative to describe unfamiliar music to middle-class audiences. The structure of The Rite of Spring was modified to fit the narrative of the animators, and the narrative itself is not one intended by Stravinsky. Fantasia can be understood as an effort to construct ideologies of current social positions and behaviors through imagineering of the music, as seen in the animation for Beethoven's Symphony No. 6.

Works: Walt Disney (producer): Sound track to Fantasia.

Sources: J. S. Bach (arranged by Leopold Stokowski): Toccata and Fugue in D Minor (92-96); Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring (97-98); Beethoven: Symphony No. 6 in F Major (Pastorale) (99-105).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Karen Anton Stafford

[+] Clapp, Philip Greeley. "All in the Family." Chord and Discord 2 (1950): 33-41.

In 1904 or 1905, Frederick Delius composed his Mass of Life (with a text from Nietzsche's Also sprach Zarathustra), that is compared with several other works of that time, especially Mahler's Veni Creator and Bruckner's Te Deum. The article is the result of the author's "reminiscence hunting" and presents the findings as a series of personal reactions to Delius's work rather than in a systematic order. They concern "family resemblances" of content and style, including correspondeces of the dramatic layout.

Works: Delius: Mass of Life; Strauss: Also Sprach Zarathustra,Elektra; Bruckner: Te Deum; Mahler: Veni Creator, Symphony No. 2, Symphony No. 3, Symphony No. 8, Das Lied von der Erde; Wagner: Tristan.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Clark, John L., Jr. “Archie Bleyer and the Lost Influence of Stock Arrangements in Jazz.” American Music 27 (Summer 2009): 138-79.

The production of printed stock arrangements of jazz music in the 1920s and 1930s has typically been downplayed in jazz history compared to improvisation, but it is no less important to the dissemination of jazz. Stock arranger Archie Bleyer is remembered by black and white musicians alike as producing some of the finest jazz stocks of the era. By the late 1920s, stock arrangements produced by large publishing houses had developed a consistent formula and allowed dance bands to quickly incorporate new popular tunes into their repertoire. Bleyer, who went on to have a long industry career as a bandleader and arranger, produced many influential stock arrangements and is credited with being one of the first arrangers to regularly add sixths to chord voicings. His stock arrangement of Business in F, an original composition, exemplifies his incorporation of stylistic elements from both black and white jazz bands. His stock for Maceo Pinkard and Mitchell Parrish’s Is That Religion was another popular selection recorded by several different bands. In his arrangement, Bleyer adapts the faux-gospel Tin Pan Alley song into a hot jazz orchestration, adding spaces for solos and syncopated riffs. The three recordings of Is That Religion by Billy Cotton, Duke Ellington, and Cab Calloway realize the same arrangement in radically different ways, again highlighting the dynamic relationship between arrangement and improvisation in early jazz music.

Works: Archie Bleyer (arranger): Is That Religion? (153-58)

Sources: Maceo Pinkard and Mitchell Parrish: Is That Religion (153-58)

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Clark, Sondra Rae. "The Transcendental Philosophy of Charles E. Ives as Expressed in The Second Sonata for Pianoforte, 'Concord, Mass., 1840-1860'." M.A. thesis, San Jose State College, 1966.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Clifton, Keith E. “‘Yes, It’s a Brilliant Tune’: Quotation in Contemporary American Art Song.” Journal of Singing 72 (January 2016): 279-89.

Since 1945, musical quotation of European classical music, opera in particular, has become a significant trend in contemporary American art song as exemplified by the works of William Bolcom, Tom Cipullo, and Benjamin C. Moore. Bolcom’s George, from volume 2 of his Cabaret Songs, tells the story of a drag performer who is murdered while singing Un bel di from Puccini’s Madama Butterfly. Throughout the song, Bolcom quotes Un bel di three times in the voice and piano, with the final quotation harmonized as a rich, dissonant lament. In his song Another Reason Why I Don’t Keep a Gun in the House, which deals with the frustration of a neighbor’s constantly-barking dog, Cipullo quotes several Beethoven symphonies—including the Eroica funeral march and Ode to Joy—in presenting its facetious revenge fantasy. Moore’s Content to be Behind Me satirizes the rivalry between singers and accompanists by juxtaposing quotations of Schubert’s lied Die Forelle with Rachmaninoff’s Second Piano Concerto, a much more interesting piece for the pianist. Sexy Lady (for mezzosoprano) and I’m Glad I’m Not a Tenor (for baritone) both quote several famous arias for soprano and tenor respectively, providing a humorous outlet for their less prestigious voice parts. Each of these examples uses existing music in unexpected ways to connect to audiences increasingly detached from classical music.

Works: William Bolcom: George (282); Tom Cipullo: Another Reason Why I Don’t Keep a Gun in the House (283-84); Benjamin C. Moore: Content to be Behind Me (284-85), Sexy Lady (284-85), I’m Glad I’m Not a Tenor (285-86).

Sources: Puccini: Madama Butterfly (282), Tosca (285), Turandot (285-86); Beethoven: Symphony No. 1 in C Major, Op. 21 (283), Symphony No. 3 in E flat Major, Op. 55 (283-84), Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67 (283), Symphony No. 7 in A Major, Op. 92 (283), Symphony No. 9 in D Minor, Op. 125 (283); Schubert: Die Forelle (284-85); Rachmaninoff: Piano Concerto No. 2 in C Minor, Op. 18 (284-85); Handel: Giulio Cesare (284); Mozart: The Marriage of Figaro (284); Richard Strauss: Der Rosenkavalier (284-85); Bizet: Carmen (285).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Clifton, Kevin. “Bartók’s Ironic Response to His Critics: The Significance of Quotation in the Allegro Barbaro.” International Journal of Musicology 9 (2000): 165-75.

Bartók’s use of Ravel’s “Scarbo” motive as the main folk-like theme in his 1911 piano work Allegro Barbaro, particularly his barbaric transformations of the motive, should be interpreted as a musical joke targeted at French critics. Allegro Barbaro can be considered as a representation of Bartók’s career because it reflects his formal musical training as well as his interest in folk music. Bartók’s education in art music is reflected by the influence of Debussy’s music, whereas his folk influence came from his interaction with the authentic Hungarian folk music that he collected. The first theme in the A section is distinctively composed in a Hungarian folk-like style, and in the B section, the barbaric folk style is dramatically transformed into the French art idiom through Bartók’s borrowing of Debussy’s “Minstrels” motive. This idiosyncratic source of borrowing should be viewed in an ironic and humorous light. Then, the barbaric, folk-like style immediately attempts to reassert its dominance over the French art style throughout the rest of the B section. The returning A section continues this dramatic play, with the French Impressionistic style further emphasized by “planing.” The reassertion of the Hungarian folk style comes immediately with the return of the tonal center of F-sharp.

Generally, Bartók’s quotations can be divided into four groups: the first is one in which Bartók borrows from his predecessors and contemporaries, the second includes programmatic and autobiographical quotations, the third contains humoristic quotations, and the fourth contains shopwork, in which he self-borrows. In Allegro Barbaro, Bartók employs the third group, and he conveys an ironic narrative.

Works: Bartók: Allegro Barbaro, Sz. 49 (165-71).

Sources: Ravel: “Scarbo” from Gaspard de la nuit (165-66, 168-71); Debussy: “Minstrels” from Préludes, Book I (170).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Nicolette van den Bogerd, Jingyi Zhang

[+] Code, David J. “Rehearing The Shining: Musical Undercurrents in the Overlook Hotel.” In Music in the Horror Film: Listening to Fear, ed. Neil Lerner, 133-51. New York: Routledge, 2010.

Scholarship on music in The Shining has largely ignored the semiotic richness of the incorporation of modernist musical works, but the historical subtexts of the pieces contribute to a unique Kubrickian approach to horror that relies on more than purely visceral audience response. By exploring congruencies between music and visual elements, certain symmetries come into focus that allow for a broader reading of music in the “Kubrick universe.” During the maze scene, Bartók’s Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta is a temporal phenomenon and is thus not congruous with the four-dimensional maze. Ligeti’s Lontano is used in two instances to accompany scenes of “shining,” but the third instance of its use deflects this established association. The symmetry between the music of Penderecki and the film extends even to the level of musical notation. Ultimately, one could read The Shining as an allegory of literate culture in the face of post-literate culture, represented in part by the use of modernist graphic scores.

Works: Stanley Kubrick (director) and Wendy Carlos (composer): soundtrack to The Shining (133-51).

Sources: Anonymous: Dies irae (131-32, 135); Bartók: Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta (134, 136-41); Ligeti: Lontano (136, 141-44); Penderecki: The Awakening of Jacob (144-46), Polymorphia (147).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kate Altizer

[+] Cohen, Judah M. "Hip-Hop Judaica: The Politics of Representin' Heebster Heritage." Popular Music 28 (Winter 2009): 1-18.

Musical artists within the Jewish American "hipster" scene (ca. 1986-2006) drew on conventions from rap and hip-hop as a means of negotiating a new Jewish identity. Of the many strategies to draw on the conventions of rap, one common tactic was parody. For instance, parody artist Shlock Rock parodied Aerosmith and Run DMC's Walk This Way (1986) and created Wash This Way, now a song about the Jewish hand-washing ritual. Despite the different lyrics, Shlock Rock's parody borrows vocal inflection, instrumentation, and even attitude. Although humor and parody were common reasons to incorporate rap and hip-hop into Jewish music, the Yeshiva-educated duo Black Hattitude used rap to promote a political and controversial program. Drawing on the stylings of rap, the duo included spoken tracks, took polemical points of view, and sampled artists such as Led Zeppelin. Such music provided a site in which young Jews could simultaneously negotiate a new Jewish identity and preserve and transmit their culture through such change.

Works: Lenny Solomon and Etan Goldman (songwriters), Shlock Rock (performers): Bless On It/Boogie in the Shul [Synagogue] (5), Wash This Way (5); Black Hattitude, R.E.L.I.G.I.O.N (7); Etan G (Etan Goldman): South Side of the Synagogue (8).

Sources: Newcleus: Jam On It/Boogie in the Club (5); Steven Tyler and Joe Perry (songwriters), Aerosmith (performers): Walk This Way (5); Steven Tyler and Joe Perry (songwriters), Run DMC (performers): Walk This Way (5); Led Zeppelin (Jimmy Page, Robert Plant, John Bonham, and John Paul Jones) and Willie Dixon: Whole Lotta Love (7, endnote 11); Peter Gabriel: Sledgehammer (7, endnote 11); Lenny Solomon (songwriter), Shlock Rock (performers): Yo Yo Yo Yarmulke (8), Recognize the Miracles (8).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

Contributed by: Kerry O'Brien

[+] Collins, Karen. “Grand Theft Audio?: Popular Music and Intellectual Property in Video Games.” Music and the Moving Image 1 (Spring 2008): 35-48.

Video games can capitalize on the popularity of source music through the subject or narration of a game, including a popular musician as composer for the game, and licensing popular music for the soundtrack. One of the ways that video game publishers can offset monetary risks is to use well-known intellectual property such as films, music, and musicians and actors. In the case of the audio in video games, this intellectual property could be a well-known voice talent, sound designers, or popular music.

Games with music as the subject or part of the narration, such as PaRappa the Rapper and Guitar Hero have been popular overall with players. These types of games can be divided into three categories: creative games, rhythm-action games (both categories in which music is the primary part of gameplay), and musician-themed games, where musicians or bands appear as characters. Many popular musicians were also involved in the soundtracks for other more general games, as well as recording or rerecording songs for games. Even more popular is to simply license popular music for use in video games. Earlier video games were not as concerned with the music tracks, as they were difficult and time-consuming to program, so many of these games made use of classical music. Once the environment changed and creators needed to address issues of copyright and licensing, there was a stronger tie to the musicians whose music they were borrowing, including cross-media promotions and the sale of game soundtracks. Oftentimes the musicians whose songs are featured gain a boost of popularity from the game.

Works: Milton Bradley (manufacturer): Simon (36); SCEI (manufacturer): PaRappa the Rapper (36); Red Octane and Harmonix (manufacturers): Guitar Hero (36, 38); Atari (manufacturer): Journey’s Escape (37); Midway (manufacturer): Revolution X (37); Sega (manufacturer): Michael Jackson’s Moonwalker (37); Acclaim (manufacturer): Summer Heat Beach Volleyball (37); Vivendi (manufacturer): 50 Cent: Bulletproof (37); Codemasters (manufacturer): Music Generator (38); Harmonix (manufacturer): Frequency (38), Amplitude (38); Nintendo (manufacturer): Donkey Konga (38); Namco (manufacturer): Taiko Drum Master (38); Konami (manufacturer): Dance Dance Revolution (38); Time Warner Interactive (manufacturer): Rise of the Robots (38); id Software (manufacturer): Quake (38-39); SCEE (manufacturer): Wipeout Pure (39); Nintendo (manufacturer): Donkey Kong (40); Atari (manufacturer): Crystal Castles (40); Centuri (manufacturer): Vanguard (40); Sega (manufacturer): Dracula Unleashed (41); DTMC (manufacturer): Adventures of Dr. Franken (41); Blizzard (manufacturer): Rock’N’Roll Racing (41); Psygnosis (manufacturer): Wipeout XL (41); EA Sports (manufacturer): Madden NFL 2003 (41), FIFA 2006 (42); Neversoft (manufacturer): Tony Hawk’s American Wasteland (42); Reflective (manufacturer): Driver: Parallel Lines (42); Sony (manufacturer): SingStar (43).

Sources: Journey: Escape (37), Frontiers (37); Aerosmith: Eat the Rich (37), Sweet Emotion (37), Toys in the Attic (37), Rag Doll (37), Walk this Way (37); Michael Jackson: Thriller (37), Bad (37); Deep Purple: Smoke on the Water (38); Megadeth: Symphony of Destruction (38); Brian May: The Dark (38); Tchaikovsky: 1812 Overture (40), Nutcracker Suite (40); Liszt: Mephisto Waltz (40); Anonymous: Turkey in the Straw (40); Scott Joplin: Maple Leaf Rag (40); Queen: “Vultan’s Theme” from Flash Gordon (40); Deep Purple: Highway Star (41); Beethoven: Piano Sonata in C-sharp Minor, Op. 27, No. 2 (“Moonlight”) (41); Carl Orff: Carmina Burana (41); George Thorogood: Bad to the Bone (41); Steppenwolf: Born to be Wild (41); Black Sabbath: Paranoid (41); Good Charlotte: The Anthem (41); Selasee: Run (42).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Film

Contributed by: Emily Baumgart

[+] Combe, Charles-Henry. "Les Citations d'hymnes nationaux chez Debussy." Revue Musicale de Suisse romande 39 (March 1986): 19-27.

Humor and programmatic effect are the two primary reasons for Debussy's musical borrowings. Debussy draws his borrowed material from classical music, popular songs, and national anthems. These points are illustrated through detailed analyses of pieces in which Debussy incorporates national anthems.

Works: Chabrier: Souvenirs de Munich (20); Debussy: "Golliwog's Cake-walk" from Children's Corner (20), "La Boite à joujoux," from Images oubliées (20), "Jardins sous la pluie" from Estampes (20), "Rondes de printemps" from Images (20), 9th Prelude (Book II) (20), Berceuse heroique (20, 22-23), En blanc et noir (second piece) (20, 23-26), "Feux d'artifice" from Préludes, Book II (21); Fauré: Fantasie en forme de quadrille sur des motifs du Ring (20); Tchaikovsky: 1812 Overture (20); Clementi: Symphony No. 3 in G Major, "Great National Symphony" (21).

Sources: Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (20); Mendelssohn: "Wedding March" from Midsummer Night's Dream (20); Arne: God Save the King (20-22); Campenhout, François van: "Brabançonne" (20, 22-23); Rouget de Lisle: La Marseillaise (21-22, 24, 26); Luther: Ein feste Burg (24-25); Haydn: Symphony in G Major, Hob. I:100, "Military" (24)

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Paula Ring Zerkle

[+] Cone, Edward T. "The Uses of Convention: Stravinsky and His Models." The Musical Quarterly 48 (July 1962): 287-99.

Stravinsky's use of conventions involves the defeat of the expectations set up by those conventions. The reference to earlier conventions may or may not involve thematic allusions. Pulcinella is based upon borrowed materials while the Symphony in C is not. In the case of the symphony, however, the presentation of the first theme (in its I-II-V sequence) does recall the presentation of the first theme in Beethoven's First Symphony.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Cone, Edward T. The Composer's Voice. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974.

In examining the composition and performance of musical works, the question of persona is raised: whose persona does the music represent--that of the composer, the performer, or (in the case of vocal music) the character portrayed by the performer? With respect to musical borrowing, the relevant question is: whose voice or persona is speaking in the borrowed material, the original composer's or the borrower's? In the case of self-borrowing by a vocal composer, it is the composer's own voice, rather than that of the poet whose text he or she originally set, that speaks through the borrowed material (p. 41). In an instrumental transcription of a vocal work, the vocal melody retains its original textual associations, thereby preserving the original composer's voice despite the removal of the text (pp. 76-78). When the situation is reversed, as in a popular vocal arrangement of an instrumental classic, the original composer's persona is still felt, as is the case with arrangements of Chopin and Tchaikovsky melodies (p. 45). Concerning the transcription of an existing instrumental work for a new instrumental combination, the integrity of the transcription (its preservation of the original composer's voice) rests on its use of a restricted choice of instrumentation (p. 108). Lastly, folk-tune or anthem borrowings can seem ridiculous if they are too obvious, where the original composer's voice completely overpowers the borrower's persona, disrupting the new piece. Puccini's use of The Star-Spangled Banner in Madama Butterfly is a prime example of this (p. 162).

Works: Brahms: Chaconne in D Minor by J. S. Bach (arranged for piano left hand); Busoni: Chaconne in D Minor by J. S. Bach (arranged for piano); Liszt: Liebestraum No. 3, Sonnets of Petrarch; Puccini: Madama Butterfly ; Webern: Ricercar a 6 voci by J. S. Bach (arr. for orchestra).

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Edward D. Latham

[+] Connor, Neil O. “Material and Medium: An Examination of Sound Recycling in Oval’s 94 diskont.” Organised Sound 24 (August 2019): 157-63.

The practice of sound recycling, defined as the repurposing of sonic material, challenges and reconfigures the psychological models used to understand sound perception, Audio Scene Analysis in particular. Auditory Scene Analysis posits that in the perception of auditory information, complex sounds are parsed into segregated streams arising from distinct sources. The track Do While from Oval’s 1995 album 94 diskont provides a case study for discussing how sound recycling works in terms of sound perception. Do While, an example of “deconstruction electronica,” is composed of uncredited borrowed sound material and technological traces of a skipping CD. By using the frameworks of rhizome and assemblage (both adapted from network theory), the borrowed material is recontextualized into new forms. The resulting collage renders acoustic symbols of the medium (CD album) ambiguous. Technological listening, or the awareness of technological process over musical meaning, also affects works like 94 diskont and Vladimir Ussachevsky’s Wireless Fantasy (1960), which alters a recording of Wagner’s Parsifal with the distinctive soundscape of short wave radio. When considered through these frameworks, musical borrowing challenges the model of ASA by introducing a fluid relationship between the awareness of sound and the awareness of the technology mediating sound.

Works: Oval: Do While (159-161); Vladimir Ussachevsky: Wireless Fantasy (161).

Sources: Wagner: Parsifal (161).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Copland, Aaron, and Vivian Perlis. Copland Since 1943. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989.

This is the companion volume to Copland: 1900 Through 1942. References to musical borrowings occur throughout the text. Much of the borrowing now focuses on associative connections for film scores. Apart from outright arrangements or music intended for student performers, there are few pieces that incorporate American folksongs past The Tender Land (1954). Much of Copland's borrowing in this period is of stylistic traits rather than direct quotation. Self-borrowing is most common in the later works.

Works: Aaron Copland: The North Star (film score) (15-16), Appalachian Spring (32-33), Variations on a Theme by Goosens (61), The Cummington Story (film score) (62-63), Third Symphony (68-69), Tragic Ground (unfinished) (76, 166-67), The Red Pony (film score) (88-91), The Heiress (film score) (98-107), Old American Songs (166-67), The Tender Land (220-21), Three Latin-American Sketches (273), Dance Panels (275-76), Music for a Great City (333-34), Emblems (343-44), Happy Anniversary (261)

Sources: Song of the Fatherland (16); Internationale (16); Simple Gifts (32-33, 166); Aaron Copland: Fanfare for the Common Man (68), Tragic Ground (88) Something Wild (film score) (333-34); I Got Me a Cat (76); So Long, Old Paint (90); Giovanni Martini: Plaisirs d'Amour (100, 106); Daniel Decatur Emmett: The Boatmans's Dance (166); The Dodger (166); Long Time Ago (166); The Little Horses (167); John G. McCurry (attrib.): Zion's Walls (167, 220-21); The Golden Willow Tree (167); Robert Lowry: At the River (167); Ching-a-Ring Chaw (167, 220); Amazing Grace (343); Happy Birthday (361, 375).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Elizabeth Bergman, Felix Cox

[+] Copland, Aaron, and Vivian Perlis. Copland: 1900 Through 1942. New York: St. Martin's/Marek, 1984.

Within the context of a comprehensive autobiography, numerous musical borrowings are considered. The majority of pieces quote or paraphrase American folksongs; these are named when known. Other types of borrowing include arrangement, variations, settings, and self-borrowing. Copland also mentions instances of borrowing in the music of his colleagues.

Works: Aaron Copland: Dance Symphony (86, 163), Vitebsk (160-63), Statements for Orchestra (236), El Salón México (245ff), Second Hurricane (261), Billy the Kid (279-80), Billy the Kid (suite) (284-85), John Henry (291), Lincoln Portrait (342ff), Las Agachadas (355), Rodeo (357), Four Dance Episodes from Rodeo (363); Virgil Thomson: The Plow That Broke the Plains (357, 388n19).

Sources: Aaron Copland: Grohg (86, 163); James W. Blake and Charles B. Lawlor: The Sidewalks of New York (236); El Mosca (246); El Palo Verde (246); La Jesusita (246); La Malacate (246); The Capture of Burgoyne (261); Great Grand-Dad (280, 284-85); The Chisholm Trail (280, 284); Git Along Little Dogies (280, 284); Bury Me Not on the Lone Prairie (284, 354); John Henry (291); Stephen Foster: Camptown Races (342-43); Springfield Mountain (The Pesky Sarpent) (342-43); Ground Hog (357); Old Paint (363, 388n19); If He Be a Buckaroo by Trade (363); Sis Joe (363, 354); Bonyparte (363); McLeod's Reel (363); The Man on the Flying Trapeze (367).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Elizabeth Bergman, Felix Cox

[+] Cormack, Mike. "The Pleasures of Ambiguity: Using Classical Music in Film." In Changing Tunes: The Use of Pre-existing Music in Film, ed. Phil Powrie and Robynn Stilwell, 19-30. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.

The recontextualization of pre-existing classical music within film brings complexity and ambiguity to film. Four reasons for this ambiguity are as follows: the music's original meaning may be indeterminate; the process of extracting and recontextualizing music increases ambiguity; audiences understand music in different ways; and awareness that the music was not originally written for the film creates distance between the music and straightforward interpretation. Since Rachmaninov's Second Piano Concerto is pre-existing but does not have an agreed upon meaning, it can be understood in film through several different codes and interpretations (including conventional cinematic musical codes), making it more complex than newly composed scores. In Détective, the disjunction between the visual film and the short well-known classical music excerpts does not allow the use of cinematic musical codes, but it does produce complexity.

Works: Martin Scorsese (director): Sound track to Raging Bull (21-23, 28); David Lean (director) and Noel Coward (writer/producer): Sound track to Brief Encounter (23-26, 28-29); Jean-Luc Godard (director): Sound track to Détective (26-29).

Sources: Pietro Mascagni: Cavalleria rusticana (21-23); Rachmaninov: Piano Concerto No. 2 in C-sharp Minor (24-26); Schubert: Symphony No. 8 in B minor (Unfinished) (27); Wagner: Rienzi (27).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Karen Anton Stafford

[+] Cornett, Vanessa. “‘Which Side Are You on?’: Folk Tune Quotation and Protest in Western Art Music.” Music and Politics 15 (January 2021): 51-69.

Folk songs have long been a vehicle for political activism, and quotations of traditional American protest songs in contemporary art music can serve the same call-to-action function, as exemplified by Frederic Rzewski’s 1979 solo piano ballad Which Side Are You On?. Many of Rzewski’s compositions are explicitly political in nature, expressing outrage toward abuses of power and an affinity for Marxist ideology. Which Side Are You On? is a setting of the union song from the 1930s about the violent struggle to unionize coal mines in Harlan County, Kentucky. Rzewski’s setting opens with disjointed fragments of the tune (at least 205 in total) presented in all twelve keys. At the midpoint of the piece, the fragments begin to rhythmically (but not tonally) join in larger portions of the tune. After that, the performer is instructed to begin improvising in a “sudden radical change” for the same duration as the notated music, representing the other “side” of the struggle, the failure to collectively organize. An eight-measure statement of the entire folk tune in its original key of B minor concludes the piece, creating a clear musical symbol for the power of unionization and solidarity. Through his skillful use of folk tune quotation, Rzewski is able to communicate a political message in an accessible, distinctive way.

Works: Frederic Rzewski: Variations on “¡El Pueblo Unido Jamás Será Vencido!” (56), Long Time Man (56), Which Side Are You On? (62-66).

Sources: Traditional: El Pueblo Unido Jamás Será Vencido (56), It Makes a Long-Time Man Feel Bad (56); Florence Reece (lyricist): Which Side Are You On? (62-66).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Cornett-Murtada, Vanessa. "Quotation, Revolution, and American Culture: The Use of Folk Tunes and the Influence of Charles Ives in Frederic Rzewski's North American Ballads for Solo Piano." DMA diss., University of North Carolina, Greensboro, 2004.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Covach, John R. "The Rutles and the Use of Specific Models in Musical Satire." Indiana Theory Review 11 (1990): 119-44.

The 1978 NBC "docudrama," The Rutles: All You Need Is Cash, is a humorous satire of the music and history of the Beatles. According to Schopenhauer, an amused reaction arises as a response to the "recognition of incongruity between a representation and a concept." Thus, for a listener to experience an amused response to musical satire, he or she must possess "stylistic competencies" that allow for the recognition of the congruity-incongruity dialectic in the music. The fictitious Rutles's Hold My Hand is modeled on three Beatles songs, and it incorporates elements of lyrics, pitch, rhythm, harmony and instrumentation from the sources. Evidence of modeling in Ouch!, a parody of the Beatles' song, Help!, is found in instrumentation and in formal and harmonic similarities to the source. The harmonic parallelism is such that a dialogue between Ouch! and Help! emerges, which is facilitated by diminution of the model's harmonic rhythm and partial reordering of the harmonic progression. Leonard Meyer's theory of style, in combination with the semiotic theory of intertextuality, can become a powerful analytic device in explaining musical satire. The humor arises from the listener's recognition of the model and the clever alterations and juxtapositions of the original material. This recognition must take place on three different levels of specificity: dialectic or general style (e.g., British invasion), individual idiom (e.g., early Beatles style), and intraopus style or the style within a single work (e.g., the style of Help!).

Works: Neil Innes: Hold My Hand (124-32), Ouch! (133-37).

Sources: John Lennon and Paul McCartney: I Want to Hold Your Hand (124-32), She Loves You (124-32), All My Loving (124-32), Help! (133-37).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular, Film

Contributed by: Victoria Malawey, Sarah Florini

[+] Cowell, Henry, and Sidney Cowell. Charles Ives and His Music. New York: Oxford University Press, 1955; 2nd ed., New York: Oxford University Press, 1969.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Cowell, Henry, ed. American Composers on American Music. Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1933; reprint, New York: Frederick Ungar, 1962.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Coyle, Michael. "Hijacked Hits and Antic Authenticity: Cover Songs, Race, and Postwar Marketing." In Rock Over the Edge: Transformations in Popular Music Culture, ed. Roger Beebe, Denise Fulbrook, and Ben Saunders, 133-157. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2002.

The term "cover" does not accurately describe the history behind or motivations for an artist recording a previously recorded song. In the 1950s, listeners did not make the same associations between song and singer that they make today; therefore re-recording a song was not understood as a reference in any way to the earlier artist. "The music itself" existed independently of its realization; therefore multiple versions of a song could circulate and not be considered to be referential. Re-recording a song that was circulating at the time was known as "hijacking a hit." It was not until Elvis re-recorded older R&B records that were no longer circulating that the cover song in the modern sense of the word came into existence.

Works: Chuck Willis (songwriter), Derek and the Dominos (performers): It's Too Late (151-52); Otis Redding (performer): It's Too Late (151-52).

Sources: Chuck Willis (songwriter and performer): It's Too Late (150-52); Otis Redding (performer): It's Too Late (151-52).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Crawford, Richard. "George Gershwin's I Got Rhythm (1930)." In The American Musical Landscape, 213-36. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

Since its premiere in Gershwin's 1930 musical Girl Crazy, the song I Got Rhythm has been performed, arranged, and recorded countless times. In these subsequent realizations of Gershwin's song three approaches can be identified in which the original material is treated as (1) a song played and sung by popular performers, (2) a jazz standard, a piece known and frequently played by musicians in the jazz tradition, and (3) a musical structure, a harmonic framework upon which jazz instrumentalists have built new compositions. These new compositions, called contrafacts, include examples such as Duke Ellington's 1940 Cotton Tail, Charlie Parker's 1940 Steeplechase, Parker and "Dizzy" Gillespie's 1945 Shaw 'Nuff, and many others. Tables listing titles of Parker I Got Rhythm contrafacts and recordings of I Got Rhythm contrafacts (up to 1942) are included.

Works: Ellington: Cotton Tail (229-30), Parker: Steeplechase (232), Red Cross (232), Moose the Mooche (233), An Oscar For Treadwell (233); Parker and Gillespie: Shaw 'Nuff (239).

Sources: Gershwin: I Got Rhythm (213-44).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz, Popular

Contributed by: Scott Grieb

[+] Creshevsky, Noah. "On Borrowed Time." Contemporary Music Review 20, no. 4 (2001): 91-98.

Composers can expand their musical possibilities by borrowing samples of pre-existent music. For instance, Noah Creshevsky's Borrowed Time samples music from the twelfth to twentieth centuries. By incorporating a variety of disparate samples, one can represent the multicultural society in which we currently live. The revolution of technological media has made sampling equipment readily available. Creshevky's compositional processes have changed in reaction to this technological shift, in that the samples used are often so short in duration as to obscure their origins. Sampling an entire stanza from an aria would be a quotation, belonging to composer and librettist, but sampling just a syllable is an unidentifiable form of sampling and musical borrowing. Whether in times of bounty or scarcity, composers should borrow music, for there is plenty to go around.

Works: Noah Creshevsky: Borrowed Time (91, 96).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Kerry O'Brien

[+] Cudworth, Charles. "Ye Olde Spuriosity Shoppe." Notes 12 ([Month] 1954): (I) 25-40, (II) 533-53.

Index Classifications: General, 1600s, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Cullen, Shaun. “White Skin, Black Flag: Hardcore Punk, Racialization, and the Politics of Sound in Southern California.” Criticism 58 (Winter 2016): 59-85.

The music of seminal Los Angeles hardcore punk band Black Flag is a (sometimes tenuous) testament to the fluctuating nature of racial identities and communities and has potential to rouse its listeners from complacency with racial hegemony. Black Flag’s song White Minority, first recorded in 1978, is an example of the complicated nature of racial politics in LA punk. Lyrically, the song expresses racist paranoia, attracting critiques of racism in the LA punk scene. However, the band has claimed that the song is meant to be sarcastic and darkly ironic, a reading supported by the fact that the two singers who recorded the song for Black Flag were Jewish and Puerto Rican respectively. Other songs more directly express the band’s anti-authority politics. Black Flag’s rewrite of rock song Louie Louie, released in 1981, sonically voices a multiethnic and multiracial resistance to white supremacy. The strained and painful vocal performance by the band’s third singer, Dez Cadena (who soon after quit the band due to vocal stress), can be read as a metaphor for straining against the limitations faced by nonwhite youth in a situation of white ethnic dominance. The original recording of Louie Louie, with lyrics about Jamaican sailors and inverted cha-cha-cha rhythm, is itself emblematic of the hybridity inherent in rock and roll. Black Flag’s version dramatically rewrites the love song into an antisocial rant performed with an air of ambivalence. The verses use completely new text, and the organ solo is recast as a harsh, atonal guitar solo. In adapting the rock and roll classic, Black Flag continues a tradition of boundary crossing and dialogue between white, black, and brown working-class rock musicians. The new direction of Black Flag’s sound in the mid-1980s further expresses an ethic of boundary crossing and resistance with the band’s adoption of elements of free jazz.

Works: Black Flag: Louie Louie (73-78)

Sources: Richard Berry: Louie Louie (73-78)

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Culter, Chris. "Plunderphonia." Musicworks 60 (Summer 1994): 6-19.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

[+] Curtis, Scott. “The Sound of Early Warner Bros. Cartoons.” In Sound Theory/Sound Practice, edited by Rick Altman, 191-203. New York: Routledge, 1992.

Short animations function differently from the feature length films currently focused on within the field of film music research, but examining how music works in these animated shorts can encourage us to rethink our conceptions of feature film music as well, including vocabulary and techniques. Image/sound hierarchy, the separation of soundtrack into dialogue/music/effects, and the diegetic/non-diegetic separation are all difficult if not impossible to apply to animation. There is also an economic angle to animations—Warner Brothers, anticipating the success of “talkies,” bought up several music publishing houses and strongly encouraged its workers, including those in animation, to use these in-house songs or works within the public domain. Hence, early Looney Tunes cartoons used all available songs to their full potential, leading to the “Merrie Melodies” series of cartoons using both hit music such as 42nd Street and flops like Manhattan Parade. The division of cartoons into a separate music-based series was not specific to Warner Bros.; Disney’s “Silly Symphonies” followed the same pattern, chipping away at the traditional hierarchy that placed image above music. Songs from musicals were often used in singing and dancing routines, where it becomes difficult to distinguish between dialogue and music. Likewise, rather than referring to a diegetic/non-diegetic distinction, it is often more useful to think of animation as isomorphic/iconic.

Works: Warner Bros. (studio): Young and Healthy (193), Shuffle Off to Buffalo (193), Three’s a Crowd (195), You Don’t Know What You’re Doin’! (195, 198), Hamateur Night (196), Rhapsody Rabbit (196), What’s Up, Doc? (196), Sinkin’ in the Bathtub (196), Hold Anything (198, 200), Smile, Darn Ya, Smile (198), Petting in the Park (199), Red-Headed Baby (201), Big Man from the North (201-2); Oskar Fischinger: Motion Painting No. 1 (202).

Sources: Mervyn Leroy: 42nd Street (193, 195); Bach: Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 (202).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Emily Baumgart

[+] Cusic, Don. "From Zap to Rap: Digital Sampling, Rap Music, and the Folk Tradition." The Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin 54, no. 4 (1991): 139-43.

According to Charles Seeger, folk music represents the epitome of plagiarism. Since rap music relies so heavily on digital sampling, rap and folk music are therefore linked through similar processes of musical borrowing. The explanation for such borrowing is not plagiarism but a new definition of creativity: creativity as synthesis of existing materials. Rap and folk music are also extensions of oral traditions, which value synthesis over novelty.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa

[+] Cusic, Don. "In Defense of Cover Songs." Popular Music and Society 28 (May 2005): 171-77.

Recording labels in Nashville demand that recording artists be singer-songwriters: that is, that musicians write and perform their own songs. Critics and fans believe that writing and performing one's own songs is the best measure of the legitimacy of a musician's abilities. This expectation ignores the potential value of cover songs and the interpretive skill of covering artists. Not only can a cover song provide a new interpretation of a song, but it may introduce music to new listeners who are unfamiliar with the original because of separation by time or genre. For covering artists, cover songs are important for three reasons: (1) the song has a proven track record of commercial success, (2) the song can act as a nod or tribute to an important influence on the artist, and (3) it can provide audiences with familiar music as they hear a new artist.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Cutler, Chris. “Plunderphonia.” In Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music, edited by Christoph Cox and Daniel Warner, 138-56. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004.

Plunderphonics—the technique of sampling and then dramatically editing those samples of existing music—challenges traditional notions of property rights, individual creativity, and originality, and thus calls for news modes of discourse. When recorded music becomes the sole source material for a new composition (the re-edited work), the concept of origination no longer matters; this radically subverts art music narratives of creative geniuses and autonomous artworks. Instead, plundering is a form of positive plagiarism that does not fit into the current modes of discourse on originality and property rights or existing copyright laws that emphasize the creation of a work by one author from nothing. Recording undermines the core of the classical art tradition because it bypasses notation, allowing the finished music itself to become the raw material of a re-edited work. Instead of creativity being the sole province of the composer in the art music tradition, recorded sounds and plundering place the impetus of creativity on the listener as new art can be made solely through listening without the constraints of notation. In order to better understand how musical plundering operates within popular and, more rarely, art music, we need to develop new frameworks of engaging with these issues of copyright and creativity.

Works: John Oswald: The Great Pretender (139), Plexure (153); Michael Jackson: Will You Be There? (139); John Coltrane (performer): My Favorite Things (142); John Cage: Imaginary Landscape No. 1 (145), Imaginary Landscape No. 4 (145), Imaginary Landscape No. 5 (145); Ottorino Respighi: Pina di Roma (145); Pierre Schaeffer: Etude aux tourniquets (145); James Tenney: Collage No. 1 (145), Viet Flakes (147); Frank Zappa: Absolutely Free, Lumpy Gravy, We’re Only in it for the Money (148); The Beatles: Tomorrow Never Knows (148), Revolution 9 (148); Stockhausen: Opus 1970 (148); The Residents: Third Reich and Roll (148), Beyond the Valley of a Day in the Life: The Residents Play The Beatles/The Beatles Play The Residents (149); Richard Tryhall: Omaggio a Jerry Lee Lewis (148).

Sources: Dolly Parton (performer): The Great Pretender; Beethoven: Symphony No. 9 in D Minor, Op. 125 (139); Richard Rodgers (composer), Oscar Hammerstein II (lyricist): My Favorite Things from The Sound of Music (142); Elvis Presley (performer): Blue Suede Shoes (145); Jerry Lee Lewis: Whole Lotta Shakin’ Goin’ On (148).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Sarah Kirkman

[+] Cyr, Gordon. "Intervallic Structural Elements in Ives's Fourth Symphony." Perspectives of New Music 9 and 10 (Spring/Summer-Fall/Winter 1971): 291-303.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Czackis, Lloica. “Yiddish Tango: A Musical Genre?” European Judiasm 42 (Autumn 2009): 107-21.

Although the tango originated in Buenos Aires, several Ashkenazi Jewish songwriters in Europe soon adopted this genre as their own, either by giving existing tango melodies new lyrics in Yiddish or by composing new ones. The Ashkenazi Jews soon exported their Yiddish tangos to cities like New York City and Buenos Aires, where they became staples of Yiddish theater and musical productions. During World War II and after, the tango became an especially symbolic and even painful genre for Jews, as Nazis sometimes forced prisoners in concentration camps to play tangos when other prisoners were killed. Despite this, the tango genre also offered Jewish prisoners a medium for expression and a tie to their heritage, and the familiar melodies allowed the prisoners to easily remember their new lyrics. For instance, songs like Kinder yorn and Makh tsu di eygelekh include musical gestures that allude to the tango, while the contrafact camp song Yiddish Tango was adapted and reworked from Shpil zhe mir a lidele in yidish as a song of resistance.

Works: Anonymous: Death Tango (116); Anonymous: Der Todesfuge (116); Dovid Beigelman: Kinder yorn (117), Makh tsu di eygelekh (117); Ruven Tsarfat: Yiddish Tango (118); Rikle Glezer: Es iz geven a zumertog (118); Anonymous: Niewolnicze tango (118); Mary Sorianu: Tango fun libe (118).

Sources: Eduardo Bianco: Plegaria (116); Julio César Sanders: Adios Muchachos (111); Ángel Villoldo: El Choclo (111); Dovid Beigelman: Ikh ganve in der nakht (114); Henech Kon: Shpil zhe mir a lidele in yidish (118); Herman Yablokoff: Papirosn (118); Gerardo Matos Rodríguez: La Cumparsita (118).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Cynthia Dretel, Matthew G. Leone

[+] Dadaszad, Zümrüd. "My eto ved toze cast mira." Muzykal'naja akademija 1 (2002): 158-72.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Dale, S. S. "Musical Quotations." The Musical Opinion 96 (September 1973): 623-27.

Dale lists works (from Beethoven till present) that include quotations. They can be grouped into pieces (1) quoting Dies Irae, (2) quoting Beethoven, (3) by Wagner quoting other works, (4) by Borodin, Elgar, and Ives quoting other works, (5) in which Schumann was quoting, and (6) by other composers. The principle of quoting is clearly separate from parody, the stylistic imitation of an other composer, which is not included in this essay.

Works: Borodin: The Valiant Knights (626); Elgar: The Music Makers (626); Ives: An Elegy for Stephen Foster (626).

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Daley, Mike. "Patti Smith's 'Gloria': Intertextual Play in a Rock Vocal Performance." Popular Music 16 (October 1997): 235-53.

Patti Smith's version of Van Morrison's Gloria transforms the meaning of the original through the use of textual tropes and altered vocal performance that ultimately decenters the "dominant male rock singer" to clear out creative space for herself. In her version, Gloria in excelsis deo, Smith adds a great deal of text to the original lyrics but retains some of Morrison's text without changing the male perspective, deliberately playing up the male sexual undertones. Smith also utilizes a number of subtle vocal inflections to emphasize specific words and phrases and bring out meaning in the text. These vocal performance techniques include qualities such as "raspy," "hard/nasal," "breathy," or "creaky," as well as exaggerated or closed vowel sounds and pitch inflections. An appendix contains the text to Morrison's Gloria and a transcription of Smith's version featuring both traditional staff notation and the author's notation for indicating vocal performance techniques.

Works: Van Morrison and Patti Smith: Gloria in excelsis deo.

Sources: Van Morrison: Gloria.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Danuser, Hermann. "Musikalische Zitat- und Collageverfahren im Lichte der (Post)Moderne-Diskussion." Bayerische Akademie der Schönen Kunste: Jahrbuch 4 (1990): 395-409.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Danuser, Hermann. "Tradition und Avantgarde nach 1950." In Die neue Musik und die Tradition: Sieben Kongressbeiträge und eine analytische Studie, ed. Reinhold Brinkmann, 22-54. New York: Schott, 1978.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Danz, Louis. "Gershwin and Schoenberg." In George Gershwin, ed. Merle Armitage, 99-101. New York: Longmans, Green, 1938.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Davies, Ann. "High and Low Culture: Bizet's Carmen and the Cinema." In Changing Tunes: The Use of Pre-existing Music in Film, ed. Phil Powrie and Robynn Stilwell, 46-56. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.

Cinema attempts to claim a status as an art form and offer the elitism of opera to new audiences in opera film. The opera film creates a hybrid cultural artifact that blurs boundaries between high and low culture, which can be seen in Cecil B. DeMille's Carmen, Otto Preminger's Carmen Jones, and Francesco Rosi's Carmen. Bizet's Carmen as an opera is a hybrid of high and low culture in and of itself, a characterization maintained in film opera versions of it. Otto Preminger's Carmen Jones uses Bizet's music but with lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein and an entirely black cast, playing into the tradition of the musical. The consideration of filmed opera as a cultural hybrid, implying distance, allows tension between high and low culture to be preserved and invites the audience to appreciate the elite high culture.

Works: Works: Cecil B. DeMille (director): Sound track to Carmen (48-49, 55); Otto Preminger (director): Sound track to Carmen Jones (49-51, 55); Francesco Rosi (director): Sound track to Carmen (51-55).

Sources: Bizet: Carmen (48-55).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Karen Anton Stafford

[+] Davies, Hugh. "A History of Sampling." Organised Sound: An International Journal of Music Technology 1, no.1 (April 1996): 3-11.

The commercially available samplers invented in the 1980s have a long history that can be seen to include the early digital (but not binary) technology of the telegraph up until the invention of modern digital technology. After World War I inventors constructed and patented musical instruments based on available sound recording technologies as well as early versions of magnetic tape recorder dictating machines. This is generally considered the first "sampler." By 1948, Pierre Schaeffer initiated musique concrète and developed a technique similar to the later tape loop, the sillon fermé. Influenced by the invention of magnetic tape, Schaeffer transferred all of his disc recording techniques to the medium of magnetic tape and patented his Phonogène in the 1950s. In 1964, the first successful instrument based on magnetic tape technology, the Mellotron, was marketed. The first digital sampling instruments appeared in the early 1970s, and by the second half of the 1980s digital sampling technology had become a standard part of every electronic piano, organ, or synthesizer. Musicians have explored extensively the possibilities of the manipulation of recorded sound. The phonograph has been used for works like John Cage's Imaginary Landscape No. 5 as well as "scratching" by DJs in the popular music tradition. Other works have used this technology to manipulate pre-existing recorded works by other artists, generating conflict with copyright law. Among these works are James Tenney's Collage No. 1 ('Blue Suede') and John Oswald's Plunderphonics. Live manipulations of prerecorded magnetic tape material, such as Laurie Anderson's Tape Bow Violin, have also been explored. Commercial digital samplers are now used in a variety of contemporary composers' works, such as Michel Waisvisz 's The Archaic Symphony or Nicolas Collins's Devil's Music.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Davila, Richard Cruz. “Él Es Chicano?: Authenticity and Authentication in Two Versions of Doug Sahm’s ‘Chicano’.” Journal of Popular Music Studies 31 (December 2019): 73-94.

Rumel Fuentes’s cover of Doug Sahm’s song Chicano authenticates the original through Allan Moore’s typology of authenticity. Moore proposes a three-part typology of authenticity in popular music, consisting of first-, second-, and third-person authenticity that is constructed by the act of listening. Sahm, born in San Antonio of German descent, speaks in the first person in Chicano, which raises concerns about his capacity to speak for the Chicano community. In Moore’s typology, Sahm’s performance of Chicano is inauthentic in the first-person (authenticity of expression) and third-person (authenticity of execution) senses. The history of American popular music is full of racial crossing, so Sahm’s adoption of a Chicano persona is not unprecedented. Fuentes, also a Texas native and heavily involved in the Chicano movement of the 1970s, recorded a cover of Chicano in 1972 (although it was not released until 2009). Fuentes modifies some of the original lyrics to declare his Chicano identity more assertively, including adding an additional verse. He also alters the rhythm section to use a traditional conjunto line-up rather than the hybrid instrumentation of Sahm’s band. The gritos (screams) in Fuentes’s vocal delivery further add to his cover’s working-class aesthetic. Fuentes’s cover lends Sahm’s Chicano a greater sense of second-person authenticity (authenticity of experience) by validating that Chicano resonates with the experiences of Mexican-American audiences.

Works: Rumel Fuentes (performer), Doug Sahm (songwriter): Chicano (87-91).

Sources: Doug Sahm: Chicano (87-91).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Davis, Merilyn Mather. "A Comparative Analysis of Musical Texture as Found in Selected Symphonies of Anton Bruckner and Gustav Mahler." M.M. thesis, Indiana University, 1970.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] De Leeuw, Reinbert. "Charles Ives, Zijn Muziek: Inleidung, Ives' Gebruik van Muzikall Materiaal." In Charles Ives, by J. Bernlef and Reinbert de Leeuw, 133-209. Amsterdam: De Bezige Bij, 1969. Translated by Bertus Polman, in Student Musicologists at Minnesota 6 (1975-76): 128-91.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] De Martelly, Elizabeth. “Signification, Objectification, and the Mimetic Uncanny in Claude Debussy’s ‘Golliwog’s Cakewalk.’” Current Musicology, no. 90 (September 2010).

Golliwog’s Cakewalk from Claude Debussy’s Children’s Corner (1908) appropriates a complex set of signifiers related to American slavery mediated through a French colonial context and thus becomes an uncanny (in Freud’s sense) cultural commodity. One signifier of slavery adopted by Debussy is the Golliwog doll, which has its roots in minstrelsy and represents a commodification of black bodies. The cakewalk dance follows a similar trajectory, originating as a plantation dance and eventually imitated in minstrel shows and by white Parisian socialites. Debussy’s conspicuous quotation of Wagner’s Tristan und Isolde has been understood as a grotesque representation of Wagner’s music in the supposed “primitive” form of the cakewalk. It can also be read as Debussy’s humorous expression of the incompatibility of refined Western culture (represented by Wagner) and the primitive Golliwog. Together, these signifiers represent Freud’s notion of the uncanny, bringing to light the violent history of American slavery and French colonialism in a seemingly trivial, modern cultural product.

Works: Debussy: Golliwog’s Cakewalk, from Children’s Corner (23, 27-29)

Sources: Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (23, 27-29)

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Deazley, Ronan. “Copyright and Parody: Taking Backward the Gowers Review?” The Modern Law Review 73 (September 2010): 785-807.

In the United Kingdom, the Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 does not except parody from copyright violation. Since then, both the Gowers Review of Intellectual Property in 2006 and the Intellectual Property Office in 2008 stated that including an exception for parody would be in the best interests of producers and consumers. In 2009 the Intellectual Property Office reversed their position, rejecting an exception for parody. Yet such an exception should be made, as demonstrated by considering the conditions for parodic use under the current laws and the arguments for and against the exception of parody. In certain situations, direct borrowing of significant portions of music is necessary for the success of the parody, and often the necessity directly depends on various factors surrounding each individual case; this is where copyright fails to protect the parodist.

Works: Rick Dees: When Sonny Sniffs Glue (792); 2 Live Crew: Pretty Woman (792); Saturday Night Live: I Love Sodom (794).

Sources: Jack Segal and Marvin Fisher: When Sunny Gets Blue (792); Roy Orbison: Oh, Pretty Woman (792); Steve Karmen: I Love New York (794).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Decker, Todd. “The Filmmaker as DJ: Martin Scorsese’s Compiled Score for Casino (1995).” Journal of Musicology 34 (Spring 2017): 281-317.

Martin Scorsese’s directing and editing work in his 1995 film Casino, with its compiled score firmly integrated into the film’s structure, can be understood as music composition in the manner of a sample-based DJ. The film is scored for 129 minutes of its 178-minute runtime and contains eighty-three discreet musical cues drawn from sixty-one cleared tracks. The enormity of this musical project was aided by Scorsese utilizing digital editing tools for the first time, allowing the soundtrack and film footage to be manipulated simultaneously. Although Scorsese claimed to strictly select period-appropriate music in a 1996 interview, the actual compiled score is drawn broadly from music of the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, at odds with the film’s stated timeline of 1973-1983 and suggesting no musical chronology. Instead of establishing the film’s setting, the score dictates the pace and tone of the edit. Scorsese frequently cues contrasting tracks back-to-back, sonically supporting the film’s constructed dialectic between the glittery appearance of Las Vegas and the dark reality of its mob rule. Scorsese uses voice-over narration to move the plot along throughout the film, and several musical cues take on the narrative function. To achieve this effect, Scorsese meticulously edited the dialogue, film, and soundtrack to allow the score to “speak” for the characters. Musical style also serves to delineate the two narratives of Casino. Rock music scores the violent mob scenes, and classic pop scores the marriage in decline. Despite the volume and variety of music in the film, the characters are portrayed as decidedly un-musical and rarely if ever engage with music in a meaningful way. There is also no clear correlation between the music scoring a character and the style of music that character might be expected to listen to or enjoy diegetically. Instead, the musical cues and their construction into a compiled score reflect Scorsese’s voice as a curator and composer, reflecting his personal taste in music and making Casino a profoundly musical film.

Works: Martin Scorsese: compiled score to Casino (287-312)

Sources: J. S. Bach: St. Matthew Passion, BWV 244 (292); Paulo Citarella and Louis Prima (songwriters), Louis Prima (performer): Angelina / Zooma Zooma (292, 295-97); Al Bell (songwriter), The Staple Sisters (performers): I’ll Take You There (292, 294); Stanley Adams and Maria Grever (songwriters), Dinah Washington (performer): What A Difference a Day Makes (294, 304); Irving Gordon (songwriter), Dinah Washington (performer): Unforgettable (304); Charles Tobias (songwriter), Jerry Vale (performer): Love Me the Way I Love You (294); Elsa Byrd and Paul Winley (songwriters), The Paragons (performers): Let’s Start All Over Again (294); Mick Jagger and Keith Richards (songwriters), The Rolling Stones (performers): Sweet Virginia (294), (I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction (302-3), Can’t You Hear Me Knocking (310); Edgar De Lange, Will Hudson, Irving Mills, and Morris Stoloff: Moonglow (296-27); Billy Page (songwriter), Ramsey Lewis (performer): The In-Crowd (297-98, 300); Billy Page (songwriter), Dobie Gray (performer): The In-Crowd (297-98); Gene McDaniels (songwriter), Les McCann and Eddie Harris (performers): Compared to What (298); Willie Dixon (songwriter), Muddy Waters (performer): Hoochie Coochie Man (298-302); Ginger Baker (songwriter), Cream (performers): Toad (302); Georges Delerue: Theme de Camille (302, 307); Ned Washington and Victor Young (songwriters), Ray Charles (performer): Stella by Starlight (305-7); Jimmie Crane and Al Jacobs: Hurt (307); Traditional, The Animals (performers): The House of the Rising Sun (309-10); Willie Dixon (songwriter), Jeff Beck (performer): I Ain’t Superstitious (310-12)

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Degrassi, Franco. “Some Reflections of Borrowing in Acousmatic Music.” Organised Sound 24 (August 2019): 195-204.

A taxonomy of musical borrowing practices in acousmatic music, addressing material sampling and cultural citation in particular, is useful in understanding the genre. Material sampling involves repurposing an object in a new context and can be further broken down into remix, appropriation, and quoting/sampling. The recognizability of the source material is a key concern in interpreting musical borrowing. Cultural citation is a more nuanced concept than material sampling as it borrows abstract ideas. Intertextuality and intermediality are two concerns in cultural citation that can consciously or unconsciously connect different text or media. Franco Degrassi’s Variations of Evan Parker’s Saxophone Solos (2018) offers a reflexive look at a compositional process involving borrowing. The piece remixes the tracks of Evan Parker’s Saxophone Solos CD (2009, originally released in 1976) via MIDI control and digital looping. Variations is a second remediation of Parker’s live musical performance, the first being the initial studio recording done in 1975. Further investigation into cultural citation and material sampling in acousmatic music, especially as they relate to other forms of media, would yield a more complete understanding of the genre.

Works: Pierre Henry: Beethoven’s Tenth Symphony (196), The 10th Remix (196), Par les grèves (196), Dracula, ou La musique trouve le ciel (196); Luc Ferrari: Strathoven (197); John Cage: Imaginary Landscape No. 5 (197); Bruno Maderna: Ritratto di città (197); Denis Dufour: 2007, PH 27-80 (197); Stockhausen: Telemusik (197-98), Hymnen (197-98); Franco Degrassi: Variations of Evan Parker’s Saxophone Solos (201-2).

Sources: Debussy: Prélude à l’après-midi d’un faune (196); Wagner: Der Ring des Nibelungen (196); Iannis Xenakis: Persepolis (196); Evan Parker: Saxophone Solos (201-2).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Del Mar, Norman. "The Chamber Operas. III. The Beggar's Opera." In Benjamin Britten: A Commentary on His Works from a Group of Specialists, ed. Donald Mitchell and Hans Keller, 163-85. London: Rockliff, 1952; reprint, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1972.

In 1948, Britten composed his realization of the The Beggar's Opera. Of the realizations made of this opera, Britten's was the first to use so many of the original songs, sixty-six of the sixty-nine airs. His realizations range from supplying original accompaniments to the development of operatic forms such as melodramas, scenas, and finales based on one or more tunes. The airs as treated by Britten may be classified ino six categories: (1) "Straight setting" (similar to his folksong settings); (2) "Straight settings, but with the phrases of the air spaced apart"; (3) "Straight settings, but with the melody itself treated freely"; (4) "Settings in which the air is worked into an elaborate, but formally concise, musical scheme" (subdivided into numbers with and without chorus); (5) "Settings embodied in larger musical designs" (numbers with introductions and codas based on original material derived from the airs); and (6) "Settings in which two or more airs are used in combination." As part of his settings, Britten was able to retain the original keys of a large number of the airs. He also restored Macheath's role from a baritone, as it had been sung for several years, to the original tenor.

Works: Benjamin Britten: The Beggar's Opera.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Nikola D. Strader

[+] Del Mar, Norman. Richard Strauss: A Critical Commentary on His Life and Works. 3 vols. London: Barrie and Rockliff, 1962, 1969, and 1972.

Throughout this thorough examination of Strauss's life and works, musical borrowings are cited in music of every genre in which Strauss composed. There is a separate list of self quotations for Ein Heldenleben in vol. 1, p. 177.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Fredrick Tarrant

[+] Delage, Roger. "Ravel and Chabrier." The Musical Quarterly 61 (October 1975): 546-52.

Ravel himself acknowledged his great debt to the music of Chabrier. There are few works by Ravel which do not to some extent echo one or another work by Chabrier. Some specific allusions are noted. Ravel's harmonic procedures are also influenced by Chabrier.

Works: Ravel: Pavane pour une infante défunte (547), Jeux d'eau (550), "Ondine" and "Scarbo" from Gaspard de la Nuit (550), Alborada del graciozo (550), Rapsodie espagnole (550), Vocalise en forme de habanera (550), La Valse (550), Histories naturelles (551).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Demers, Joanna. “Sampling the 1970s in Hip-Hop.” Popular Music 22 (January 2003): 41-56.

Hip-hop draws influence directly from 1970s African American culture. Many prominent hip-hop artists, including Public Enemy, Ice Cube, and the Fugees, mention this decade in their music as one in which blacks began to assert themselves politically and culturally. This is demonstrated primarily by hip-hop musicians and producers borrowing the music of Blaxploitation films, which often portrayed African American pimps and drug dealers fighting against white authority. Hip-hop borrows musically and culturally from these Blaxploitation films’ introductory theme music for the main characters, politically charged content, and focus on the ghetto. While these films and their music do not uniformly glorify or demonize black poverty, drug abuse, and violence, the hip-hop community has borrowed their material almost exclusively to show street credibility.

Works: Jay-Z: Reservoir Dogs (49); Smoothe Da Hustler: Hustler’s Theme (49); Snoop Doggy Dogg: Doggystyle (52); Dr. Dre: Rat Tat Tat Tat (53); Ol’ Dirty Bastard: Got Your Money (54).

Sources: Isaac Hayes: Theme to Shaft from Shaft (49); Curtis Mayfield: Freddie’s Dead from Super Fly (49); Willie Hutch: Brother’s Gonna Work It Out from The Mack (53); Rudy Ray Moore: The Signifying Monkey from Dolemite (54).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Dennison, Peter. "Elgar and Wagner." Music and Letters 66 (April 1985): 93-109.

The music of Wagner exerted a strong influence on Elgar. This influence is evident in the thematic cohesion and chromatic harmony of Elgar's music. It is also evident in the many allusions and reminiscences of particular passages in Wagner, listed here in pairs (Elgar/Wagner): (1) Froissart, Op. 19/love duet from Die Walküre and "Prize Song" from Die Meistersinger; (2) The Black Knight, Op. 25/Prelude to Siegfried and "magic sleep" from the Ring; (3) The Light of Life, Op. 29/Act 2/2 and Act 3/2 from Parsifal; (4) Scenes from the Saga of King Olaf, Op. 3O/Die Meistersinger; (5) Te Deum/"trial song" from Die Meistersinger; (6) Caractacus/the "ride of the Valkyries" from Die Walküre, Act 2 from Die Meistersinger, Act 2 from Siegfried, and Tannhäuser; (7) The Dream of Gerontius, Op. 38/start of Parsifal and the "ride of the Valkyries" from Die Walküre; (8) Second Symphony, Tristan (final cadential progression). Most of these allusions are probably subconscious, although Elgar was consciously aware of the significance of Wagner to his creative workings. Wagner had a profound influence on Elgar, especially in his first two periods of composition. Elgar had the opportunity to both hear and perform many of Wagner's works, and Dennison discusses these and Elgar's comments on Wagner in great detail. Many of Elgar's quotations from Wagner only bear superficial resemblance. Very often, however, Elgar uses a Wagnerian leitmotif in passages with similar programmatic or dramatic implications. Elgar is also heavily indebted to Wagner for many compositional techniques. In his later compositions Elgar does not rely on Wagner as often, but sometimes draws specific parallels for dramatic or psychological effect. Dennison includes an appendix of works by Wagner heard or performed by Elgar.

Works: Elgar: The Black Knight, Op. 25; The Light of Life, Op. 29; Scenes from the Saga of King Olaf, Op. 30; Te Deum and Benedictus, Op. 34; Caractacus, Op. 35; The Dream of Gerontius, Op. 38; Second Symphony, Op 63.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler, Will Sadler

[+] Dennison, Peter. "Reminiscence and Recomposition in Tippett." The Musical Times 126 (January 1985): 13-18.

Michael Tippett used musical borrowing in his compositions to create extramusical meanings through the quotation of pre-existent music. Many of his works borrow from external and internal sources. His procedures varied from simple quotation within the context of an original work to complex recomposition of another composer's work. He began through the application of variation technique and quotation, as in the Piano Sonata No. 1 and A Child of Our Time, in which he used spirituals, respectively. Beginning in the Divertimento on Sellinger's Round, Tippett placed the pre-existent material in each of the five movements either complete or transformed. Recomposition was applied to two Corelli works in the Fantasia Concertante on a Theme of Corelli. Tippett abandoned such borrowing practices for a substantial period of time, but later returned to them, though tempered by a severe, economic sense, as in The Knot Garden. Tippett then moved into a borrowing practice based on unification in which a web of compositions is thematically connected through self-quotation, beginning with his Symphony No. 4 and continuing into The Mask of Time. Tippett's borrowing techniques consisted of a vast range of dramatic and poetic techniques to create powerful meanings within his compositions.

Works: Tippett: Piano Sonata No. 1 (13), Fantasia on a Theme of Handel (13), A Child of Our Time (13), Suite for the Birthday of Prince Charles (13), The Midsummer Marriage (13), Divertimento on Sellinger's Round (15), The Mask of Time (15, 17-18), Fantasia Concertante on a Theme of Corelli (15), The Knot Garden (16), Songs for Dov (16), Symphony No. 3 (16-17), Triple Concerto (17).

Sources: Tippett: Suite for the Birthday of Prince Charles (13); Byrd: Sellinger's Round (15); Gibbons: Fantasia (15); Veni creator spiritus (15); Corelli: Concerto Grosso Op. 6, No. 2 (15), Trio Sonata Op. 3, No. 4 (15); Schubert: Die liebe Farbe (16); Beethoven: Kennst du das Land? Op. 75, No. 1 (16), Symphony No. 9 in D Minor (16); Wagner: Der fliegende Holländer (16); Mussorgsky: Boris Godunov (16); Tippett: Come Unto the Yellow Sands (16), King Priam (16), String Quartet No. 4 (17), Symphony No. 4 (17-18), Triple Concerto (18); Dowland: I Saw My Lady Weep (18); Monteverdi: Ecco mororar l'onde (18).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Christopher Holmes

[+] DeVeaux, Scott. “‘Nice Work if You Can Get It’: Thelonious Monk and Popular Song.” Black Music Research Journal 19 (Autumn 1999): 169-86.

Although Thelonious Monk is primarily recognized for his original compositions, a look at his engagement with popular song can yield insight into his musical development during the early 1940s. It was during this time that Monk composed many of his later-recorded originals, and yet as a house pianist at Minton’s, Monk probably spent much of his time playing with other soloists on standard tunes. Monk’s application of idiosyncratic dissonances and tritone substitutions to songs as familiar as Lulu’s Back in Town and There’s Danger in Your Eyes, Cherie go beyond parody or eccentricity. They also cannot be thought of strictly as a modernist revolt against the commercialism of Tin Pan Alley “tunesmiths.” Instead, Monk’s arrangements of standards, both in studio recordings and live performance, can be regarded as interpretations. As such, they expose the seeds of his compositional style and serve as an autobiographical inscription of his Tin Pan Alley roots.

Though it is possible that Monk developed his personal style of composition and then applied that style to standards, it is equally possible that he derives his harmonic style from his reshaping of standards, given that the standards he chose to perform and record often lend themselves to Monk’s preferred reharmonizations. This is the case in his 1971 performance of Gershwin’s Nice Work If You Can Get It, in which Monk aggressively foregrounds dissonances which were subtle in the original. In either case, it benefits our understanding of Monk as a composer to acknowledge his true affection for popular song (as opposed to a modernist revolt against it), and it is likely that this affection is common among other bebop artists as well.

Works: Thelonious Monk (performer): Lulu’s Back in Town [1959 version] (170), There’s Danger in Your Eyes, Cherie [1959 version] (170), Tea for Two [1956 version] (170), Sweet Loraine [1941 version] (171-72), Nice Work if You Can Get It [1941, 1971 versions] (174-77), Ghost of a Chance [1957 version] (177-78), April in Paris [1957 version] (178-83); Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie: Koko (172-73).

Sources: Harry Warren (music) and Al Dubin (text): Lulu’s Back in Town (170); Vincent Youmans (music) and Irving Caesar (text): Tea for Two (170); Cliff Burwell (music) and Mitchell Parish (text): Sweet Loraine (171-72); Ray Noble: Cherokee (172-73); George Gershwin and Ira Gershwin: Nice Work if You Can Get It (174-77); Victor Yang: (I Don’t Stand a) Ghost of a Chance (177-78); Vernon Duke: April in Paris (179-81).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Molly Covington

[+] DeVeaux, Scott. The Birth of Bebop: A Social and Musical History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

This book examines the development of bebop from artistic, social, and commercial perspectives, beginning in the Swing Era and progressing through the 1940s. The repertory at jam sessions in the early 1940s was based primarily on a few familiar chord progressions, notably the blues, Gershwin's I Got Rhythm, and a handful of other pop song "standards" of which How High the Moon and Whispering were among the most frequently used. The economics of the recording industry promoted the composition of new melodies over existing chord progressions; having a new, colorful title would attract buyers, and by calling it a new work the record company could avoid paying royalties to the copyright owners of the song from which the chord progression was taken. In addition to using existing chord progressions in new songs, bebop musicians often borrowed material from each other and incorporated it into new compositions and arrangements. Moreover, musical borrowing in the form of quotation within improvised solos was both a ubiquitous and a controversial presence in bebop. Charlie Parker frequently inserted clearly recognizable quotations from jazz or popular sources into solos in live performance, but some performers criticized Parker for diluting his music. In other instances, European art music directly influenced jazz: stride pianists used materials from opera or "light classics" in a new idiom. For some bebop musicians, borrowing (or at least recognizing borrowings) was less important. Struggles over the definition of "the work" pervade any discussion of quotation in jazz, and such discussion must recognize the multiple "composers" at work in a jazz performance: the nominal composer who notates a song, and the improviser who re-composes the score in live performance.

Works: Thelonious Monk: The Theme (224), Rhythm-a-Ning (224), 52nd Street Theme (292), Hackensack (403): Dizzy Gillespie: Salt Peanuts (292, 421), Things to Come (433): Coleman Hawkins: Mop Mop (292, 306-7), Rainbow Mist (309), Father Co-operates (326), Bean at the Met (326), On the Bean (330), Stumpy (330), Rifftide (390), Bean Stalking (394), Too Much of a Good Thing (401), Bean Soup (403-5), Hollywood Stampede (404-5); Charlie Parker: Red Cross (307, 374); Benny Harris: Ornithology (323, 382); Howard McGhee: New Orleans Jump (362), Sportsman?s Hop (391, 393); Billy Eckstine: Good Jelly Blues (341-3, 424); Jerome Kern: All the Things You Are (342-43, 424).

Sources: George Gershwin: I Got Rhythm (203, 224, 292, 305, 306-7, 326, 374, 421), Lady Be Good (390, 403); Nancy Hamilton and Morgan Lewis: How High the Moon (305, 323, 326, 382); John Schonberger, Malvin Schonberger, and Richard Coburn: Whispering (305, 330); Edward Heyman, Robert Sour, Frank Eyton, and Johnny Green: Body and Soul (309); Dizzy Gillespie: Salt Peanuts (326-28), Be-Bop (362, 404-5, 433), Groovin' High (403-5); Rachmaninoff: Prelude in C-Sharp Minor (342-43, 424); Igor Stravinsky: Petrouchka (360n); Benny Goodman, Edgar Sampson, Clarence Profit, and Walter Hirsch: Lullaby in Rhythm (391, 393); Jesse A. Stone: Idaho (394); Kay Swift and Paul James: Fine and Dandy (401); Ben Bernie, Ken Casey, and Maceo Pinkard: Sweet Georgia Brown (404-5); Benny Harris: Ornithology (404-5); Vincent Youmans and Irving Caesar: Tea for Two (405); Billy Eckstine: Good Jelly Blues (424).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Paul Killinger, Amy Weller

[+] Dickinson, Peter. “Style-modulation: An Approach to Stylistic Pluralism.” The Musical Times 130 (April 1989): 208-11.

Traditionally, modulation is associated with either key or with metric procedures; however, this term can be expanded to incorporate style. “Style-modulation” occurs when different musical styles within a single work are employed in as controlled a way as any other compositional element. Often popular music, especially genres derived from African-American traditions, incorporate style-modulations. Style-modulation is not necessarily brought about by musical quotations, but often has a direct relationship to them. If a quotation is recognizable and departs from established continuity, it may be an example of a style-modulation, such as the Bach chorale in Berg’s Violin Concerto or Chopin’s Funeral March in Satie’s Embryons Desséchés. A work with many quotations, such as Luciano Berio’s Sinfonia, is not necessarily an example of a style modulation, however, as the quotations do not break from the work’s overall continuity. In twentieth-century works in particular, the moment of style-modulation often creates a force of an epiphany. Charles Ives is a good example of a composer whose music includes style-modulations, especially in pieces such as the Concord Sonata,Country Band March, and the Fourth Symphony.

Works: Ives: Piano Sonata No. 2 (Concord, Mass., 1840-60) (208), Symphony No. 4 (208); Berg: Violin Concerto (210); Satie: Embryons Desséchés (210); Luciano Berio: Sinfonia (210-11).

Sources: Simeon B. Marsh: Martyn (208); Ives: Country Band March (208), String Quartet No. 1 (208).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Chelsea Hamm

[+] Dienst, Karl. "Die 'Marseiller Hymne der Reformazion.'" Zeitschrift der Luther-Gesellschaft 59, no. 1 (1988): 29-44.

Luther's chorale Ein feste Burg represents not only a religious message but also a symbol of the identity of all Protestants. Its many settings reflect both its religious and its cultural impact. Many composers identified with the revolutionary spirit the Reformation and saw the potential of the tune as a symbol of the time and its historical significance. Depending on the political context in which composers used the tune, the meaning of it changed. For example, Meyerbeer used it in Les Huguenots as a gesture to Protestantism, even though the tune was not necessarily a historical emblem for Huguenots. Mendelssohn's symphonic setting added a programmatic element to the tune. Debussy, on the other hand, used the tune in wartime by evoking it as a symbol of German aggression. He juxtaposed the tune with French anthem, La Marseillaise, which musically triumphs over Ein feste Burg in the end. The various settings of the tune also allow it to assume a multifarious spectrum in that it can be meaningful in an ecumenical sense. Essentially, it became a "banner Lied" for faithful believers and critics across centuries of use.

Works: Meyerbeer: Les Huguenots (36); Mendelssohn: Symphony No. 5 in D Minor, Reformation (37-39); Debussy: En blanc et noir (39-40).

Sources: Luther: Ein feste Burg (29-34, 40-41).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Katie Lundeen

[+] Diether, Jack. "The Expressive Content of Mahler's Ninth: An Interpretation." Chord and Discord 2, no. 10 (1963): 69-107.

In Mahler's later works, and in particular his Ninth Symphony, he often employed brief quotations from his songs. He used musical rather than verbal quotations, implying the emotional content of the original rather than directly stating an image. As this "thematic allusion" recurs, it gains greater significance, and its meaning differs at each occurence, a technique that Mahler initiated. An example of this technique is found in the web of "subtle but pregnant interconnections" within the Ninth Symphony, especially highlighting Mahler's reuse of a theme from the final line of Das Lied von der Erde.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 9, Symphony No. 5 (70).

Sources: Mahler: Kindertotenlieder (70), Urlicht (70), Das Lied von der Erde (72-77, 101), Symphony No. 3 (92), Symphony No. 8 (93, 101, 104-05); Bruckner: Symphony No. 9 (98).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Susan Richardson

[+] DoHaeng, Jung. “Joan Tower’s Piano Concertos Homage to Beethoven (1985), Rapids (1996), and Still/Rapids (2013): A Style Study.” DMA diss., University of Cincinnati, 2014.

Joan Tower blends borrowed material wither her own compositional voice in her piano concertos Homage to Beethoven (1985) and Rapids (1996), which was later revised in 2013 and renamed Still/Rapids. These works are representative of Tower’s mature compositional style beginning in the 1970s as she turned away from a serial techniques towards a more accessible, energy-driven style. Tower characterizes the influences of older composers on her work as fingerprints and states that her most important musical model is Beethoven. J. Peter Burkholder’s categories of borrowing, particularly modeling, paraphrase, and setting, illuminate how Tower manipulates existing material in Homage to Beethoven. Tower acknowledges that her Homage to Beethoven does not sound like the Beethoven piano sonatas it borrows from, but rather shares their same core idea.

Works: Joan Tower: Homage to Beethoven (1, 4, 12, 14-15, 17-51, 78, 93, 95-98, 100-101, 121-23, 125, 127), Still/Rapids (1-2, 12, 15, 104-121, 123, 125, 127), Rapids (1, 3, 12, 14-15, 52-91, 94-106, 125-27), Black Topaz (9, 13, 94, 100), Petruschkates (12, 39, 78, 93, 97), Breakfast Rhythms I and II (13, 50, 92), Tres Lent (93), Fanfare for the Uncommon Woman (93), Fascinating Ribbons (93), Big Steps (93), Fantasy for Clarinet and Piano (101).

Sources: Beethoven: Piano Sonata No. 17 in D Minor, Op. 31, No. 2 (“Tempest”) (20-23), Piano Sonata No. 21 in C Major, Op. 53 (“Waldstein”) (23-24, 26, 28, 30-31, 40-42, 95, 101), Piano Sonata No. 32 in C Minor, Op. 111 (31-33, 101), Piano Sonata No. 13 in E-flat Major, Op. 27, No. 1 (102); Messiaen: Quatuor pour la fin du temps (50, 93); George Crumb: Vox Balaenae (50); Stravinsky: Petrushka (93); Copland: Fanfare for the Common Man (93); George Gershwin: Fascinatin’ Rhythm (93); Debussy: Préludes, Livre 1, Des pas sur la neige (93); Hugh Williams and Jimmy Kennedy: Harbor Lights (101).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s

Contributed by: Sarah Kirkman

[+] Doherty, Seán. “The Mass ‘Transubstantiated’ into Music: Quotation and Allusion in James Macmillan’s Fourth Symphony.” Music &Letters 99 (November 2018): 635-71.

James MacMillan’s use of quotation and allusion in his Fourth Symphony parallels the liturgical order of the Pauline Mass and reflects MacMillan’s approach to Catholic liturgy. The various plainchant and mass movement quotations and allusions MacMillan uses generally follow the order of the mass. The symphony opens with the plainchant introit Os justi meditabitur, which occurs three times throughout the symphony representing the entrance procession, the offertory procession, and the Communion procession. MacMillan quotes the Gloria, Credo, and Sanctus of Robert Carver’s 1506-1513 Mass Dum sacrum mysterium, which MacMillan frames as a touchstone of Scottish Catholic culture against the destructive influence (in MacMillan’s assessment) of the Reformation. The Liturgy of the Word is represented in the symphony by allusions to liturgical-chant formulae punctuated by the Gospel Acclamation Alleluia. For the Liturgy of the Eucharist, MacMillan quotes his own St. Luke Passion, connecting the Passion narrative to its re-enactment in the Mass. MacMillan concludes this self-quotation with an allusion to Wagner’s Tristan und Isolde, a work that MacMillan also alluded to in several earlier compositions. In doing so, MacMillan reads Tristan as a religious work expressing the theme of transcendence of death through self-sacrifice. Despite MacMillan’s public insistence that the symphony is not programmatic, the quotations and allusions from various Masses provide a clear programmatic structure to the work and demonstrate MacMillan’s subjective reactions to the liturgy.

Works: James MacMillan: Symphony No. 4 (640-65), Piano Sonata (661), Symphony No. 2 (661).

Sources: Anonymous: Os justi meditabitur (640-44), Eucharistic Doxology (643, 648), Missa Deus Genitor alme (643-44, 648-49), Missa de Angelis (647-48), Missa Orbis factor (649-51); Robert Carver: Mass Dum sacrum mysterium (645-51); James MacMillan: St. Luke Passion (656-59); Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (659-63).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Döhl, Frédéric, and Albrecht Riethmüller, eds. Musik aus zweiter Hand: Beiträge zur kompositorischen Autorschaft. Spektrum der Musik 10. Laaber: Laaber-Verlag, 2017.

Index Classifications: General, 1900s, 2000s, Jazz, Popular

[+] Döhl, Frédéric. “Auf der Anklagebank: Sound Sampling vor dem Bundesgerichtshof (2008, 2012) und dem Bundesverfassungsgericht (2016).” In Musik aus zweiter Hand: Beiträge zur kompositorischen Autorschaft, ed. Frédéric Döhl and Albrecht Riethmüller, 177–211. Spektrum der Musik 10. Laaber: Laaber-Verlag, 2017.

Index Classifications: General, 1900s, 2000s

[+] Doktor, Stephanie Delane. “How a White Supremacist Became Famous for His Black Music: John Powell and Rhapsodie Nègre (1918).” American Music 38 (Winter 2020): 395-427.

In his most famous piece, Rhapsodie nègre (1918), composer and white supremacist activist John Powell utilizes the language of primitivist modernism to create a sonic version of Jim Crow racial hierarchy. Primitivist modernists in Europe fixated on depictions of “African” savages closely related to the contemporary pseudoscience of social Darwinism. Powell’s detailed program notes for Rhapsodie outline a primitivist narrative as applied to Black Americans. Musically, Rhapsodie is constructed from five themes used to mark a distinction between blackness and whiteness. The first three themes use ragtime idioms constructed in a repetitive and often disjunct manner to represent Powell’s belief that blackness constitutes a primitive, sexual threat. The fourth theme, a setting of the spiritual Swing Low, Sweet Chariot, begins a dramatic shift in the tone of the piece to one of control and beauty. Powell fills this section with markers of sonic whiteness building to a grand orchestral texture with precisely balanced phrases only to end in a jarring anticlimax. By setting Swing Low in this ostentatious and performative manner, Powell conveys his belief that Black spirituals were ultimately inferior imitations of white Protestant camp songs. The fifth theme is also based on a spiritual: I Want to Be Ready. Unlike the previous section, Powell uses ragtime and proto-jazz textures and harmonies to set the tune, which Powell describes in his program notes as suggestive of the violent sexuality he associates with blackness. The extent of Powell’s racist politics—and consequently the ways his politics shape the caricature of Black music in Rhapsodie—were largely unknown to critics and audience in the 1920s, who generally understood the piece in terms of primitivist modernism and the later symphonic jazz trend, both of which also have problematic relationships with Black music and musicians. The reason that audiences did not hear Powell’s deep-seated racism in Rhapsodie was that modernist art itself was grounded in conceptions of racial hierarchy.

Works: John Powell: Rhapsodie nègre (399, 401, 408-416)

Sources: Anonymous: Swing Low, Sweet Chariot (399, 401, 408-14), I Want to Be Ready (401, 414-16)

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Dömling, Wolfgang. "Collage und Kontinuum: Bemerkungen zu Gustav Mahler und Richard Strauss." Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 133 (1972): 131-34.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Donnelly, K. J. Magical Musical Tour: Rock and Pop in Film Soundtracks. New York: Bloomsbury, 2015.

Many different kinds of popular music can create dramatic moments in film, both diegetically and non-diegetically. The temporal aspects of most popular music, its steady beat and generally common time meter, affect the resulting film differently than classical film scoring does. Through creating new popular-style music for films (scoring), editing exiting popular music to fit a film, or editing filmic images to fit existing popular music (tracking), many different techniques and styles are possible. The Beatles, with their pop music films in the 1960s, changed how popular music worked in movies, as well as inherently changing the way film musicals functioned. Although there were earlier films that used popular music, such as King Creole (1958) and Rock Around the Clock (1956), the Beatles’ films were the first where pop music was not mixed with traditional film music techniques; the resulting films were a hybrid of documentary style with the drama of feature films. Different styles of music can accomplish different things; for example, psychedelic music is often used to signify surrealism or drug use, while rap music is used as a dramatic shock tactic and older popular music signifies an earlier time period. Regardless of the type of music or approach, pop music also invites a tension between creativity and commerce that did not previously exist with classical film music techniques.

Works: Joe Massot (director): Wonderwall (5, 19, 39-42, 53, 124); Roger Corman (director): The Trip (5, 34-36, 38, 42-43); Donald Cammell and Nicolas Roeg (directors): Performance (5, 41-42, 53, 93, 122); Albert and David Maysles (directors): Gimme Shelter (5, 63-64, 66-67, 72); Michael Wadleigh (director): Woodstock (5, 64, 66, 72); George Lucas (director): American Graffiti (5, 106, 138-41); Barry Shear (director): Across 110th Street (16, 79, 83, 86); Richard Lester (director): A Hard Day’s Night (19-25), Help! (19, 25-29); George Dunning (director): Yellow Submarine (19, 38-39); John Boorman (director): Catch Us If You Can (22); Mike Nichols (director): The Graduate (33); Woody Allen (director): What’s Up Tiger Lily (33); Richard Rush (director): Psych Out (35, 43); Dennis Hopper (director): Easy Rider (36-37, 53); Bob Rafelson (director): Head (37); Barbet Schroeder (director): More (45, 49-50, 52-56), La Vallée (45, 53, 56); Michelangelo Antonioni (director): Zabriskie Point (45, 52-53, 55, 58); Alan Parker (director): Pink Floyd - The Wall (45, 57); Peter Sykes (director): The Committee (45, 53-54, 58); Peter Whitehead (director): Tonite Let’s All Make Love in London (53); Roy Battersby (director): The Body (55); David Elfick (director): Crystal Voyager (56); Martin Scorsese (director): The Last Waltz (63, 73, 76); D. A. Pennebaker (director): Don’t Look Back (63-66, 72); Gordon Parks (director): Shaft (79, 81, 84, 86-88, 91); Melvin Van Peebles (director): Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song (79, 81, 84, 86-87); Gordon Parks Jr. (director): Super Fly (79, 81, 84, 86, 88-92); Ossie Davis (director): Cotton Comes to Harlem (81-82); Larry Cohen (director): Black Caesar (81, 90-91); Leslie H. Martinson (director): Batman (105, 107-111); Tim Burton (director): Batman Returns (105, 112-14); Joel Schumacher (director): Batman Forever (105, 114-17), Batman and Robin (105, 115, 117-18); Richard Loncraine (director): Brimstone and Treacle (140); Lawrence Kasdan (director): The Big Chill (141); Bruce Robinson (director): Withnail and I (141); David Green (director): Buster (141-42); Tony Scott (director): Top Gun (143); Michael Mann (director): Manhunter (143); Howard Deutch (director): Pretty In Pink (145); Quentin Tarantino (director): Pulp Fiction (146); Oliver Stone (director): Natural Born Killers (146); Robert Zemeckis (director): Forrest Gump (146); Danny Boyle (director): Trainspotting (148); Nicolas Winding Refn (director): Bronson (150); Wes Anderson (director): The Royal Tenenbaums (150); Abel Ferrara (director): Bad Lieutenant (154-61).

Sources: The Beatles: I Should Have Known Better (21, 24), Tell Me Why (24), If I Fell (24), She Loves You (24), She’s A Woman (26-28), Ticket to Ride (26-27), Help! (27), I Need You (27), The Night Before (27); The Seeds: Two Fingers Pointing at You (35); Strawberry Alarm Clock: Rainy Day Mushroom Pillow (35), Pretty Song from Psych-Out (35); Electric Flag: Flash, Bang, Pow (36); The Monkees: The Porpoise Song (37); The Beatles: It’s All Too Much (39); Pink Floyd: Interstellar Overdrive (53), Careful with that Axe, Eugene (54, 58); Curtis Mayfield: Pusherman (88-89), Freddie’s Dead (88-89); James Brown: Big Daddy (90-91), Down and Out In New York City (90-91), Mama’s Dead (91); Prince: Batman (108-11); Siouxsie and the Banshees: Face to Face (112); The Flaming Lips: Bad Days (115-16); The Offspring: Smash It Up (116); The Coasters: Poison Ivy (118); Goo Goo Dolls: Lazy Eye (118); Moloko: Fun for Me (118); Sting: Spread a Little Happiness (140-41); Marvin Gaye: I Heard it Through the Grapevine (141); Rolling Stones: You Can’t Always Get What You Want (141); Procol Harum: A Whiter Shade of Pale (141); Phil Collins: Groovy Kind of Love (142); Phil Collins and Lamont Dozier: Two Hearts (142); Berlin: Take My Breath Away (143); Kenny Loggins: Danger Zone (143); Shriekback: The Big Hush (143); Iron Butterfly: In-a-Gadda-Da-Vida (144); Robert Gordon: The Way I Walk (147); L7: Shitlist (147); Creedence Clearwater Revival: Fortunate Son (147); Beatles: A Hard Day’s Night (148); Iggy Pop: Lust for Life (148); Schoolly D: Signifyin’ Rapper (154-61); Led Zeppelin: Kashmir (156-59).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular, Film

Contributed by: Emily Baumgart

[+] Doonan, Michael. "The Pilgrim's Progress: An Analytical Study and Case for the Performance of the Opera by Ralph Vaughan Williams." D.M.A. diss., Indiana University, 1975.

Chapters II ("Musical Symbolism: The Use of Leitmotivic Symbols and Motto Tunes") and V ("The RVW Style as Manifested in This Work") contain information about his use of borrowed materials. Among the materials Vaughan Williams incorporates into the opera are the hymn tunes York and Lasst uns erfreuen and Thomas Tallis's Third Mode Melody.

Works: Vaughan Williams: The Pilgrim's Progress.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] Dos Santos, Silvio José. "Marriage as Prostitution in Berg's Lulu." The Journal of Musicology 25 (Spring 2008): 143-82.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Downes, Olin. "Porgy Fantasy: R. R. Bennett Makes Symphonic Work from Gershwin Opera." New York Times, 15 November 1942, 7 (VIII).

Robert Russell Bennett's Porgy and Bess: A Symphonic Picture for Orchestra is similar to his "symphonic synopsis" of Jerome Kern's Show Boat. Bennett did not alter Gershwin's melodies or his orchestration. Bennett did compose new material for the work, in the form of "connective tissue" to link the various sections together. He did not present the excerpts in order, but began with the Second Act, moving to the Third, and finally back to the First and to the well-known songs.

Works: Robert Russell Bennett: Porgy and Bess: A Symphonic Picture for Orchestra (7).

Sources: Gershwin: Porgy and Bess (7).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Geelhoed

[+] Downes, Stephen. "Hans Werner Henze as Post-Mahlerian: Anachronism, Freedom, and the Erotics of Intertextuality." Twentieth-Century Music 1 (September 2004): 179-207.

Beginning in the early 1960s, Hans Werner Henze began to take a special interest in the music of Gustav Mahler, particularly Mahler's exploration of form, his use of earlier music, and his music's connection to personal experience. It was at this time that Henze began to transition away from the Darmstadt school and move towards a more expressive idiom. This can be seen in Henze's Being Beauteous (1963) and The Bassarids (1965), both of which borrow from Mahler's Fifth Symphony. Being Beauteous draws from the Adagietto of Mahler's Fifth Symphony, and The Bassarids draws from the fourth movement. These intertextual connections exemplify both a transition in Henze's music and also a portrait of how Henze conceived of the importance of Mahler's music.

Works: Hans Werner Henze: Being Beauteous (183-98, 203), The Bassarids (198-204).

Sources: Mahler: Symphony No. 5 (185-93, 199-201).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Kerry O'Brien

[+] Dreier, Peter, and Jim Vrabel. “Did He Ever Return?: The Forgotten Story of ‘Charlie and the M.T.A.’” American Music 28 (Spring 2010): 3-43.

The largely forgotten history of the folk song M.T.A. (most famously recorded by the Kingston Trio in 1959) reveals how music can be used as a political tool to popularize radical ideas and how popular culture can purge these radical ideas of their intended meaning. M.T.A. was written in 1949 by the Boston People’s Artists (Sam and Arnold Berman, Al Katz, Jackie Steiner, and Bess Hawes, née Lomax) in support of Massachusetts Progressive Party leader Walter O’Brien Jr. in his campaign for Boston mayor. One of O’Brien’s major positions was a rollback of the fare increase that funded creation of the Metropolitan Transit Authority (M.T.A.) in 1947. While Steiner wrote most of the lyrics, M.T.A. borrowed its tune from The Train That Never Returned by Hawes’s earlier group, The Almanacs, which itself was based on Henry Clay Work’s 1865 song The Ship That Never Returned and Vernon Dalhart’s 1924 song The Wreck of the Old 97. Although O’Brien’s campaign was ultimately unsuccessful (he received just 1% of votes cast in the election), M.T.A. outlived its origins as a campaign song to become a folk standard. The first of a new generation of folk singers to revive M.T.A. was Will Holt, who recorded the song in 1957 and soon after saw it dropped from radio rotation for glorifying the “communist” O’Brien. The Kingston Trio recorded M.T.A. in 1959, adding a spoken introduction, making minor lyric changes, and replacing the reference to the real-life Walter O’Brien with fictional George O’Brien. This new version saw significant commercial success and positive press attention for the Kingston Trio, and it cemented M.T.A. as a folksong classic, especially in Massachusetts. It has since been used by such disparate performers as Celtic punk band the Dropkick Murphys and Republican governor Mitt Romney.

Works: Dropkick Murphys: Skinhead on the M.T.A. (4); Boston People’s Artists, Jackie Steiner (lyricist): M.T.A. (12-16); Almanac Singers: The Train That Never Returned (13-14); Will Holt (performer): M.T.A. (24-26); The Kingston Trio (performers): M.T.A. (26-27)

Sources: Boston People’s Artists, Jackie Steiner (lyricist): M.T.A. (4, 24-27); Almanac Singers: The Train That Never Returned (12-16); Henry Clay Work: The Ship That Never Returned (13); G. B. Grayson and Henry Whitter (songwriters), Vernon Dalhart (performer): The Wreck of the Old 97 (13)

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Dubitsky, Franz. "'Ein feste Burg' und 'B-A-C-H' in Werken der Tonkunst." Musikalisches Magazin 61 (1914): 3-22.

Luther's Ein feste Burg resembles the B-A-C-H motive in that it signifies something outside of its musical character. In addition, Ein feste Burg begins with four memorable notes, comparable not only to the four notes of B-A-C-H but also to the striking four-note opening of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony. Insofar as Ein feste Burg has a broader function outside of its musical characteristics, it epitomizes the powerful and energetic voice of evangelical Christianity, in a tradition began by Luther. Bach felt deeply moved by the religious sentiments of the tune and set it in a cantata with eight movements. Meyerbeer altered the tune more than Bach did and subjected it to various musical treatments, including theme and variations as well as parody, in Les Huguenots. The Romantic generation in particular responded to the tune in various compositional manners, especially by means of reinstrumentation and paraphrase technique, including settings by Mendelssohn, Nicolai, and many others. Wagner set the tune in his Kaisermarsch in order to evoke the sense of driving away the enemy. All of these settings discussed seek to maintain the spirit of the tune. The prolific uses of the tune reinforce the religious connotations that Luther intended. Although the B-A-C-H motive is not specifically associated with a source, many composers, including Schumann, Rimsky-Korsakov, Liszt, and others incorporate it in various ways into their works.

Works: J. S. Bach: Ein feste Burg, BWV 720 (7); Beethoven: Gott ist eine feste Burg, WoO 188 (7); Meyerbeer: Les Huguenots (8); Mendelssohn: Symphony No. 5 in D Minor, Reformation (9-10); Nicolai: Kirchliche Fest-Ouvertüre über "Ein feste Burg" (10); Heinrich Karl Breidenstein: Grosse Variationen über "Ein feste Burg" für Orgel (10); Friedrich Lux: "Ein feste Burg" Konzertfantasie für Orgel (10); H. Schellenberg: Fantasie über "Ein feste Burg" (10); Karl Stern: Präludium und Fuge über "Ein feste Burg" (10); Karl August Fischer: Präludium und Fuge über "Ein feste Burg" für Orgel mit Blasinstrumenten (10); Wagner: Kaisermarsch (11); Raff: Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott, Op. 127 (11-12); Reinecke: Zur Reformationsfeier (12); Heinrich Schulz-Beuthen: Reformationssinfonie (12); Richard Bartmuss: Liturgischen Feiern No. 5, Reformation (13); Heinrich Pfannschmidt: Reformationsfestspeil (13); Hans Fährmann: Fantasie und Doppelfuge für Orgel über "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott," Op. 28 (13); Reger: Chorale fantasia "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott" (14), Schumann: Sechs Fugen über den Namen Bach, Op. 60 (16-17); Rimsky-Korsakov: Sechs Stücker über BACH, Op. 10 (17-18); Liszt: Präludium und Fuge über Bach (18-19); Wilhelm Middelschultes: Kanonische Fantasie über BACH und Fugue über vier Themen von J. S. Bach (19); Hans Fährmann: Orgelsonata in B moll, Op. 17 (19-20), Vorspiel und Doppelfuge für Orgel (20); Georg Schumann: Passacaglia und Finale für Orgel, Op. 39 (20).

Sources: Luther: Ein feste Burg (7-8).

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Katie Lundeen

[+] Dyer, Mark. “The Human Still Lives?: Technology, Borrowing and Agency in the Music of Nicolas Collins.” INSAM Journal of Contemporary Music, Art and Technology 4 (July 2020): 77-87.

The music of Nicolas Collins, in particular Still Lives (1992) and its orchestration Still (After) Lives (1997), can be understood through the lens of post-humanism as an entanglement between humans, musical material, and machine agents. In Still Lives, Collins hacks a portable CD player to create short skipping loops from a recording of Giuseppe Guami’s Canzon La Accorta a Quattro, emphasizing the accumulated digital errors. Still (After) Lives is an orchestration of Still Lives for chamber ensemble that imitates the CD artifacts acoustically. This transformation adds additional layers of technological engagement, exploiting the limitations of musical notation as a technology. Both versions end with a recitation of a passage from Nabokov’s Speak, Memory that evokes the fluid nature of memory in the technological failures and mishearing of Guami’s Canzon. The blurring between human and technological agency in the composition of Still Lives and Still (After) Lives invites other composers to more closely scrutinize borrowed material.

Works: Nicolas Collins: Still Lives (78-79, 81-83), Still (After) Lives (79-83).

Sources: Giuseppe Guami: Canzon La Accorta a Quattro (78-79, 81-83); Nicolas Collins: Still Lives (78-79).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Edson, Jean Slater. Organ-Preludes: An Index to Compositions on Hymn Tunes, Chorales, Plainsong Melodies, Gregorian Tunes, and Carols. Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, 1970.

Index Classifications: General, 1500s, 1600s, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Eggebrecht, Hans Heinrich. Die Musik Gustav Mahlers. Munich: Piper, 1982.

Many of Mahler's motives and themes remind us of preexisting musical phrases. They sound familiar already at their first appearance. The musicologist makes it his task to locate these allusions. It is, however, impossible or at least misleading to attempt this. These seemingly borrowed excerpts are rather Mahler's attempt to evoke a "colloquial" sound (umgangssprachlicher Ton) or the impression of déjà vu. The use of military fanfares and posthorns should not be interpreted as quotation, even if Mahler consciously quoted one. What is important is the meaning of the fanfare or the posthorn according to the context in which it is found, not as a quotation but as an event. Eggebrecht, however, also discusses the obvious reuses of material such as "Des Antonius von Padua Fischpredigt" (from the Wunderhorn-Lieder) in the Second Symphony and "Oft denk' ich, sie sind nur ausgegangen" (from the Kindertotenlieder) in the Ninth. All three aspects are of importance for the interpretation and understanding of Mahler's works and enable the author to explain their meaning.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Eiseman, David. "Charles Ives and the European Symphonic Tradition: A Historical Reappraisal." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, 1972.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Eldridge, T. G. "Variations for Piano." Musical Opinion 85, no. 1015 (April 1962): 403-7.

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Ellison, Mary. "Ives' Use of American 'Popular' Tunes as Thematic Material." In South Florida's Historic Ives Festival 1974-1976, ed. F. Warren O'Reilly, 30-34. Coral Gables, Fla.: University of Miami at Coral Gables, 1976.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Engelhardt, Jürgen, and Dietrich Stern. "Verfremdung und Parodie bei Strawinsky." Melos/Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 3 (1977): 104-8.

In Petrushka (1911), Renard (1915-16), and The Soldier's Tale (1917-18), Stravinsky uses abstraction and parody to create new dramaturgical forms and musical meanings. The use of abstraction and the view of musical forms (such as ragtime) as archetypes not only affected Stravinsky's style in the 1914-17 period but also paved the way toward his neoclassical style, where it was transformed from mere irony to stylization of the musical material.

Works: Stravinsky: Petrushka,Renard,The Soldier's Tale.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Felix Cox

[+] Engländer, Richard. "Das musikalische Plagiat als ästhetisches Problem." Sonderdruck aus Archiv für Urheber- Film- und Theaterrecht 3 (1930): 33-44

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Epstein, Dena J. "A White Origin for the Black Spiritual?: An Invalid Theory and How It Grew." American Music 1 (Summer 1983): 53-59.

The myth that the black spiritual was completely derived from white folk hymns is one of the most pervasive in the literature about black folk music. Early studies of black folk music such as Richard Wallaschek's Primitive Music (1893) and George Pullen Jackson's White Spirituals in the Southern Uplands (1933) relied solely on transcriptions, a process which does not account for performative and aural contexts of folk music. In effect, these studies mistakenly equated transcriptions with the music as it was performed and thus tacitly assumed that any deviation from the diatonic scale was due to a performer's misinterpretation of music of white origins. These analyses do not account for the process of syncretism which had to have taken place between African- and European-derived musical elements in the development of the black spiritual.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Escal, Françoise. Le compositeur et ses modèles. Paris: Presse Universitaires de France, 1984.

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Everett, Walter. "The Learned vs. the Vernacular in the Songs of Billy Joel." Contemporary Music Review 18, no. 4 (2000): 105-129.

Due to his formal musical training and informal musical upbringing, Billy Joel was equally adept at incorporating both classical and popular styles in his songs depending on the expressive context of the lyrics. Many of his songs deliberately quote popular tunes, while others are either modeled after specific songs, especially by the Beatles, or are modeled after the general style of different popular artists (as shown in the appendix). Likewise, Joel was known to quote classical works in some of his songs, and many other songs exhibit a harmonic or contrapuntal language reminiscent either of classical style in general or of specific classical composers, especially Chopin. These learned and vernacular styles are exemplified particularly in two songs, James (1976) for the learned style and Laura (1983) for the vernacular style, and the personae of these two titular characters reflect the expressive correlations of their particular musical styles.

Works: Billy Joel: Storm Front (106), Lullabye (Goodnight, My Angel) (106), Modern Woman (106), All You Wanna Do Is Dance (106), C'etait toi (You Were the One) (106), Laura (106, 122-24), The Great Suburban Showdown (106), Uptown Girl (106), Captain Jack (107), Scandinavian Skies (107), A Room of Our Own (107), Just the Way You Are (107), Attila (album) (107), Why Judy Why (107), If I Only Had the Words (To Tell You) (107), 52nd Street (album) (107), This Night (110), Leningrad (110), Souvenir (110), The Ballad of Billy the Kid (111), She's Got a Way (111), James (119-22).

Sources: Harold Arlen: Stormy Weather (106); Duke Ellington: Mood Indigo (106); Ethelbert Nevin: Mighty Lak' a Rose (106); John Lennon and Paul McCartney (songwriters), The Beatles (performers): Rubber Soul (album) (106), Here, There, and Everywhere (106), Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds (107), I Am the Walrus (107), Glass Onion (107), I Will (107), Birthday (107), Her Majesty (107); George Harrison (songwriter), The Beatles (performers): Something (107); Beethoven: Piano Sonata in C Minor, Op. 13 (Pathétique) (110); Robert Schumann: Piano Concerto in A Minor, Op. 54 (110); Chopin: Prelude in D-flat Major, Op. 28, No. 15 (110), Prelude in E Minor, Op. 28, No. 4 (111-12); Copland: Appalachian Spring (111).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Mark Chilla

[+] Everett, Yayoi Uno. “Significance of Parody and the Grotesque in György Ligeti’s Le Grand Macabre.Music Theory Spectrum 31 (Spring 2009): 26-56.

György Ligeti’s only opera, Le Grand Macabre (1977, revised 1996), an example of grotesque realism, uses many techniques of parody and collage, though such techniques resist categorization because of the vast array of incorporated procedures. An analysis of Le Grand Macabre works to unveil the work’s narrative and meta-musical implications in relation to these techniques of musical borrowing and the relevant source material, suggesting that the work is governed by two different narrative trajectories. Ligeti’s uses of operatic conventions in this opera are related to specific sources and techniques; such conventions suggest that Ligeti assigns distinctive stylistic or timbral idioms to typecast main characters. For example, a parodic strategy via troping of stylistic types from the lover’s duet (Scene 1), which draws on Monteverdi’s L’incoronazione di Poppea; a second example is Piet the Pot’s “drunken” aria (Scene 1), exemplifies the technique of troping incongruous stylistic topics through abrupt shifts in musical discourses, while drawing on Berg’s Wozzeck. All three scenes in the opera share a parallel construction which culminates in a polymetric or polytemporal collage. In each scene, a trope of chaos and deconstruction is established through these collages, which is offset by either buffa elements or pastoral topics. The expressive states of ludicrousness and horror are explored in tandem, culminating in the third movement where the distinction between these two expressive states becomes increasingly blurred. Le Grand Macabre is in some ways an “anti-opera,” because of its overall narrative of ambivalence, which comes about primarily due to the blurring of expressive states. Thus, the aesthetic of this work is not “postmodern” but is better defined as “oppositional” postmodernism, which is concerned with a critical deconstruction of tradition.

Works: Ligeti: Le Grand Macabre.

Sources: Verdi: Falstaff (34-35); Monteverdi: L’incoronazione di Poppea (36); Berg: Wozzeck (36-37); Gluck: Alceste (43); Stravinsky: l’Histoire du Soldat (43).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Chelsea Hamm

[+] Exarchos, Michail. “Sample Magic: (Conjuring) Phonographic Ghosts and Meta-Illusions in Contemporary Hip-Hop Production.” Popular Music 38 (January 2019): 33-53.

Supernatural metaphors are often used to describe the practice of phonographic sampling in hip-hop music in both complimentary and critical ways. By studying magic as performance by stage magicians (such as Penn and Teller) rather than as supernatural phenomena, new parallels emerge between how the two practices create their effect. Both hip-hop musicians and stage magicians rely heavily on the manipulation of time to command the attention of their audiences. The structure of an effective magic trick and hip-hop sampling are also similar in how they turn ordinary materials into something extraordinary. For example, several tracks by acclaimed producers J Dilla and Madlib introduce a relatively unmodified sample before demonstrating their skill in manipulating the sample. Exerting control over music recordings (which in turn exert a kind of magical control over sound) is recognized by hip-hop producers and audiences alike as a kind of “magical” effect. Stage magic scholars categorize subgenres based on the relationship between methods (materials), effects, frames, and the contract with the audience. Hip-hip sampling can be similarly categorized, particularly when considering the affordances of different sampling technologies. Phonographs allow for “real” documentary capture of sounds, multitrack recordings allow for “hyper-real” sonic illusions, and sampling technologies allow for “meta-real” juxtapositions of illusions. Examples of “meta-real” practice include tracks that create the illusion of live turntablism, which in turn creates illusions by juxtaposing “hyper-real” music recordings. It is perhaps the creation of impossible soundscapes through sampling that makes hip-hop so moving. The experience of conflict between rational belief and experiential “alief” (to use Szabo Gendler’s term) is crucial to the magical quality of hip-hop music.

Works: Gang Starr (producer DJ Premier): Code of the Streets (36), Deadly Habitz (36); J Dilla: Lightworks (37); Madlib (as The Beat Konductah): Filthy (Untouched) (37); KRS-One and Marley Marl: Musika (43-44)

Sources: Melvin Bliss: Synthetic Substitution (36); Monk Higgins: Little Green Apples (36); Beside: Change the Beat (36); Steve Gray: Beverly Hills (36); Raymond Scott: Lightworks (37); Vivien Goldman: Launderette (37); Thom Bell: A Theme for L.A.’s Team (43-44)

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Fabian, Imre. "Ein unendliches Erbarmen mit der Kreatur: Zu György Ligetis Le grand macabre." Österreichische Musikzeitschrift 36 (October/November 1981): 570-72.

György Ligeti includes in his opera Le Grand Macabre all the stylistic achievements of his earlier orchestral and chamber music works. Some passages that Ligeti himself calls reflections, not quotations allude to Monteverdi, Mozart, Stravinsky, Rossini, Verdi, or Beethoven. They are not inserted as collage-like citations, but represent a reflective retrospection on the operatic genre.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Fajzuleva, Margarita. "Narodno-pesennaja osnova tatarskoj opery [Folksong origins of Tatar opera]." M.A. thesis, Leningradskaja Konservatorija, 1980.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Fallas, John. "Into the New Century: Recent Holloway and the Poetics of Quotation." Tempo 61, no. 242 (October 2007): 2-10.

Among the various works in his oeuvre, composer Robin Holloway has both affirmed and denied certain instances of musical borrowing, yet Holloway may use more instances of borrowing then he openly acknowledges. For example, he often uses melodic tags, which are short quotations. When melodic tags share similarities, Holloway can play upon the similarities to make the tags more ambiguous. This technique, which can alter meaning, is called "punning." Another technique, "suppressed vocalization," involves setting poetry to melodic lines and then transferring the melodic lines, without words, to instruments. As listeners we are often unaware of such transferences and can only become aware of them if Holloway admits to using the procedure. These two techniques should also be considered in light of Holloway's narrative and extramusical subjects. For instance, the loose narrative base of William Langland's poem Piers Plowman, an allegory of the world as a working field, in the Fourth Concerto for Orchestra led to Holloway's quotation of Eric Coates's song Calling All Workers. Although quotations of Sheherazade and Daphnis et Chloé in the Fourth Concerto do not share themes with Langland's poem, they are favored works of the concerto's commissioner, Michael Tilson Thomas. Investigating relationships such as these, along with Holloway's various borrowing techniques, will help uncover the multiple layers of and connections between his works.

Works: Robin Holloway: Second Concerto for Orchestra (2-5), Fourth Concerto for Orchestra (2, 6-9), Symphony (3-7).

Sources: Hubert Parry: Jerusalem (3-4); Eduardo di Capua: O sole mio (3); Renato Rascel: Arrivederci Roma (3); Sibelius: Symphony No. 4 in A Minor (3); Mahler: Symphony No. 9 in D Major (3-4); Ravel: Daphnis et Chloé (3-4); Richard Strauss: Salome (3-4), Elektra (3-4); Elgar: "Nimrod," Enigma Variations (3-4); Scriabin: Poem of Ecstasy (3-4); Debussy: Jeux (3-4), La Mer (3-4); Schoenberg: String Quartet No. 1 in D Minor, Op. 7 (3-4); Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring (3-4); Robin Holloway: First Concerto for Orchestra (5), En Blanc et Noir (6); Rimsky-Korsakov, Sheherazade (6); Eric Coates, Calling All Workers (6).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s

Contributed by: Laura B. Dallman

[+] Fanning, David. The Breath of the Symphonist: Shostakovich's Tenth. Royal Musical Association Monographs, 4. London: Royal Musical Association, 1988.

[Includes lists of quotations and allusions.]

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Fanselau, Rainer. "Michael Tippets 3. Symphonie (1970-72): Botschaft der Humanität." In Zwischen Wissenschaft und Kunst: Festgabe zur Richard Jacoby, ed. Peter Becker, Arnfried Edler, and Beate Schneider, 263-76. Mainz: Schott, 1995.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Faust, Karl. Introduction to brochure notes (Interview with the Composer) for Mauricio Kagel, Ludwig van. DGG 2530 014. Deutsche Grammophon, 1970.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Fearn, Raymond. “At the Doors of Kranichstein: Maderna’s ‘Fantasia’ for 2 Pianos.” Tempo, New Series, no. 163 (December 1987): 14-20.

Italian composer Bruno Maderna was one of the many composers who joined Darmstadt’s Summer Schools in the Castle of Kranichstein, where his music was programmed for public performances. Two of Maderna’s piano works for four hands are of major interest in this context: Concerto per due pianoforte e strumenti, and Fantasia per due pianoforte (B. A. C. H. Variationen für zwei klaviere). Although the Concerto was performed first, there are indications that the Fantasia was composed before the Concerto. Nonetheless, both are derived from the same model: Bartók’s Sonata for Two Pianos and Percussion. The Concerto features percussive idioms, suggesting a relationship to Bartók’s work, which was known in Italy during this time. The Fantasia exhibits an ostinato figure derived from the B-A-C-H. motif, which is reminiscent of Bartók’s use of ostinato.

Works: Bruno Maderna: Concerto per due pianoforte e strumenti (15-18), Fantasia per due pianoforte (B. A. C. H. Variationen für zwei Klavier) (15-20).

Sources: Bartók: Sonata for Two Pianos and Percussion, Sz. 110 (18); Johann Sebastian Bach: Vor deinen Thron tret’ ich hiermit, BWV 668 (20).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Nicolette van den Bogerd

[+] Fearn, Raymond. The Music of Luigi Dallapiccola. Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press, 2003.

The music of Luigi Dallapiccola has been shaped by his many political, musical, and poetic experiences as a young composer in the northeastern corner of Italy and later in Florence during the two world wars, the most tumultuous years of the twentieth century for western Europe. His compositions are full of textual and musical allusions to the past both distant and recent. His music includes allusions to Wagner, Webern, Schoenberg, Bach, Monteverdi, and Berg among many others. Yet his practice of self-borrowing is prevalent as well, especially later in his career. The greatest example of this is his full-length opera Ulisse (1968), which makes reference to at least six of his previous works in addition to its use of compositional techniques typical of Monteverdi, Wagner, and Bach. Preceding this work is a companion instrumental piece entitled Three Questions with Two Answers (1962-63), which introduces the opera's fundamental tone rows and foreshadows some of its most prevalent musical and philosophical themes. The rapport between Dallapiccola's music and that of his predecessors as well as his practice of self-borrowing imply a theme of constant retrospection and self-analysis in his artistic career.

Works: Dallapiccola: Tre laudi (33-45, 242-45), Volo di notte (38-49, 242-45), An Mathilde (193-97, 242-45), Three Questions with Two Answers (224-31), Ulisse (224-52), Il prigioniero (239-45), Cinque canti (242-45), Canti di liberazione (242-45).

Sources: J. S. Bach: The Well-Tempered Clavier (14, 158), The Art of Fugue (157); Dallapiccola: Tre laudi (33-45, 242-45), Volo di notte (38-49, 242-45), Il ritorno d'Ulisse in patria (72-73, 232-35), An Mathilde (193-97, 242-45), Three Questions with Two Answers (224-31), Il prigioniero (239-45), Cinque canti (242-45), Canti di liberazione (242-45); Monteverdi: Orfeo (245-47).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Elizabeth Elmi

[+] Feder, Stuart. "Charles and George Ives: The Veneration of Boyhood." The Annual of Psychoanalysis 9 (1981): 265-316.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Feder, Stuart. "Decoration Day: A Boyhood Memory of Charles Ives." The Musical Quarterly 66 (April 1980): 234-261.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Feder, Stuart. Charles Ives: "My Father's Song"; A Psychoanalytic Biography. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1992.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Federhofer, Hellmut. "Das Ende der musikalischen Parodie?" Deutsches Jahrbuch der Musikwissenschaft 15 (1970): 96-106.

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

[+] Feisst, Sabine. "Meister der elektronischen Tondichtung: Der U.S.-amerikanische Komponist Ingram Marshall." Musik Texte: Zeitschrift für Neue Musik 105 (2005): 21-30.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Felber, Erwin. "Exotismus und Primitivismus in der neueren Musik." Die Musik 21 (1925): 724-31.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Fellerer, Karl Gustav. "Zur Grundlage hermeneutischer Musikbetrachtung." In Beiträge zur musikalischen Hermeneutik, ed. Carl Dahlhaus, 27-31. Regensburg: Bosse, 1975.

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Fenner, Lucie. "Erinnerung an die College-Jahre: Musikalische Entlehnung in Calcium Light Night und TSIAJ von Charles Ives." Musik-Konzepte 123 (January 2004): 25-49.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Fenner, Lucie. Erinnerung und Entlehnung im Werk von Charles Ives. Musikwissenschaftliche Schriften der Hochschule für Musik und Theater München 3. Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 2005.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Ferencz, George J. “Porgy and Bess on the Concert Stage: Gershwin’s 1936 Suite (Catfish Row) and the 1942 Gershwin-Bennett Symphonic Picture.” The Musical Quarterly 94 (Spring 2011): 93-155.

George Gershwin’s opera Porgy and Bess exists as a concert piece in several arrangements, but the most popular is Robert Russell Bennett’s Symphonic Picture, composed under the direction of Fritz Reiner and shaped by his involvement in the project. Gershwin’s own five-movement Suite from Porgy and Bess was prepared and performed between 1936 and 1937 to promote upcoming productions of the opera. However, Gershwin’s Suite was virtually unknown between in 1937 and 1959, when it was “rediscovered” and renamed Catfish Row. Symphonic Picture on the other hand was a project developed by Reiner, who selected the excerpts and order of the medley and engaged Bennett, a work-for-hire arranger and long-time Gershwin associate, to orchestrate Picture in 1942. In its orchestration, Picture presents an arrangement more agreeable to symphonic standards, with Bennett removing the instrumental doubling associated with commercial orchestration. Bennett also adds significantly more transition material between sections than Gershwin’s Suite contains. Furthermore, Picture was arranged with recording specifically in mind; Reiner’s outline specified a duration of twenty-four minutes to fit on three twelve-inch 78-rpm discs. The popularity of Picture over the Suite is also apparent in the performance, recording, and reception histories of each piece.

Works: George Gershwin: Suite from Porgy and Bess / Catfish Row (104-10); Robert Russell Bennett (arranger): Symphonic Picture (104-7, 110-21)

Sources: George Gershwin: Porgy and Bess (104-21)

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Filler, Susan M. "Mahler and the Anthology of Des Knaben Wunderhorn." Journal of the Canadian Assocation of Schools of Music 8 (1978): 82-111.

Das himmlische Leben, a Wunderhorn text-setting from Mahler's Fourth Symphony, provides much of the material for that work, and portions of it were incorporated into the first and third movements of the Third Symphony. It was originally to be included in the Third Symphony as its final movement, and, later, as its second movement, though Mahler ultimately changed his mind about both ideas. The fifth, choral movement of the Third Symphony was originally to be part of the Fourth. These changes of mind and heart show the composer's inspiration coming from a single source that resulted in two very different symphonies.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 3 in D Minor (90-102), Symphony No. 4 (95-96, 99-100), Symphony No. 5 in C sharp Minor (102, 107), Symphony No. 10 (102), Symphony No. 9 (103).

Sources: Mahler: Des Knaben Wunderhorn (90-107).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Geelhoed

[+] Fink, Robert. "The Story of ORCH5, or, The Classical Ghost in the Hip-Hop Machine." Popular Music 24 (October 2005): 339-56.

ORCH5, a digital sample of a single chord from Igor Stravinksy's Firebird created on the Fairlight Computer Musical Instrument, became one of the first recognized samples used in popular music. It was used as a sample in some eclectic electronic music in the early 1980s, but gained fame as the orchestral sound that began Afrika Bambaataa's seminal 1982 song Planet Rock. This song also prominently samples music from the German electronic group Kraftwerk, including a chromatic Weltschmerz theme from their song Trans Europe Express. Taken together, these two samples--a digital orchestral sound and a melody with intentional commentary on the decay of German music--create some unintended resonances of the decline of classical music in the Western world. While the use of ORCH5 in Planet Rock signals the decay of classical music in popular culture, the sample is also given new life by being appropriated into both the Afro-futurist movement and especially the early stages of hip-hop sampling, where it is used in the same capacity as a DJ's vinyl scratch.

Works: Kate Bush: The Dreaming (343); The Art of Noise: Close (to the Edit) (343); Afrika Bambaataa &the Soulsonic Force with Arthur Baker and John Robie: Planet Rock (343-54).

Sources: Stravinsky: The Firebird (341-54); Kraftwerk: Trans Europe Express (344-54), Numbers (344-54).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Mark Chilla

[+] Finson, Jon. "Music and Medium: Two Versions of Manilow's 'Could it be Magic.'" The Musical Quarterly 65 (April 1979): 265-80.

Barry Manilow and Adrienne Anderson wrote two versions of the 1975 hit "Could it be Magic." The first version was intended for the LP and FM radio airplay, while a substantially shortened second version was intended for a 45 single and AM radio airplay. "Could it be Magic" quotes intact a substantial amount of Chopin's Prelude Op. 28, No. 20 in C minor; the first version of the song begins with measures one through eight of the prelude and ends with measures nine through thirteen of the prelude. There are several possible reasons for quoting Chopin: this could be simply another example of the growing number of rock musicians who quote classical music; the composers seem to share a fascination for modal ambiguity with Chopin; Chopin's preludes have become part of a narrow canon of classical music known to composers of all musical genres; and the constant demand for novelty in the popular music industry has encouraged popular music artists to draw from other styles to ensure quick composition. The two versions of Manilow's song allow us to examine how a popular artist responds to the demands of different media.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa

[+] Fisher, Fred. "Ives's Concord Sonata." Piano Quarterly 92 (Winter 1975-76): 23-27.

Ives's Concord Sonata is probably modeled on monumental piano sonatas by Beethoven and Liszt. More specifically, Ives borrowed a motive from Brahms's Second Piano Sonata, Op.2, perhaps intentionally. In its basic form the motive consists of a three-note scale fragment followed by a downward leap of a fifth. William S. Newman has remarked that the Brahms motive reduces to this same basic motive. Ives may have borrowed intentionally, since his teacher Horatio Parker idolized Brahms and since Brahms themes and influences occur in other works by Ives. Also, Ives called the Concord Sonata his second even though he had already written two (he wrote the Three-Page Sonata in 1905).

Works: Ives: Second Piano Sonata ("Concord")

Sources: Brahms: Second Piano Sonata, Op.2.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Daniel Bertram

[+] Fisher, Fred. Ives' Concord Sonata. Denton, Texas: C/G Productions, 1981.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Fleury, Albert. "Historische und stilgeschichtliche Probleme in Pfitzner's Palestrina." In Helmuth Osthoff zu seinem siebzigsten Geburtstag, ed. Ursula Aarburg and Peter Cahn in connection with Wilhelm Stauder, 229-39. Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1969.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Flinn, Carol. "Male Nostalgia and Hollywood Film Music: The Terror of the Feminine." Canadian Music Review 10 (Summer 1990): 19-26.

The score to Edgar G. Ulmer's 1945 film Detour exemplifies the duplicitous portrayal of women through the employment of music that strongly evokes nostalgia and longing. Detour belongs to the 1940s detective film genre known as film noir, which often uses music to support references to the past. Flashback narrative structures are commonly used in film noir to explain the present or the film as a whole. Women are often portrayed in this genre as either the good and wholesome virgin-mother or as the undermining villainous beauty. The song "I Can't Believe That You're in Love with Me," by Jimmy McHugh, becomes a reoccurring leitmotif for nostalgic references to the character's past throughout the film, played on the jukebox and later scored off-screen by blending from the song to a Brahms lullaby. "I Can't Believe That You're in Love with Me" is especially effective at evoking nostalgia as a 1927 Tin Pan Alley song, performed by Count Basie, Earl Hines, Ella Fitzgerald, and Bing Crosby; the 1945 filmgoers recognized the tune not as a current hit, but one of the past. Brahms's Waltz in A flat, Op. 39, No.15, is used to signify the intensification of the obsession with nostalgia as the villainous heroine abandons the detective. Home Sweet Home is later used to reinforce the sense of nostalgia as the detective is reunited with the heroine.

Works: Leo Erdody: score to Detour (19).

Sources: Jimmy McHugh: I Can't Believe That You're in Love with Me (20); Brahms: Waltz in A flat, Op. 39, No. 15 (23); Henry R. Bishop: Home Sweet Home (23).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kathleen Widden

[+] Floros, Constantin. "Die Skizzen zum Violinkonzert von Alban Bergs." In Alban Berg Symposion 1980, Alban Berg Studien 2, ed. Rudolf Klein, 000-000. Wien: Universal Edition, 1981.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Floros, Constantin. Gustav Mahler II: Mahler und die Symphonik des 19. Jahrhunderts in neuer Deutung. Wiesbaden: Breitkopf und Härtel, 1977.

Floros discusses three main elements of Mahler's music with the aim of a philosophical or programmatic interpretation: form and formal procedures; the use of specific genres such as chorale, pastorale, march, scherzo, and dancelike movements; and interpretation of symbols. All the elements are interpreted in the context of other composers, especially Berlioz, Liszt, and Bruckner. In interpreting the first two categories, Floros focuses on Mahler's position in the history of music. But in the third category, by locating the same musical symbols (e.g. the tonisches Symbol des Kreuzes in Liszt and Bruckner; see also Floros, Gustav Mahler III: Die Symphonien, 1985) in works of other composers where the meaning is clear, Floros can offer interpretations that would otherwise be impossible. Without the interpretation of symbols, no real progress in musicology is possible.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Floros, Constantin. Gustav Mahler III: Die Symphonien. Wiesbaden: Breitkopf und Härtel, 1985.

Floros's study of Mahler's music is an attempt to interpret it comprehensively, taking into account especially Mahler's intellectual background. In these semantic analyses, the author discusses borrowings and quotations of all sorts: (1) quotations of tunes and their integration into compositions (e.g. Bruder Martin in the First Symphony), (2) borrowings of complete sections (e.g. in the Second Symphony), (3) reuse of whole songs (e.g. Urlicht in the Second Symphony), and (4) quotation of short motives (such as the beginning of Dies irae or Liszt's tonisches Symbol des Kreuzes ["sounding" symbol of the cross]) to symbolize titles or programs. Decoding these borrowings is one of the most important steps in finding the program that is the basis even of the purely instrumental symphonies. Above all, some passages can be interpreted by comparison to similar passages from works by Richard Strauss where their meaning is clear. These comparisons may throw light on composition dates, for instance that of the Scherzo of the Sixth Symphony.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Flothuis, Marius. "Einige Betrachtungen über den Humor in der Musik." Österreichische Musikzeitschrift 38 (December 1983): 688-95.

Among several devices mentioned in this article which have been used for humorous effect in music is quotation. Various means of achieving humor through quotation are by paradox, pun, parody, and exploiting the historical significance of the music quoted, all of which assume previous knowledge on the part of the listeners of the music being referred to.

Works: Beethoven: Es war einmal ein König, der hatt' einen grossen Floh (693); Chabrier: Souvenirs de Munich (692); Debussy: "Golliwog's Cake Walk," from Children's Corner (691); Falla: The Three-Cornered Hat (692); Saint-Saëns: Le Carnaval des Animaux (690); Satie: Sonatine bureaucratique (695).

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] Flothuis, Marius. “Kapellmeistermusik.” In Mahler-Interpretation: Aspekte zum Werk und Wirken Gustav Mahlers, ed. Rudolf Stephan, 9-16. Mainz: Schott, 1985.

Mahler scholarship occasionally invokes the term “Kapellmeistermusik” to describe the eclecticism and variety in the composer’s music. This eclecticism, which resulted in part due to Mahler’s background as a conductor, is commonly assumed to be intentional, implying that Mahler deliberately quoted other works for listeners to identify and interpret. But Mahler’s eclecticism, and the relationships between his own music and existing works, can be far more complicated than is often assumed. Some of the parallels between Mahler’s works and those of other composers may have been coincidental, and in other cases Mahler may have “unconsciously” referenced an existing piece because he was familiar with it. Although one can identify several correspondences and quotations from other works in Mahler’s music, some are more likely to be intentional (either consciously or unconsciously) than others. Additionally, a case for borrowing in Mahler’s works cannot be made based on musical analysis alone, as other kinds of supplemental evidence can either reinforce or undercut the possibility of a connection between pieces. One can argue, for example, that Mahler could have borrowed a melody from Liszt’s Piano Concerto in E-Flat Major for his Sixth Symphony, given the close similarities between the two themes and the strong likelihood that Mahler knew Liszt’s concerto as both a pianist and conductor. On the other hand, the parallels between Schubert’s song Mainacht, D. 194, and the first song of Mahler’s Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen are likely coincidental, as Mainacht was first published posthumously in 1894, almost a decade after Mahler composed his song cycle. Some possible borrowings from works by Berlioz, Chabrier, and Bizet require further research but may be significant.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 4 in G Major (10), Symphony No. 3 in D Minor (10), Symphony No. 6 in A Minor (“Tragic”) (10-11), Symphony No. 1 in D Major (“Titan”) (11), Das klagende Lied (11, 13), Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen (11-12), Symphony No. 7 (13), Symphony No. 10 (13), Symphony No. 2 in C Minor (“Resurrection”) (13-14), Symphony No. 9 (13, 15-16), Symphony No. 5 (16).

Sources: Schubert: Piano Sonata in E-flat Major, D. 568 (10), Piano Sonata in D Major, D. 850 (10), Liszt: Spanish Rhapsody, S. 254 (10); Brahms: Symphony No. 1 in C Minor, Op. 68 (10); Beethoven: String Quartet in F Major, Op. 135 (10); Liszt: Piano Concerto No. 1 in E-flat Major, S. 124 (10-11); Schubert: Piano Sonata in A Minor, D. 784 (11); Chopin: Ballade in G Minor, Op. 23 (11); Schubert: Mainacht, D. 194 (11-12); Mozart: Symphony No. 36 in C Major, K. 425 (“Linz”) (12); Weber: “Schreckensschwur” Aria from Oberon (12); Wagner: Siegfried (13), Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (13); Bruckner: Symphony No. 9 in D Minor, WAB 109 (13); Berlioz: Les francs-juges, H 23 (13-14); Chabrier: Gwendoline (13, 15-16); Bizet: L’Arlésienne (16).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew G. Leone

[+] Floyd, Samuel A. Jr. "Troping the Blues: From Spirituals to the Concert Hall." Black Music Research Journal 13, no. 1 (Spring 1993): 31-51.

African-American music has continually used the troping of texts in blues, jazz, and other popular traditions. Two examples of troping occur in the use of the spiritual "Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child" and the riding train. Troping of the spiritual has occurred on the textual and musical level. Furry Lewis tropes the idea of a motherless child in his piece "Big Chief Blues." Washington "Bukka" White also creates his trope relating to the motherless child in "Panama Limited" while singing about being far from home. Musical troping can be found in George Gershwin's repetition of the tune of "Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child" in the piece "Summertime" from the opera Porgy and Bess. Gershwin tropes the spiritual's intervallic structure, rhythm, melodic structures, and beat structure throughout "Summertime." David Baker and Olly Wilson also trope the music and text of "Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child." The train trope deals in the sounds created by a passenger train throughout the United States. Duke Ellington's composition "Happy-Go-Lucky-Local" tropes the passenger train through its use of chugging rhythms, whistles, and sounds of steam locomotives through orchestration. These tropes display an evolution in African-American music through repetition and revision of texts and music.

Works: Traditional: Big Chief Blues as performed by Furry Lewis (36-37); White: Panama Limited (37); Gershwin: "Summertime" from Porgy and Bess (37-43); Baker: Through This Vale of Tears (43-44); Wilson: Sometimes (44-45); Ellington: Happy-Go-Lucky-Local (46-47); Logan: Runagate Runagate (47-50).

Sources: Traditional: Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child (35-45).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Altizer

[+] Flynn, George W. "Listening to Berio's Music." The Musical Quarterly 61 (July 1975): 388-421.

Both musical and literary quotations are present in Berio's work. In Laborintus II, quotations are drawn from Dante, Pound, the Bible, Eliot, and Sanguineti; furthermore, an added text recalls a work by Isidore of Seville. The texts are presented in collage technique. In Sinfonia, musical and literary collage is involved. The third section is primarily based on Mahler's scherzo of the Second Symphony for the musical and on writings of Beckett for the textual continuity. The fifth section presents a collage of elements from the previous sections. Another work in which musical and textual collage is present is Recital I (for Cathy).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Forte, Allen. "Middleground Motives in the Adagietto of Mahler's Fifth Symphony." 19th-Century Music 8 (Fall 1984): 153-63.

Forte mentions the relationship between the second song of the Kindertotenlieder and the Adagietto of the Fifth Symphony.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Forte, Allen. “Olivier Messiaen as Serialist.” Music Analysis 21 (March 2002): 3-34.

In composing his serialist works, Messiaen suffered from an anxiety of Viennese influence, manifested as a strong desire to show how his serial methods can produce a totally different music from that of the Second Viennese School. However, certain aspects of Messiaen’s serial music are modeled on famous Viennese dodecaphonic works, as both similarities to and distinctive differences from these works may prove. Livre d’orgue, a set of seven pieces for organ, provides a good case study for these modeling procedures. For example, a significant difference from the Second Viennese School in the first movement is that his serial permutations are not the four “classic” order transformations (prime, inversion, retrograde, and retrograde inversion); instead, Messiaen uses other permutations which do not necessarily include the whole row, permutations that are unique to his work. This demonstrates that Messiaen was going out of his way to avoid serial techniques of the past, which is confirmed in excerpts from Messiaen’s writings. An example of a similarity to Viennese dodecaphonic music can also be found in the first movement. Several trichords and hexachords, as well as their permutations, specifically evoke the music of Bartók and Webern. Furthermore, certain large-scale permutations evoke the first section of Berg’s Wozzeck as well as the second movement of Webern’s Symphony, Op. 21. This demonstrates that Messiaen was still influenced by the music of these composers, which he knew well.

Works: Messiaen: Livre d’orgue (5-29).

Sources: Berg: Wozzeck (23); Webern: Symphony, Op. 21 (23).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Chelsea Hamm

[+] Foss, Lukas. "Foss Talks About 'Stolen Goods' and the Mystique of the New." Music and Artists 3 (September/October 1970): 34-35.

In an interview Foss discusses his Phorion (Greek for "stolen goods") as a "controlled chance" composition based on the prelude from J. S. Bach's Partita for Solo Violin in E. Designed so that each performance is unique, the work incorporates Morse code and instructs performers to "race" each other through technically challenging passages of Bach's music. Foss also discusses critical reaction, including a German orchestra that took a vote on whether to perform the "desecration" of Bach, prompting Foss to observe that "the Germans are a very tender and sensitive people." (Foss, a Jew, left Germany as a refugee in 1933.) Bach is not harmed by Phorion; his music exists intact independently of its treatment in this work. If audiences are uncertain how to respond, that is Foss's intent. Violence in art, such as Foss is committing here, in fact communicates a message of non-violence.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David Lieberman

[+] Franke, Lars. "The Godfather Part III: Film, Opera, and the Generation of Meaning." In Changing Tunes: The Use of Pre-existing Music in Film, ed. Phil Powrie and Robynn Stilwell, 31-45. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.

Pietro Mascagni's Cavalleria rusticana is integrated into The Godfather Part III in complex ways. Coppola uses music from Cavalleria rusticana in a scene in which the opera is attended in addition to exploiting traits of opera on other levels. The opera appears in three levels within the narrative of the film: a literal level, a cultural level, and a dramatic level. The literal level is achieved through the usage of the diegetic, staged opera within the film. At this level, Coppola uses the opera aurally and rearranges it for cinematic effect. The Preghiera develops multiple meanings within the context of the film, from a contrast of faith/harmony with murder to religious ceremony in opera. The themes of ritualism and violence in the opera also parallel the film. The cultural level depicts opera as a cultural artifact that permeates life, an example of which is the arrangement of "Va, pensiero, sull'ali dorate" from Verdi's Nabucco, which functions as a cultural icon of Sicily as well as a portrayal of the character Michael's relationship with Sicily. The dramatic level adapts operatic structure, appearance, and narrative to the film as a whole.

Works: Francis Ford Coppola (director): Sound track to The Godfather Part III.

Sources: Pietro Mascagni: Cavalleria rusticana (31-45); Verdi: Nabucco (37-39).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Karen Anton Stafford

[+] Frankenbach, Chantal. “Dancing to Beethoven in Wilhelmine Germany: Isadora Duncan and Her Critics.” Journal of Musicology 34 (Winter 2017): 71-114.

Isadora Duncan’s dances set to the music of Beethoven and other German composers greatly dismayed the German musical press, who saw her appropriation of classical music as threatening the barriers between high musical art and common vaudeville entertainment. When Duncan performed in Germany from 1902 to 1904, she achieved great public success and enthusiasm for her barefoot dancing style. Duncan’s aim of elevating the art of dance was often met with derision in certain press circles who framed her work as pretentious. Theater composer Oscar Straus’s contribution to the vaudeville dance-satire Die Tugendglocke lampoons Duncan’s intrusion into classical music spheres. His parody became so popular that he created a piano arrangement of the scene, titled Isadora Duncan: Musikalische Parodie. Several famous themes from great (mostly German) composers are deformed and combined with a simplistic “eins, zwei, drei” dance theme. The understanding of this parody necessitates the audience knowing of Duncan’s dances as well as the backlash she received in critical circles. Duncan was particularly vilified in the German classical music press—among her harshest critics was composer Max Reger—for her use of Beethoven’s music, often described in the sexist terms of “corrupting” the masculine ideal of German high art. This reaction underscores the transgressive nature of Duncan’s dance.

Works: Edmond Diet, Julius Einödshofer, Curt Goldmann, Max Schmidt, O. Translateur, and Oscar Straus: Die Tugendglocke (90); Oscar Straus: Isadora Duncan: Musikalische Parodie, Op. 135 (90-99)

Sources: Edmond Diet, Julius Einödshofer, Curt Goldmann, Max Schmidt, O. Translateur, and Oscar Straus: Die Tugendglocke (90); Wagner: Tannhäuser (93-99); Gluck: Orfeo (93-99); Chopin: Polonaise in A-flat Major, Op. 53 (93-99); Beethoven: Piano Sonata in C-sharp Minor, Op. 27, No. 2 (“Moonlight”) (93-99); Johann Strauss: On the Beautiful Blue Danube (93-99)

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Fricke, Stefan. “Der Komponist als Dolmetscher: Zu den komponierten Kommentaren Gerhard Stäblers.” In “Angefügt, nahtlos, ans Heute”: Zur Arbeit des Komponisten Gerhard Stäbler—Standpunkte, Analysen, Perspektiven, ed. Johannes Bultmann and Hanns-Werner Heister, 289-98. Hofheim: Wolke, 1994.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Frisch, Walter. "The 'Brahms Fog': On Tracing Brahmsian Influences." The American Brahms Society Newsletter 7, no. 1 (Spring 1989): 1-3.

Brahms's influence on the composers of the succeeding generation has often been slighted or eclipsed by the "white heat" of Wagner's effect on the same artists. Traces of Brahms are apparent in many late-nineteenth-century composers ranging from Herzogenberg, who plagiarized his oeuvre, to Reger and Schoenberg, who were both indebted to him for pianistic models.

Works: Herzogenberg: Symphony No. 1 in C Minor (2); Reger: Resignation (3).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Elisabeth Honn

[+] Frisch, Walter. “Reger’s Bach and Historicist Modernism.” 19th-Century Music 25 (Fall 2001): 296-312.

Max Reger developed an aesthetic of historicist modernism that placed J. S. Bach as the primary model. With the introduction of the Neue Bach-Gesellschaft and similar events around 1900, the nineteenth-century trend viewing Bach as the embodiment of the German musical spirit intensified. Part of this trend included emphasizing Bach’s melodic art, which was held to be more useful to modern composers than his counterpoint. Reger was an active participant in this trend of Bach discourse in several areas, including producing many arrangements of Bach’s music. Reger’s form of modernist historicism also manifests in his prolific composition of organ works and avoidance of symphonic poems and music dramas. Reger’s 1895 First Organ Suite, Op. 16, dedicated to the memory of J. S. Bach, draws on several historical models. Most notably, Reger borrows several chorales famously set by Bach, but he alludes to Brahms’s Fourth Symphony and Joseph Rheinberger’s Organ Sonata No. 8 as well. Variations and Fugue on a Theme of Bach, Op. 81 (1904), offers a more complex form of historicism, but one still rooted in the music of Bach. For its theme, Reger uses the opening ritornello of the aria “Sein’ Almacht zu ergründen” from Bach’s Cantata Auf Christi Himmelfahrt allein, BWV 128. Throughout the fourteen variations, Reger develops the theme in two styles: strict–past and free–present with the fugue combining these styles. The work represents Reger’s nuanced awareness of historical time and documents his historicist modernism.

Works: Reger: Suite for Organ in E Minor, Op. 16 (301-307), Variations and Fugue on a Theme of Bach, Op. 81 (308-12)

Sources: J. S. Bach: Passacaglia and Fugue in C Minor, BWV 582 (303), O Mensch, bewein dein Sünde gross, BWV 622 (303), Aus tiefer Not from Clavierübung, BWV 686 (305), Auf Christi Himmelfahrt allein, BWV 128 (308-12); Rheinberger: Organ Sonata No. 8, Op. 132 (307); Brahms: Symphony No. 4 in E Minor, Op. 98 (307)

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Frith, Simon, ed. Music and Copyright. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1993.

[Addresses sampling and other recent borrowing issues.]

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

[+] Frolova-Walker, Marina. “A Ukrainian Tune in Medieval France: Perceptions of Nationalism and Local Color in Russian Opera.” 19th-Century Music 35 (Fall 2011): 115-31.

There is no straightforward way to assign operas as “nationalist” or “non-nationalist” when considering the categorization of Russian operas, and methods that attempt to do so are unreliable or based on mystification. Instead, the older concept of “local color” should be revived in scholarly discourse. There are six categories of assigning Russianness in music: by intention, by reception, by interpretation, by association, by blood or culture, or by school. Assigning Russianness by culture or by school can lead to conflicting claims about many operas as well as scholarly misconceptions. An example of this is Rosa Newmarch’s misreading of the Minstrel’s Song from Tchaikovsky’s Maid of Orleans as a Ukrainian tune that would be incongruous to the French setting, rather than the French song it actually is. To nineteenth-century Russian opera composers like Rimsky-Korsakov, the concept of local color was both familiar and important to the construction of their work. Operas taking place outside of Russia or dealing with universal themes often avoided Russian coloring. Tchaikovsky in particular developed a sophisticated sense of period coloring in The Queen of Spades, quoting appropriate French and Russian anthems. Approaching Russian opera through the lens of local color, disparate “nationalist,” “non-nationalist,” and “symbolist” operas can be compared side-by-side.

Works: Tchaikovsky: The Maid of Orleans (117-18), The Queen of Spades (129)

Sources: Anonymous: Les belles amourettes (117-18); André Grétry: Richard Coeur-de-lion (129); Eustache de Caurroy: Vive le Roi Henri IV (129); Osip Kozlovsky: Grom pobedy razdavaysya (129)

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Fulcher, Jane. "Speaking the Truth to Power: The Dialogic Element in Debussy's Wartime Compositions." In Debussy and His World, ed. Jane Fulcher, 203-34. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001.

One of the most striking elements in Debussy's wartime compositions, including the piano sonata En blanc et noir and the song Noël des enfants qui n'ont plus de maison, among other pieces, is his tendency to politicize his music. He wrote during a time in which the French government had great control over cultural products, and his musical language reflects this. Accompanying this polemic are notable instances of borrowing in En blanc et noir and Noël des enfants. Debussy dedicated the second movement of En blanc et noir, "Lent et sombre," to his friend Lt. Jacques Charlot, who was killed in World War I. In order to create a solemn character, Debussy used nonfunctional and static harmonies, evoking a "funeral drone." In doing so, he stylistically alluded to the Renaissance tombeau, a piece to mourn the dead, often used by Clément Janequin. Further, he used Luther's hymn Ein feste Burg within a discordant setting, deliberately removing it of its triumphal qualities. In Noël des enfants, Debussy also used stylistic allusion, in this case to Schubert, by recalling the "menacing" and "ironic" character of Erlkönig. He evoked the spirit of Schubert's song by using a child as the subject of the song and by composing a fast-paced, vigorous accompaniment. In addition, Debussy employed structural modeling by basing the song on a Lied. His instances of borrowing serve a larger role within the political framework of the French republic.

Works: Debussy: En blanc et noir (216-20); Noël des enfants qui n'ont plus de maison (220).

Sources: Luther: Ein feste Burg (218-19); Schubert: Erlkönig (220).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Katie Lundeen

[+] Fuller, P. Brooks, and Jesse Abdenour. “It’s Bigger Than Hip-Hop: Sampling and the Emergence of the Market Enhancement Model in Fair Use Case Law.” Journalism &Mass Communication Quarterly 96 (June 2019): 598-622.

The legality of sampling in hip-hop and other musical genres has been understood through two models of copyright law: the “pure market substitute” model and the “market enhancement” model, which better serves the goal of copyright law. Sampling case law in US federal courts hinges on the applicability of fair use, the right to use copyrighted material without permission, which in turn is decided primarily by looking at market harm and transformative use. In hip-hop, the cultural importance of sampling as signifying is at odds with copyright law and the system of licensing, both of which favor copyright holders. Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music (1994) applied a transformative use test to rap group 2 Live Crew’s parody of Roy Orbison’s Oh, Pretty Woman and found it to be fair use. Since then, some courts have used the pure market substitute model, ruling that fragments of sound recordings are protectable derivative elements. Other cases have taken a broader view on fair use, ruling that audiences for different musical genres (hip-hop and jazz in the case of Abilene Music v. Sony Music Entertainment, 2003) are distinct enough that market harm is mitigated. The market enhancement model shifts away from this framework. Some courts have ruled that sampling can enhance the marketability of the original work by exposing it to a new audience. A broader adoption of the market enhancement model would relax strict copyright laws for musicians and other media producers who frequently borrow material. Potential drawbacks of expanded fair use include misuse by large corporations at the expense of artists and minimizing an artist’s ability to claim moral harm. Despite these imperfections, the market enhancement model would help achieve a legal balance between expressive freedom and commercial incentives.

Works: 2 Live Crew: Pretty Woman (600-601); Public Enemy: Fight the Power (602); LMFAO: Party Rock Anthem (609, 612); Ghostface Killah, Raekwon the Chef, and the Alchemist: The Forest (610).

Sources: Roy Orbison: Oh, Pretty Woman (600-601); Rick Ross: Hustlin’ (609, 612); Bob Thiele (as George Douglas) and George David Weiss (songwriters), Louis Armstrong (performer): What a Wonderful World (610).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Funk-Hennings, Erika. "Zimmermanns Philosophie der Zeit--dargestellt an Ausschnitten der Oper Die Soldaten." Musik und Bildung 10 (October 1978): 644-52.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Gabbard, Krin. "The Quoter and His Culture." In Jazz in Mind: Essays on the History and Meanings of Jazz, ed. Reginald T. Bruckner and Steven Weiland, 92-111. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1991.

Jazz today can be considered part of the avant garde movement of the early twentieth century. One of the common characteristics of the avant garde is pastiche, a characteristic jazz shares, particularly in improvisatory virtuosic solos. The purpose of such pastiche is to call into question the distinction between high and low art. Soloists such as James Moody, Lester Young, and Louis Armstrong regularly quoted other works from both the classical tradition and the popular tradition. Juxtaposing a jazz melody with a quotation from the classical tradition provides irony for the listener, who will understand at least that the quotation comes from an entirely different genre of music. A list of several examples is included.

Works: James Moody, Body and Soul (92, 104); Louis Armstrong, Ain't Misbehavin' (93); more in footnotes.

Sources: Percy Grainger, Country Garden; George Gershwin, Rhapsody in Blue.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa

[+] Gabbard, Krin. Jammin' at the Margins: Jazz and the American Cinema. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Jazz in Hollywood films creates a context for the formation of a stylized representation of African-American culture, beginning with The Jazz Singer (1927). American myths regarding white ethnics and African-American sexuality are assimilated through the borrowing of African-American music, specifically jazz, as used in director Alan Crossland's The Jazz Singer (1927) and Paul Whiteman's King of Jazz (1930), and later in Alfred E. Green's The Jolson Story (1946) and Luis Valdez's La Bamba (1987). Spike Lee's Mo' Better Blues portrays the larger tradition in which the trumpet is a crucial signifier of masculinity, by borrowing from the music of Louis Armstrong and Miles Davis. In contemporary films, jazz has been configured to signify elegance and affluence as an art form through borrowings from Ellington, Armstrong, Nat King Cole, and Carmichael.

Works: Charles Wolcott: score to Blackboard Jungle (9); Taj Mahal: score to Zebrahead (101); Alfred Newman: score to No Way Out (102); Hugo Friedhofer, Edward B. Powell, and Marvin Hatley: score to Topper (256); Franz Waxman and William Lava: score to To Have and Have Not (261).

Sources: Max C. Freedman and Jimmy DeKnight: Rock Around the Clock (9); John Coltrane: Say It Over and Over Again (102); Duke Ellington: In a Sentimental Mood,Sophisticated Lady (102); Nat King Cole: When I Fall in Love (247); Hoagy Carmichael: Old Man Moon (256), I Am Blue (261).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kathleen Widden

[+] Gail, Dorothea. Charles E. Ives' Fourth Symphony: Quellen--Analyse--Deutung. 3 vols. Hofheim: Wolke, 2009.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Garber, Michael G. “Eepha-Soffa-Dill and Eephing: Found in Ragtime, Jazz, and Country Music, from Broadway to a Texas Plantation.” American Music 35 (Fall 2017): 343-74.

Despite the prevalence of nonsense syllable singing in a broad range of genres in music traditions around the globe, there is little in terms of aesthetic theory on the phenomenon. The eeph trope and eephing as a practice, found in several genres of American music in the early twentieth century, is one phenomenon that can help contextualize the larger practice of nonsense syllable singing. Unlike other nonsense syllables (such as fa-la-la), the phrase eepha-soffa-dill has a reported, albeit murky, origin with the blackface vaudeville duo Williamson and Stone in the 1890s. The phrase (in several spelling variations) first appeared in a 1902 recording by the Kilties’ Band of Canada, listed without a composer. It first appeared in sheet music in 1903, attributed to Harry Von Tilzer, Andrew Sterling, and Bartley Costello and dedicated to “the original Epha-A-Sof-A-Dill,” Frank Williamson. Five Tin-Pan-Alley songs published between 1903 and 1922 employ the eeph trope, demonstrating a fairly consistent lyrical and melodic convention. The phrase’s later appearance in Broadway tunes still suggests its origins with blackface vaudeville acts through its connotations of stuttering and baby-talk associated with offensive stereotypes of African Americans. Gene Greene’s recorded versions of King of the Bungaloos connect the eeph trope to a budding eephing practice, associating the eeph phrase with mouth percussion sounds. Imitations of Greene’s eephing style appear in several disparate recordings through the 1930s as the eephing practice diffuses into other musical genres. Jimmy Riddle’s 1963 country hit Little Eefin Annie demonstrates how Greene’s eephing practice is absorbed by country music’s nonsense syllable tradition. Riddle’s version of eephing drops the eeph phrase and attaches Greene’s eephing mouth percussion to similar syllables. Although the eephing tradition is similar to the scatting tradition in that they are both nonsense syllable practices, conflating the two practices diminishes the significance of both. The development of the eeph trope into an eephing tradition from the 1890s onwards provides the context for the broader development of scat singing as an approach to vocal jazz.

Works: George M. Cohan: Cohan’s Rag Babe (347-348, 350, 353, 355), The American Ragtime (349, 353); Maurice Abrahams (music), Grant Clarke and Edgar Leslie (lyrics): When the Grown Up Ladies Act Like Babies (347-349, 357-58); Cliff Friend (music) and Billy Rose (lyrics): You Tell Her, I Stutter (349, 357-58, 362); Irving Berlin (as performed by Gene Greene): From Here to Shanghai (361); Jimmy Riddle: Little Eefin Annie (360-64)

Sources: Kilties’ Band of Canada (no listed composer): Ephasafa Dill (Iffa Saffa Dill) (1901-1902) (346); Nick Brown: Iffa-Saffa-Dill (A Negro Oddity) (346); Harry Von Tilzer (music), Andrew Sterling and Bartley Costello (lyrics): Ephasafa Dill (346-47); Charles Straight (music) and Gene Greene (lyrics) (as performed by Gene Greene): King of the Bungaloos (354-357); Butter Boy (performer): Old Aunt Dinah (363); Harmonica Frank Floyd: Swamp Rock (363)

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Gardner, Kara Anne. "Edward MacDowell, Antimodernism, and 'Playing Indian' in the Indian Suite." The Musical Quarterly 87 (Fall 2004): 370-422.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Garner, Ken. “‘Would You Like to Hear Some Music?’: Music In-and-Out-of-Control in the Films of Quentin Tarantino.” In Film Music: Critical Approaches, ed. K. J. Donnelly, 188-205. New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group, 2001.

There are three primary categories in which Tarantino uses pre-existing music in his films: main themes and underscoring, incidental diegetic music, and diegetic music chosen by characters. While it is tempting to view Tarantino’s use of dated music in his credit themes as distorting filmic conventions of soundtrack and temporal location or as a postmodern smirk, in reality it can function as an authentication of characters’ identity, as audio-visual counterpoint, and as an authorial statement on the film’s tone and mood. Each of Quentin Tarantino’s major films, Reservoir Dogs,Pulp Fiction, and Jackie Brown, features a scene in which a character selects and plays a piece of music. Such scenes differ from other uses of diegetic music in that they foreground the process of music selection, thus granting characters power to control the score and allowing the selection to represent and illustrate characters or situations. Young audiences of Tarantino’s films will empathize with these foregrounded musical situations, witnessing how an act similar to their own private, mood-related engagement with music is projected onto other characters. This empathy also has an impact on record sales: if youth are able recognize the act of private, mood-boosting engagement with music, they are also likely to enjoy the music itself.

Works: Quentin Tarantino (director): soundtrack to Jackie Brown (188-93, 198-201), soundtrack to Reservoir Dogs (188, 191, 193-96, 202), soundtrack to Pulp Fiction (188, 191, 196-201).

Sources: The Delfonics: Didn’t I (Blow Your Mind This Time) (189-91); Dusty Springfield: Son of a Preacher Man (191, 200); Urge Overkill: Girl, You’ll Be a Woman Soon (191, 200-201); Stealers Wheel: Stuck in the Middle with You (191, 202); Bobby Womack: Across 110th Street (192-93); George Baker Selection: Little Green Bag (193-96); Dick Dale: Misirlou (196-97); Roy Ayers: soundtrack to Coffy (198-99).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kate Altizer

[+] Garnett, Liz. "Cool Charts or Barbertrash?: Barbershop Harmony's Flexible Concept of the Musical Work." Twentieth-Century Music 2 (September 2005): 245-63.

The field of modern competitive barbershop singing is in a state of crisis over falling membership and popularity, and repertoire is one variable being considered as a means of increasing the appeal of barbershop music. This particular genre tends to blur the distinctions between composer, arranger, and performer. As a result, the product of that network, the musical work, acquires an equally fluid identity. A question of ownership arises: what is "the work" and to whom does it belong? Arrangements vary in their fidelity to an original published tune, and a certain amount of improvisation or rearranging is expected in barbershop, at the very least in the form of tags or codas at the end of a chart.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Garrett, Charles Hiroshi. “Charles Ives’s Four Ragtime Dances and ‘True American Music.’” In Struggling to Define a Nation: American Music and the Twentieth Century, 17-47. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008.

Ragtime took the United States by storm in the early twentieth century, and Charles Ives incorporated ragtime elements into numerous works. Nevertheless, a closer examination of musical and biographical evidence reveals the composer’s ambivalent and even contradictory attitude towards the genre. On the one hand, Ives demonstrates an enthusiasm for ragtime through his bold embrace of a genre associated with African Americans in a racially divided era. On the other hand, this positive engagement is at odds with the tone of his writings, which often dismissed ragtime as inferior to art music and Protestant hymns. The disparity can be explained by considering the popularity of ragtime during Ives’s youth, how he reworked his early ragtime-based pieces later in life, and the significant time lapse that often occurred between composing a piece and writing about it. Four Ragtime Dances also reflects this ambivalence, and the work can be interpreted either as a statement of progressive inclusivity or of racial inequality. This diversity of hearings is possible because Four Ragtime Dances engages with many types of musical friction—sacred and secular, classical and popular, and racial—and in this regard the work reflects the inherent “messy quality” of Ives’s music in general.

Works: Ives: Four Ragtime Dances (24-46), Central Park in the Dark (46-47).

Sources: George Minor: Bringing in the Sheaves (26, 31); Edward Rimbault: Happy Day (26); Lewis Hartsough: I Hear Thy Welcome Voice (26, 31); Joseph E. Howard and Ida Emerson: Hello! Ma Baby (46-47).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew G. Leone, Daniel Rogers, David G. Rugger

[+] Gaunt, Kyra. “The Veneration of James Brown and George Clinton in Hip Hop Music: Is it Live! Or is it Re-memory?” In Popular Music: Style and Identity, 117-22. Montreal: Centre for Research on Canadian Cultural Industries and Institutions, 1995.

Hip-hop’s joining together of samples to create a sonic whole is not done to express a “postmodern” stance mocking the linearity and rationality of modernism, but is done to honor black funk musicians of the past, especially James Brown and George Clinton. “Live” in black culture can mean “excellence,” and in recordings connotes a live-performance aesthetic which is contrary to the polished sound of the recording industry. Brown and Clinton sought to create this live aesthetic in their recordings through crowd noise and other signifiers of live performance. Comparing James Brown’s Make It Funky to Public Enemy and producer Hank Shocklee’s Fight the Power (which samples the Brown track) shows that the funk ideals of the 1970s are utilized in hip-hop. Thus, “live” in hip-hop is not in a binary with recorded sound, but is an act of “re-memory,” or a piecing together of a history by “remembering” critical pieces of the past.

Works: Eric B &Rakim: I Know You Got Soul (117); Janet Jackson: That’s the Way Love Goes (118); Public Enemy: Fight the Power (119-20).

Sources: James Brown: Papa Don’t Take No Mess (118), Make It Funky (119).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Geiger, Friedrich. “American tunes? Klassik-Entlehnungen in der Popmusik.” Hamburger Jahrbuch für Musikwissenschaft 27 (2011): 69-84.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

[+] Gendron, Bernard. "Jamming at Le Boeuf: Jazz and the Paris Avant-Garde." Discourse 12 (1989-90): 3-27.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Gerasimowa-Piersidskaja, Nina. "Parodija v russko-ukrainskoj muzyke XVIII veka i ee svjazi a intermedijnym teatrom [Parody in Russo-Ukrainian Music of the 18th Century and its Connection with the Theatrical Intermedio]." In Musica antiqua. Acta scientifica, V, ed. Ignacego Paderewskiego, 575-[000]. Bydgoszcz: Filharmonia Pomorska im., 1978.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Gerlach, Hannelore. "Die Analyse. Günter Kochan: Mendelssohn-Variationen für Klavier und Orchester." Musik und Gesellschaft 24 (1974): 86-90.

Written for the one-hundred-and-twenty-fifth anniversary of Mendelssohn's death in 1972, Kochan's Mendelssohn-Variationen for Piano and Orchestra constitutes a musical homage on two different levels. It takes as its theme that of Mendelssohn's Variations Serieuses, which itself pays homage to Bach in its use of the B-A-C-H motive. Kochan acknowledges his 'second generation' homage by using a quotation from an aria in Bach's St. Matthew Passion (a work that Mendelssohn championed) as a 'hidden theme' that is developed alongside, and combined with the main theme throughout the course of the piece.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: J. Sterling Lambert

[+] Gershwin, George. "Rhapsody in Catfish Row: Mr. Gershwin Tells the Origin and Scheme for His Music in That New Folk Opera Called Porgy and Bess." New York Times 85 (20 October 1935): X-1-2.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Gershwin, George. "The Relation of Jazz to American Music." In American Composers on American Music, ed. Henry Cowell, 186-87. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 1933; reprint, New York: Frederick Ungar, 1962.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Gibbens, John Jeffrey. "Debussy's Impact on Ives: An Assessment." D.M.A. dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1985.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Gibbons, William. "'Yankee Doodle' and Nationalism, 1780-1920." American Music 26 (Summer 2008): 246-74.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Gibbons, William. “Blip, Bloop, Bach?: Some Uses of Classical Music on the Nintendo Entertainment System.” Music and the Moving Image 2 (Spring 2009): 40-52.

Borrowing classical music in Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) games can accomplish several purposes. Although much early video game music was newly composed, such as now classics Legend of Zelda and Super Mario Bros., it was not the only option available to video game composers. In the case of Captain Comic, the classical music functions mostly as a backdrop. Captain Comic’s entire soundtrack is made of classical music, but ultimately fails as a soundtrack because the classical pieces have little to no connection to the on-screen action. Pirates!, on the other hand, makes use of the cultural codes of Baroque music as a way of setting a historical time period as well as differentiating between different classes of characters. In Pirates!, the player can choose the location and time period; though the Baroque music in the soundtrack (Handel’s Water Music and Bach’s Toccata and Fugue in D minor) are outside of all optional time periods, they still lend the game a historical frame and a certain amount of “seriousness.” These pieces associated with upper-class characters contrast with newly composed nationalistic styles in popular Baroque idioms for the taverns in different cities. Finally, all iterations of Tetris use Russian music, either classical borrowings, folktunes, or newly composed songs to tie the game back to its Russian origins.

Works: Brøderbund (manufacturer): Battle of Olympus (40, 45); Color Dreams (manufacturer): Captain Comic (41-43, 49); Ultra Games (manufacturer): Pirates! (41, 43-45, 49); Nintendo (manufacturer): Tetris (41, 46-49); Tengen (manufacturer): Tetris (46-49).

Sources: Johann Sebastian Bach: Toccata and Fugue in D Minor BWV 565 (40-42, 45); Handel: Suite in D Minor (41); Mozart: Piano Sonata in A Major, K. 331 (41); Rimsky-Korsakov: “Flight of the Bumblebee” from The Tale of Tsar Saltan (41-42); Johann Strauss: The Blue Danube, Op. 314 (41); Schubert: Marche Militaire, Op. 55, No. 1 (41); Wilhelm Friedemann Bach: Allegro non troppo, Fk. 203 (41); Handel: Water Music, Suite No. 1 in F (43-45); Johann Sebastian Bach: Two-Part Invention in G major (44); Tchaikovsky: The Nutcracker (46, 49); Ivan Larionov: Kalinka (46); Anonymous: Korobeiniki (46).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Emily Baumgart

[+] Gilbert, Henry F. "Folk-Music in Art-Music--A Discussion and a Theory." The Musical Quarterly 3 (October 1917): 577-601.

Folk songs most accurately reflect the spirit of a people, and art music is an extension of the spirit of the folk song. Three ways composers use folk songs are: "(1) verbatim, as a musical germ from which to develop a composition; (2) verbatim, but having no particular relation to the musical structure; (3) as suggestion--toward the composition of folk-like themes expressive of the folk spirit."

Works: Haydn: Symphony in D Major (583); Weber: Der Freischütz (584); Schumann: Rheinweinlied (585); Brahms: Academische Festoverture (585); Grieg: Humoreske Op. 6, No. 2 (586), No. 1 of Aus dem Volksleben Op. 19 (586), Ballade Op. 24 (586), Improvisata Op. 29 (586), Norwegian Dances Op. 35 (586); Glinka: Life to the Czar (587); Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 2 (587), String Quartet Op. 11 (587), Piano Concerto in B flat Minor, Op. 23 (587), Marche Slav (587); Borodin: Prince Igor (588), Steppenskizze (588); Rimsky-Korsakov: Fantasie, Op. 6 (589), La Pskovitaine (589), Antar (589), Sinfonietta, Op. 31 (589), La Grand Paque Russe (589); Stravinsky: Firebird (589), Petrouchka (589); Smetana: Die Brandenburger in Böhmen (589), Das Geheimniss (589), Aus meinem Leben (590), Tábor (590), Aus Böhmens Flur und Hain (590); Dvořák: Slavonic Dances (590), Hussitska Overture (590); Liszt: Hungarian Rhapsodies (590), Mazeppa (590), The Battle of the Huns (590), Hungarian Coronation Mass (590), St. Elizabeth (590); Pedrell: Los Pirineos (591); Bizet: L'arlesienne (592).

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1900s

Contributed by: Bradley Jon Tucker

[+] Gilliam, Bryan. "Strauss's Preliminary Opera Sketches: Thematic Fragments and Symphonic Continuity." 19th-Century Music 9 (Spring 1986): 176-88.

Strauss tended to compose his operas in four stages: (1) musically annotated libretto, (2) sketchbook, (3) piano-vocal score, and (4) orchestral score. Strauss kept a sketch book with him at all times, working and reworking motives into new forms. Some motives can be traced through a series of different works.

Works: R. Strauss: Sinfonia Domestica (181), Der Rosenkavalier (181), Don Quixote (182), Elektra (182).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Fredrick Tarrant

[+] Gillmor, Alan M. "Musico-poetic Form in Satie's 'Humoristic' Piano Suites (1913-14)." Canadian University Music Review, no. 8 (1987): 1-44.

Stylistic analysis of Satie's music remains underdeveloped, due at least in part to the ineffectiveness of traditional analytical approaches. Any analysis of Satie's music, like that of Debussy or Ives, must take into account the "juxtaposition of multiple layers of aesthetic meaning," including the literary and the pictorial. The piano suites composed in 1913-14 provide a focus for studying Satie's creative ideal and the connection (as in the case of Ives) of that ideal with a particular sonic environment. Satie's use of sounds and tunes from his own world brings meaning to the new piece. Satie's use of existing material not only serves expressive purposes, but also provides a creative stimulus. Appended is a list of "Quoted Tunes in Satie's 'Humoristic' Piano Suites."

Works: Satie: Heures séculaires et instantanées (3), Descriptions automatiques (4), Vieux sequins et vieilles cuirasses (6), Embryons desséchés (17), Croquis et agaceries d'un gros bonhomme en bois (23), Chapitres tournés en tous sens (25), Sports et divertissements (30).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Susan Richardson

[+] Gimbel, Allen. "Elgar's Prize Song: Quotation and Allusion in the Second Symphony." 19th-Century Music 12 (Spring 1989): 231-40.

The distinction between quotation and allusion has long been problematic. Four conditions must be met for a quotation: (1) The pitch pattern corresponds to a preexisting pattern in the musical literature (rhythm does not have to reflect this correspondence); (2) the composer sets this pattern in relief; (3) it can be documented that the composer was familiar with the work or passage in question; and (4) the extramusical context of the composer's work is reflected by that of the quoted work. These four conditions may be applied to Elgar's Second Symphony, in which Wagner's "Preislied" from Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg is either quoted or alluded to. The correspondence of Wagner and Elgar is literal and thus condition 1 is met. In fulfillment of condition 2, Elgar treats the motive in question extensively and separately from the two other principal ones. It can be documented that the composer was familiar with the work or passage in question, thus condition 3 is met. Finally, a quotation of the "Preislied" in the Second Symphony could have three possible extramusical meanings, as a symbol of artistic freedom, as "an homage to two departed Wagnerians," and as a love letter to Mrs. Stuart-Wortley, "a brilliant and deeply sympathetic woman with a fine understanding of artists." Since all four requirements are met, we have to speak of quotation in Elgar's Second Symphony.

Works: Elgar: Second Symphony (231, 237-40); "Enigma" Variations (232-33).

Sources: Wagner: "Preislied" from Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (231, 233-40); Mendelssohn: Calm Sea and Prosperous Voyage (232); Beethoven: Symphony No. 9 in D Minor (232-33).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Gingerich, Lora Louise. "A Technique for Melodic Motivic Analysis in the Music of Charles Ives." Music Theory Spectrum 8 (1986): 75-93.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Gingerich, Lora Louise. "Processes of Motivic Transformation in the Keyboard and Chamber Music of Charles E. Ives." Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University, 1983.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Gioia, Ted. “Freedom and Fusion.” In The History of Jazz, 2nd ed., 309-343. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Jazz has always been a music of mixture that borrows from other traditions, encompassing both free and fusion styles. Examples of musical borrowing and reworking are more overt in jazz fusion which draws on references from rock, popular, ethnic, and classical traditions, creating hybrid jazz styles that appealed to wider audiences. Miles Davis played an important role in propagating jazz fusion with his commercially successful album Bitches Brew (1970), which combined rock and jazz idioms. Davis continued the fusion aesthetic in his work for the film Jack Johnson, in which his producer producer Teo Macero spliced bits from Davis’s performance of Shh/Peaceful and inserted them into Davis’s Yesternow for the score to achieve a new and disjunct sound. Sampling proved a commercially viable technique for other groups as well, including A Tribe Called Quest and Us3. However, these bands were more parasitical than fusion (unlike Miles Davis) because they stole catchy licks and grooves from older jazz styles to use as raw material, rather than sources of style or new ideas.

Works: Miles Davis: Yesternow (327); Jaco Pastorius (performer): Donna Lee (330), God Bless the Child (332); A Tribe Called Quest: The Low End Theory (334); Bill Laswell: Panthalassa: The Music of Miles Davis 1969-1974 (335).

Sources: Miles Davis: Shh/Peaceful (327); Charlie Parker: Donna Lee (330); Billie Holiday and Arthur Herzog, Jr.: God Bless the Child (332).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Sarah Kirkman

[+] Givan, Ben. “Django Reinhardt’s I’ll See You in My Dreams.Annual Review of Jazz Studies 12 (2002): 41-62.

A jazz performer’s improvisation on a given model can provide insight into that performer’s understanding of the model’s essential elements. What the performer preserves, avoids, and manipulates from the model can indicate not only that performer’s competency, but also their inventiveness. Django Reinhardt’s 1939 recording of Isham Jones’s I’ll See You in My Dreams is one such example. In the context of a rhythmically repetitive structure, Reinhardt creates variety by alternatively highlighting and obscuring phrase boundaries. In cases of the former, Reinhardt includes chromatic turns at midpoints and endings of choruses. In cases of the latter, Reinhardt repeats rhythmic motives across phrases. Additionally, Reinhardt’s use of paraphrase and thematic improvisation demonstrates a deep understanding of the melody from Jones’s model. When paraphrasing, Reinhardt preserves between one and six measures of the melody; longer paraphrases, however, are rare. In thematic improvisations, Reinhardt highlights an important large-scale melodic connection in one of two ways. In the first, he foregrounds the connection as a short melody and plays it repeatedly; in the second, he increases the technical virtuosity of his improvisation while maintaining the melodic outline of the model.

Works: Isham Jones (composer) and Django Reinhardt (performer): I’ll See You in My Dreams (41-58).

Sources: Isham Jones: I’ll See You in My Dreams (41-42).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Givan, Benjamin. “How Mimi Perrin Translated Jazz Instrumentals into French Song.” American Music 34 (Spring 2016): 87-109.

French literary translator Mimi Perrin’s vocalese songs for her vocal jazz group, Les Double Six, offer a unique perspective on the interrelationships between music, language, and culture through her adoption of literary translation aesthetics in a musical practice. Vocalese is a vocal jazz practice in which a singer sets lyrics to an instrumental solo and transforms it into a song. While this practice was not invented by Perrin, what sets her versions apart is the careful way she writes her lyrics so that the vocal sounds produced by the singers mimic the instrumental sounds of the source material. Perrin composed her vocalese by first translating instrumental sounds into phonemes: saxophone attacks become labiodental fricatives, brass attacks become alveolar plosives, and so on. The semantic meaning of the text is secondary to the process of translating instrumental sounds into French phonology. In translation terms, what Perrin does is a kind of homophonic intersemiotic translation, approximating the sounds of a non-linguistic text but not necessarily its meaning. This contrasts with contemporary American vocalese composer Jon Hendricks, who begins with a semantic connection to the instrumental pieces he sets rather than a phonemic connection. To non-French-speakers, Perrin’s translations provide a sonic experience somewhere in between hearing (but not understanding) a French text and hearing nonsense scat syllables. The aesthetics of literary translation further inform what Perrin does with her music. In order to capture the rhythmic feel of swing, Perrin modifies her French with an unusual number of elisions and monosyllabic words, even to the point of confusing some French speakers. Beyond their importance as metaphorical translations of instrumental music, Perrin’s vocalese songs exemplify the cross-cultural translation and adaptation at the heart of global jazz culture.

Works: Mimi Perrin (lyricist and arranger): Blues in Hoss’ Flat (93), Doodlin’ (94), La complainte du bagnard (94-95), Les quatre extra-terrestres (96-97), A Night in Tunisia (99) Un tour au bois (99-100); Jon Hendricks (lyricist and arranger): Doodlin’ (93), Moanin’ (95); Four Brothers (97)

Sources: Count Basie Orchestra: Blues in Hoss’ Flat (93); Horace Silver: Doodlin’ (93); Bobby Timmons: Moanin’ (94-95); Jimmy Giuffre: Four Brothers (96-97); Dizzy Gillespie: A Night in Tunisia (99); Quincy Jones: Walkin’ (99-100)

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Givan, Benjamin. “The South-Grappelli Recordings of the Bach Double Violin Concerto.Popular Music and Society 29 (2006): 335-57.

The South-Grappelli recordings of Bach's Double Violin Concerto with Django Reinhardt in 1937 were, in addition to an aesthetically adventurous experiment, a socio-political statement based on the diverse musical and cultural backgrounds of the performers. The recordings were organized by Charles Delaunay, who convinced the reluctant violinists to record Bach's score without rehearsal. The first recording corresponds highly to the score: only a handful of ornamentations decorate the violinists' notes, and Grappelli omits some of his part. The second recording involves a much freer interpretation of the Bach original by both violinists, and Reinhardt's accompaniment is highly altered. In both cases, most of Bach's music was omitted so that the recordings could fit on a 78 rpm disc.

Works: Stéphane Grappelli and Eddie South: Interprétation Swing du Première Mouvement du Concerto en Re Mineur de Jean-Sébastien Bach (336-40, 351-54), Improvisation sur le Première Mouvement du Concerto en Re Mineur de Jean-Sébastien Bach (336-40, 351-54).

Sources: Johann Sebastian Bach: Concerto for Two Violins in D minor, BWV 1043 (335-54).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Goldberg, Isaac. "What's Jewish in Gershwin's Music." B'nai B'rith Magazine 50 (April 1936): 226-27, 247.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Gooding, David. "A Study of the Quotation Process in the Songs for Voice and Piano of Charles Edward Ives." M.A. thesis, Western Reserve University, 1963.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Goodwin, Andrew. "Sample and Hold: Pop Music in the Digital Age of Reproduction." In On Record: Rock, Pop, and the Written Word, ed. Simon Frith and Andrew Goodwin, 258-273. New York: Pantheon Books, 1990.

Sampling techniques in popular music give credence to Walter Benjamin's theory of the "age of reproduction." Recent trends in popular music have seen the resurrection of older popular music through two means: new digital reproductions of otherwise unavailable records; and the integration of samples from older music into new music. There are so many references in today's pop music that we now have references to references of original sources. Authorship and authenticity are problematized in the process. Some popular artists claim that samples and references preserve a popular music archive, but by reproducing these sounds digitally, the human element of original production is lost.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa

[+] Gorbman, Claudia. "Ears Wide Open: Kubrick's Music." In Changing Tunes: The Use of Pre-existing Music in Film, ed. Phil Powrie and Robynn Stilwell, 3-18. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.

Music in film plays a key role in depicting point of view. Pre-existing songs may be used to provide ironic commentary, as music may be planted to specifically complement the action onscreen. Stanley Kubrick's Eyes Wide Shut shows Kubrick's increasingly sophisticated use of pre-existing music as he skillfully combines music and image. Four kinds of music are used in this film: a Shostakovich waltz, a Ligeti piano suite, a newly composed score, and pre-existing songs. The Ligeti is used to underscore objective events, while the newly composed score by Jocelyne Pook underscores jealous fantasies. Music goes beyond signifying moods and emotions in Eyes Wide Shut, also pointing out Kubrick's narrational agency.

Works: Stanley Kubrick (director): Sound track to Eyes Wide Shut.

Sources: Dmitri Shostakovich: Jazz Suite, Waltz No. 2 (7-9); György Ligeti: Musica Ricercata (9-13); Jimmy McHugh and Dorothy Fields: I'm in the Mood for Love (16); Isham Jones and Gus Kahn: It Had to Be You (16); Wayne Shanklin: Chanson d'Amour (16); Victor Young and Edward Heyman: When I Fall In Love (16); Harry Warren and Al Dubin: I Only Have Eyes for You (16); Mozart: Requiem (17); Liszt: Nuages gris.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Karen Anton Stafford

[+] Gorbman, Claudia. Unheard Melodies: Narrative Film Music. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.

Musical borrowing is discussed within the context of a theoretical discourse on film music, particularly in part I (chapters 1-5). Early and contemporary film music has drawn on several 19th-century genres, including English musical theater (for melodrama) and Wagnerian opera (for leitmotif). Two different yet complementary theories can be used to consider the affective roles of music in film: the semiotic concept of ancrage, in which music anchors the instability of visual signification, and the psychoanalytic theory of suture, which explains the ability of film music to create subjectivity in spectators. The late-19th-century musical aesthetic in the film scores of Max Steiner proves particularly significant in the effect his scores have had on subsequent film composers.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: David Oliver

[+] Gottlieb, Jack. "Symbols of Faith in the Music of Leonard Bernstein." The Musical Quarterly 66 (April 1980): 287-95.

Bernstein has been concerned with theological meaning in his symphonic works. The acceptance of faith in God is consistently associated with a specific motive (a descending fourth followed by the further descent of a whole- or half-step). This motive invariably appears in the closing and/or opening moments of a work. It appears in Symphony No. 1 (Jeremiah), Symphony No. 2 (The Age of Anxiety), the "Spring Song" from The Lark, Symphony No. 3 (Kaddish), Chichester Psalms, Mass, and Dybbuk. The use of this particular motive may be related to Bernstein's youth since it is common in the liturgy of the High Holy Day music and is also present (as a final cadence) in the Three Festivals of Sukkoth, Passover, and Shavuot. The motive then, "could seep into and take hold of the impressionable mind of a growing musician." It is probably an unconscious association on the part of Bernstein.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Grabow, Martin. “Fusion von Musik und Sprache: Pierre Boulez’ Improvisation I sur Mallarmé.” In Musiktheorie zwischen Historie und Systematik, ed. Ludwig Holtmeier, Michael Polth, and Felix Diergarten, 91-101. Augsburg: Wißner-Verlag, 2004.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Grant, Barry. "Purple Passages or Fiestas in Blue?: Notes Toward an Aesthetic of Vocalese." In Representing Jazz, ed. Krin Gabbard, 285-303. Durham: Duke University Press, 1995.

Vocalese, as referred to in jazz, is the name for a vocal composition created by setting newly composed lyrics to music taken from existing recordings of jazz instrumental music, including the improvised solos. The resulting compositions often require a high degree of vocal virtuosity because the singer is performing music that is not idiomatic for the voice. This practice, which began in the early 1950s and remains popular today, has been unjustly marginalized by most jazz critics, mainly because it does not involve improvisation. Some examples of vocalese are Eddie Jefferson's 1952 Moody's Mood for Love, based on James Moody's I'm in the Mood for Love, Jefferson's version of Charlie Parker's Now's the Time, Jefferson's version of Dizzy Gillespie's Night in Tunisia, and John Hendrick's version of Gillespie's Night in Tunisia.

Works: Jefferson: Moody's Mood for Love (292-94).

Sources: Moody: I'm In the Mood for Love (292-94); Parker: Now's the Time (291); Gillespie: Night in Tunisia (292-93).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Scott Grieb

[+] Grant, Parks. "Bruckner and Mahler--The Fundamental Dissimilarity of Their Styles." The Music Review 32 (February 1971): 36-55.

Grant argues that Bruckner and Mahler are dissimilar in many respects, which he enumerates, and suggests that the linking of Mahler with Richard Strauss might be more meaningful. Their influence was reciprocal. Part of the last song in Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen may be seen as the ancestor of the final duet in Der Rosenkavalier, and the off-stage fanfares in the outer movements of Mahler's First Symphony may have suggested the off-stage fanfares in Ein Heldenleben. Strauss also influenced Mahler, with apparent connections between Ein Heldenleben and the last movement of Mahler's Eighth Symphony; the neuroticism of Salome and parts of Das Lied von der Erde and the Ninth Symphony; and "wandering" solo violin passages in Strauss's Don Juan and Ein Heldenleben and similar solo violin passages in Mahler's Eighth Symphony.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Gratovich, Eugene. "The Sonatas for Violin and Piano by Charles Ives: A Critical Commentary and Concordance of the Printed Editions and the Autographs and Manuscripts of the Yale Ives Collection." D.M.A. diss., Boston University School of Fine and Applied Arts, 1968.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Graydon, Philip. "'Rückkehr in die Heimat': Postwar Cultural Politics and the 1924 Reworking of Beethoven's Die Ruinen von Athen by Richard Strauss and Hugo von Hofmannsthal." The Musical Quarterly 88 (Winter 2005): 630-71.

Richard Strauss and Hugo von Hofmannsthal’s 1924 “reform and modernization” of Beethoven’s Die Ruinen von Athen invokes the mythology of Beethoven and classical Greece as ideals that need to be restored in post-war German culture. Before Ruinen, Strauss and Hofmannsthal had collaborated on numerous ballet projects, blending Hofmannsthal’s philosophy of dance as regeneration and Strauss’s connection of dance with nostalgia. The collaborators’ reworked Ruinen von Athen developed as an amalgamation of Beethoven’s 1801 ballet Die Geschöpfe des Prometheus and incidental music for the play Die Ruinen von Athen, two works about the loss of art and culture. Strauss’s largest compositional contribution to the project comes in the melodrama, in which Strauss quotes Beethoven’s Third and Fifth Symphonies. The melodrama presents Beethoven as interpreted by Strauss, who emphasizes a heroic, Nietzschean interpretation of Beethoven. Strauss explored similar ideas of metaphysical longing in earlier works such as Eine Alpensinfonie, and the philosophical underpinnings of these works and Ruinen continued to be relevant throughout Strauss’s career. Despite its commercial failure, Die Ruinen von Athen represents an important aspect of Strauss’s artistic philosophy, calling for the rebirth of German culture in the spirit of Beethoven and ancient Greece.

Works: Richard Strauss and Hugo von Hofmannsthal: Die Ruinen von Athen (636-653)

Sources: Beethoven: Die Geschöpfe des Prometheus, Op. 43 (637-39), Die Ruinen von Athen, Op. 113 (637-39), Symphony No. 3 in E-Flat Major, Op. 55 (637-39, 645-53), Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67 (637-39, 645-53)

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Green, Douglass M. "Cantus Firmus Techniques in the Concertos and Operas of Alban Berg." In Alban Berg Symposion Wien 1980: Tagungsbericht; Redaktion: Rudolf Klein, ed. Franz Grasberger and Rudolf Stephan, 56-68. Vienna: Universal Edition, 1981.

Schoenberg and his circle were quite opposed to a return to past forms to compensate for the problems of composing in a new harmonic language. Yet, at least some of them desired a return back to some compositional techniques of the past; for example, Webern wished to return to a polyphonic manner of thinking. Berg is no exception, and he demonstrates this in Wozzeck, the Kammerkonzert,Lulu, and the Violin Concerto. In each of these compositions, Berg employs cantus firmus technique, specifically chorale variations. The primary motivator in the treatment of the cantus firmus stems from his desire to produce dramatic action, even in the non-operatic works, and to provide meaning for the texts uttered by the characters in his operatic compositions. Berg's treatment of the chorale variations includes fugato, diminution, canon, and other various types of counterpoint. Furthermore, in the passages examined here, Berg creates the accompanying voices from the cantus firmus, allowing for greater unity in a contrapuntal context.

Works: Berg: Wozzeck (57-58), Kammerkonzert (58-59), Lulu (59-62), Violin Concerto (62-65).

Sources: Bach: Es ist genug (63).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Christopher Holmes

[+] Greene, Paul D. “Mixed Messages: Unsettled Cosmopolitanisms in Nepali Pop.” Popular Music 20 (May 2001): 169-87.

Nepalese “mix music” utilizes the latest technologies to produce music which borrows sound bites and sonic styles from both foreign popular music and indigenous music. These “mixes” rapidly juxtapose musical styles without an organizing form, and seek to celebrate sonic multiplicity instead of idiomatic unity. Yet despite the sonic similarity or sameness of the new work and its source materials, the meaning of the new music becomes different from that of the sources’ cultural and contextual meanings. These differences in meaning are illuminated through ethnographic methods, as can be seen in Nepalese heavy metal and in Nepalese mixes.

Works: Mongolian Hearts: Unbho Unbho (178-79); Brazesh Khanal: Deusee rey extended mix (180-82).

Sources: Anonymous: Deusee rey (180).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Greenwald, Helen M. "Verdi's Patriarch and Puccini's Matriarch: Through the Looking-Glass and What Puccini Found There." 19th-Century Music 17 (Spring 1994): 220-36.

Puccini's musical borrowing from Verdi can be best understood through an analogy to the "mirror image" from Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There. The mirror image of Verdi's Don Carlos (1867, 1884) appears in Puccini's one-act opera Suor Angelica (1918), on the levels of characterization, declamation, timbre, tonality, and dramatic syntax. A comparison between the scenes of La Zia Principessa and Angelica in Suor Angelica and Philip and the Grand Inquisitor in Don Carlos illuminates Puccini's imitation, modeling, and recomposition techniques. Puccini's female-dominant characterization contrasts to Verdi's more "masculine" cast. Puccini used Verdi as a model for the dramatic relationship between the characters, atmosphere, action, particular arrangement of scenery, monologue, dark vocal sonorities, and tonal development. The greatest similarities are in the middle sections of the two scenes when the characters explore their most intimate desires both musically and dramatically. Puccini's scene can be seen as a reincarnation and a contrafactum of Verdi's. Like his contemporaries Schoenberg, Stravinsky, and Bartók, Puccini struggled with ways to "remake the past" as he experienced conflict with his own musical lineage.

Works: Puccini: Suor Angelica.

Sources: Verdi: Don Carlos.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Tong Cheng Blackburn

[+] Greenwald, Jeff. "Hip-Hop Drumming: The Rhyme May Define, but the Groove Makes You Move." Black Music Research Journal 22 (Autumn 2002): 259-71.

The importance of drums in hip-hop is often overlooked, but the drums establish the groove, emphasize the vocal style, and enhance the music beyond its vocal content. Ingrid Monson's discussion of repetition in African diasporic musics and Olly Wilson's concept of the heterogeneous sound ideal in African and African American musics can both be applied to the sonic role of drumming. Both sampling and drum machines play integral roles in hip-hop drumming, but the drum machine is more flexible than a sample because drum machines allow subtle changes to the beat without the necessity of a live performer. A Tribe Called Quest's Everything Is Fair, for example, mimics the delivery of Clyde Stubblefield's drum break in James Brown's Funky Drummer, but incorporates further syncopation and a pause before the downbeat emphasis.

Works: A Tribe Called Quest: Everything Is Fair (268-70).

Sources: James Brown: Funky Drummer (261-63, 268-70).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Gregory, Robin. "Dies Irae." Music and Letters 34 (April 1953): 113-19.

Background information on the Dies Irae sequence notes no records of the melody's origins and attributes the text to Thomas of Celano. Composers have used the chant in two ways: (1) as an integral part of their settings of the Requiem Mass in its proper context; (2) in secular works, often in a debased form to help create the appropriate diabolical or supernatural atmosphere. Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique was the first in a Romantic trend of using this theme associated with death and the last judgment in its most terrible aspects. The character of the melody's significance has changed significantly from its original connotation. Composers of the Romantic era used the melody for its associations with terror and dread, while ignoring the message of hope that is also explicit in the words. Some manifestations of the Dies Irae melody served as models for other composers to follow. One example is Liszt's Dante Symphony, which influenced Mussorgsky's Songs and Dances of Death and Tchaikovsky's Francesca da Rimini. In the twentieth century, the tradition was kept alive by Sergei Rachmaninaov, who used the Dies Irae to represent evil spirits in the Rhapsody on a Theme by Paganini.

Works: Berlioz: Requiem (135), Symphonie Fantastique (135-36); Alfred Bruneau: Requiem (135); Liszt: Totentanz (136, 137); Mussorgsky: Songs and Dances of Death (136); Saint-Saëns: Danse Macabre (137); Tchaikovsky: Francesca da Rimini (137), In Dark Hell (137), Suite in G Major (137); Rachmaninoff: Tone Poem, Op. 29 (138), Symphonic Dances, Op. 45 (138), Symphony No. 3 (138), Rhapsody on a Theme by Paganini (138); Vaughan Williams: Tudor Portraits (138).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Jean Pang, Randy Goldberg

[+] Greig, Donald. “Lo Duca and Dreyer: Baroque Music, Extant Recordings, and Aleatoric Synchrony.” Music and the Moving Image 13 (Summer 2020): 25-61.

Joseph-Marie Lo Duca’s 1952 sonorized version of Carl Theodor Dreyer’s 1928 silent film La Passion de Jeanne d’Arc has been widely criticized for its alterations to Dreyer’s negatives, but its soundtrack, constructed primarily from recordings of Baroque music, has received considerably less attention. Much of the soundtrack was taken from two commercial LPs that championed the music of Tomaso Albinoni (including the fraudulent Adagio in G Minor). Some inclusions—particularly Alessandro Scarlatti’s Passion According to St. John, the only piece to be recorded exclusively for the film—have a clear resonance with the themes of the film. Others, like the three Bach organ chorale preludes, have a less clear textual motivation. Two apparently improvised organ pieces in Baroque style are also included in the soundtrack. From these recordings, Lo Duca separated out individual movements and rearranged the material to create a nearly continuous soundtrack. Other than a recitative used in the opening scene, Scarlatti’s Passion is only heard in the final fifteen minutes of the film, although there is no consideration for the text of particular movements. Most of the music is not closely related to the action on screen, highlighting common issues with using metrically predictable Baroque music in a film context. Some scenes, however, exhibit a more overt relationship between sound and visuals. For instance, the Agnus Dei chant is used diegetically during a ceremony of Eucharist. While Lo Duca’s methodology gives up control of fine-grained integration of sound and image, it does exemplify the phenomenon of aleatoric synchronization, whereby unanticipated correlations emerge between sound and image due to the ambiguity and “stickiness” of musical signifiers. This is demonstrated by the two scenes containing Albinoni’s Adagio in G Minor (actually composed by Remo Giazotto). Despite the film not being cut to the music, there are many close correspondences between the rhythm of the edit and the rhythm of the music during the courtroom scene. In a later scene in which guards mock Jeanne, the portentous Adagio creates tonal friction with the comedic visual tone, rendering it ironic rather than sympathetic. This aleatoric synchronization challenges the notion that a film’s visuals always outweigh the music and suggests a more complex relationship between the two domains.

Works: Joseph-Marie Lo Duca (compiler): soundtrack to La Passion de Jeanne d’Arc (30-42, 43-46); Peter Weir (director): soundtrack to Gallipoli (39)

Sources: Remo Giazotto (composer), Tomaso Albinoni (attributed to): Adagio in G Minor (30-33, 36-42, 43-46); Alessandro Scarlatti: Passion According to St. John (31-32, 43-46); Bach: Ich ruf’ zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ, BWV 639 (31-32, 43-46), Nun komm’ der Heiden Heiland, BWV 659 (31-32, 43-46), O Mensch, bewein’ dein’ Sünde gross, BWV 622 (31-32, 43-46); Anonymous (plainchant): Agnus Dei XVI (31, 33, 43-46); Vivaldi: Concerto for Two Violins and Two Cellos in G Major, Op. 4, No. 1, RV 575 (33, 43-46), Concerto in G Major, RV 275 (35, 43-46); Tomaso Albinoni: Sinfonia in G Minor, Op. 2, No. 6 (43-46), Concerto à 5 in D Major, Op. 5, No. 3 (43-46), Concerto for Oboe in B-flat Major, Op. 7, No. 3 (43-46); Francesco Geminiani: Concerto Grosso in G Minor, Op. 3, No. 2 (43-46); Giuseppe Torelli: Concerto à 4 in G Major, Op. 6, No. 1 (43-46); Giovanni Battista Sammartini: Sinfonia in G Major, J-C 39 (43-46)

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Greitzen, Mary Lee. “Becoming Bach, Blaspheming Bach: Kinesthetic Knowledge and Embodied Music Theory in Ysaÿe’s ‘Obsession’ for Solo Violin.” Current Musicology, no. 86 (September 2008): 63-78.

The physical act of practicing and performing “Obsession,” the first movement of Eugène Ysaÿe’s Sonata No. 2 for Solo Violin, uncovers meanings in the work related to both an obsession with Bach’s music and a physical possession by a demonic Bach in the vein of the devil-violin trope of virtuosity. The performed obsession with Bach begins in the opening figure of Ysaÿe’s sonata, a quotation of the opening to Bach’s E-Major Partita. From there, Ysaÿe continues into a rapid passage resembling the contour of Bach’s partita but one semitone off, suggesting an attempt to wrestle the musical line away from Bach. Ysaÿe continues to quote figures from Bach’s violin music throughout the movement. The obsessive effect of these quotations relies more on the muscle memory a seasoned violinist gains with Bach’s violin music than strictly mental memory. The piece feels like Bach more than it sounds like Bach, representing a more subtle and insidious influence from the venerated composer. Performing “Obsession” also calls to mind the history of the demonically possessed virtuoso violinist, most directly through frequent quotation of the Dies irae. Ysaÿe first quotes the Dies irae in a bariolage texture, evoking the physical sensation of playing Bach’s distinctive bariolage passages without sonically evoking Bach. In combination, the aural quotations of the Dies Irae and the physical quotations of Bach’s violin music can create the experience (in performance) of being demonically possessed by Bach. The irreverent nature of the Bach quotations further evokes this “rock-star” virtuoso feeling. This kind of embodied musical analysis underlines the importance of considering the body when theorizing about music.

Works: Eugène Ysaÿe: Sonata No. 2 for Solo Violin, Op. 27 (65-76)

Sources: J. S. Bach: Partita for Violin No. 3 in E Major, BWV 1006 (66-70, 72-76), Sonata for Violin Solo No. 2 in A Minor, BWV 1003 (69-70); Attributed to Thomas of Celano: Dies irae (71-76)

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Griffiths, Dai. "Cover Versions and the Sound of Identity in Motion." In Popular Music Studies, ed. David Hesmondhalgh and Keith Negus, 51-64. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Cover versions of songs invite analysis of the effects of musical change, particularly when cover versions cross lines of gender, sexuality, race, place, class, and language. For example, Judy Collins's cover of Bob Dylan's Just Like a Woman can be read as a monologue, a lesbian version, an address to another woman, or a strict rendition of the original because Collins does not change any of the gendered pronouns from Dylan's original lyrics. Additionally, covers across race lines may either appropriate stylistic elements from the original or rewrite the cover version in a different style. International or cross-language covers often designate English as the hegemonic norm and raise questions about the use of another language as merely an exotic type of instrument. A discography of all music discussed is included.

Works: Kenneth Gamble, Leon Huff, and Cary Gilbert (songwriters), Thelma Houston (performer): Don't Leave Me This Way (52); Kenneth Gamble, Leon Huff, and Cary Gilbert (songwriters), Communards (performers): Don't Leave Me This Way (52); Bob Dylan (songwriter), Roberta Flack (performer): Just Like a Woman (52-53); Bob Dylan (songwriter), Judy Collins (performer): Just Like a Woman (53-54); John Gluck, Wally Gold, and Herb Weiner (songwriters), Bryan Ferry (performer): It's My Party (54); Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller (songwriters), Elvis Presley (performer): Hound Dog (55-56); Little Richard (songwriter), Pat Boone (performer): Long Tall Sally (55-57); Hank Williams (songwriter), Ray Charles (performer): Your Cheatin' Heart (55, 57, 59-60); Paul Simon (songwriter), Simon and Garfunkel (performers): Bridge Over Troubled Water (58-59); Paul Simon (songwriter), Aretha Franklin (performer): Bridge Over Troubled Water (59).

Sources: Kenneth Gamble, Leon Huff, and Cary Gilbert (songwriters), Harold Melvin and the Bluenotes with Teddy Pendergrass (performers): Don't Leave Me This Way (52); Bob Dylan: Just Like a Woman (52); John Gluck, Wally Gold, and Herb Weiner (songwriters), Lesley Gore (performer): It's My Party (54); Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller (songwriters), Big Mama Thornton (performer): Hound Dog (55-56); Little Richard: Long Tall Sally (55-57); Hank Williams: Your Cheatin' Heart (55, 57, 59-60); Claude Jeter (songwriter), Swan Silvertones (performers): Mary Don't You Weep (58-59).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Griffiths, Paul. "Quotation-->Integration." In Modern Music: The Avant-Garde Since 1945, 188-222. New York: George Braziller, 1981.

The move from quotation to integration can be summarized under four headings: (1) Out of the Past, (2) Out of the East, (3) Collage, and (4) Integration. The music of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was too close to composers' own time to be approached without an ironic detachment, so the much more distant past can be used without being labeled conservative. Plainsong melodies and twentieth-century techniques of variation are used by Peter Maxwell Davies to create un-fifteenth-century sounding melodies. For example, his opera Taverner uses the sequence Victimae paschali laudes, which is parodied and used as a symbol of the Resurrection. Davies uses plainsong to question his own music and methods and those of his contemporaries, in an attempt to convince himself of his work's genuineness. The East has exerted a marked influence on composers since 1950, including Messiaen, Cage, Reich, and LaMonte Young. The percussion-based ensembles in works by Boulez and Stockhausen have exotic Eastern resonances, but this influence has been seen less in works by Eastern composers themselves. Takemitsu, for example, seems to be more inspired by Debussy, Boulez, and Feldman than any particular Eastern orientation. Collages have been composed in order to test the present against the past, and vice versa, and to improve audience contact by providing a familiar subject. Cage's works of the 1960s, such as Williams Mix, Fontana Mix, Variations IV, and HPSCHD, were attempts to bring together real-world sounds and composed music (both live and on tape), often including much multi-media apparatus. Bernd Alois Zimmermann, however, often brings together musical worlds with the intent of setting the quoted material in relief, in direct contrast to the methods of Cage, whether it comes from Bach, Prokofiev, or Berg. Integration is similar in style to collage, but the two differ greatly in intent. In integration, the original material is suppressed in order to serve the new work, as is the case in the third movement of Berio's Sinfonia. The assembly of so many quotations is accomplished so well that the work may well be considered a new creation. Again unlike Cage, the work is an organized picture of disorder, rather than disorder itself. Stockhausen's Hymnen is also an integration, this time of national anthems. Recordings of various anthems are intermodulated within each other, setting up juxtapositions of the anthems. Hymnen sets up a stream of electronic sound around, between, and through the presentation of the anthems, seemingly drifting from one region to another.

Works: Messiaen: Couleurs de la cité céleste (190-91), La Transfiguration de Notre Seigneur Jésus-Christ (191, 196); Peter Maxwell Davies: Taverner (190, 192), Alma redemptoris mater (191), String Quartet (191), Blind Man's Buff (192), St. Thomas Wake (192), First Fantasia on an In nomine of John Taverner (192), Second Fantasia on an In nomine of John Taverner (192-93), Worldes Blis (192-93), Ave maris stella (193), Prolation (193), St. Michael Sonata (193), Symphony (193), A Mirror of Whitening Light (193-5); Jean-Claude Eloy: Equivalences (197), Faisceaux-diffractions (197), Kamakala (197), Shanti (197); Henze: L'autunno (197); Tristan (197); Stockhausen: Telemusik (199-200, 206-7, 210, 213); Cage: Credo in Us (200), Variations V (200-201), Fontana Mix (200), Theatre Piece (201), Variations IV (201); Cage and Lejaren Hiller: HPSCHD (201); Eric Salzman: The Nude Paper Sermon (201); Crumb: Ancient Voices of Children (202), Night of the Four Moons (202); Bernd Alois Zimmermann: Die Soldaten (202), Antiphonen (202), Nobody knows the trouble I see (202), Présence (202), Musique pour les soupers du Roi Ubu (202-3), Photopsis (203), Monologe (203-5); Michael Tippett: Symphony No. 3 (203); Shostakovich: Symphony No. 15 in A Major (203); Mauricio Kagel: Ludwig van (203), Variationen ohne Fuge (203-8); Stockhausen: Kurzwellen (206), Opus 1970 (206-7); André Boucourechliev: Ombres (206, 220); Berio: Sinfonia (207-9, 219-20); Stockhausen: Hymnen (210-13); Henri Pousseur: Echos de Votre Faust (213), Jeu de miroirs de Votre Faust (213), Votre Faust (213), Miroir de Votre Faust (213-14), Couleurs croisées (214), Les ephemeredes d'Icare (214), Mnemosyne II (214), Racine (214), Répons (214), Invitation à l'utopie (214), Icare apprenti (214), Die Eprobrung des Petrus Hébraïcus (214-15), Stravinsky au future (215), L'effacement du Prince Igor (215, 217); Peter Schat: Canto general (216, 218), To you (216); George Rochberg: Blake Songs (219), Contra mortem et tempus (219), Music for the Magic Theater (219), String Quartet No. 1 (219), String Quartet No. 2 (219), String Quartet No. 3 (219), Symphony No. 2 (219), Symphony No. 3 (219), Violin Concerto (219).

Sources: Machaut: Messe de Notre Dame (189); Plainchant: Victimae paschali laudes (190); Monteverdi: Vespers (191); Plainchant: Dies irae (193); Berg: Wozzeck (202); Beethoven: Symphony No. 9 in D Minor (203); Mahler: Symphony No. 2 in C Minor (208), Symphony No. 4 in G Major (208); Henri Pousseur: Votre Faust (213); Stravinsky: Agon (215-16); Webern: Variations, Op. 27 (216).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Geelhoed

[+] Grimley, Daniel M. “Music, Ice, and the ‘Geometry of Fear’: The Landscapes of Vaughan Williams’s Sinfonia Antartica.” The Musical Quarterly 91 (Spring 2008): 116-50.

Ralph Vaughan William’s Seventh Symphony, Sinfonia Antartica, is a reworking of his score to the 1948 film Scott of the Antarctic, and this connection reveals the relationship between the complex national mythology of Captain Robert Falcon Scott’s ill-fated 1910–1913 Antarctic Expedition and the diverse musical influences of Vaughan Williams’s late compositions. Sketchbooks suggest that Vaughan Williams began developing the score to Scott of the Antarctic before shooting on the film began, drawing on the popularity of the Scott Expedition during the Second World War and its strong association with English nationalism. Shortly after the film’s premiere, Vaughan Williams discussed reusing material from the score to create a symphony, which eventually premiered as Sinfonia Antartica in 1953. Sinfonia Antartica straddles the line between absolute and programmatic content, confounding some critics. Structurally, the five movements are framed in balanced symmetry centered around the third movement, “Landscapes.” Several cues from the film score are reworked into Sinfonia Antartica, giving their original narrative functions deeper spiritual purpose. The addition of the organ particularly works to elevate the Antarctic environment and the story of Scott’s expedition to metaphysical significance. The icy landscape draws people toward it but is ultimately desolate and empty, mirroring the existential crisis of faith in English art following World War II.

Works: Ralph Vaughan Williams: Sinfonia Antartica (118-34)

Sources: Ralph Vaughan Williams: score to Scott of the Antarctic (118-34)

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Grosch, Nils. “Über ‘loving’, ‘belonging’ und die Struktur von Kurt Weills Street Scene.” In Mahagonny: Die Stadt als Sujet und Herausforderung des (Musik-)Theaters, ed. Jürgen Kühnel, Ulrich Müller, Oswald Panagl, Peter Csobádi, Gernot Gruber, and Franz Viktor Spechtler, 637-50. Anif-Salzburg: Müller-Speiser, 2000.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Gruber, Germont. "Das musikalische Zitat als historisches und systematisches Problem." Musicologica Austriaca 1 (1977): 121-35.

Musical semantics and quotation have garnered considerable attention in music scholarship, but there are still several problems that must be addressed. The diversity of musical quotation techniques, the numerous ways they may relate to each other, and questions of how a quotation works within a new composition pose difficulties for researchers, who are at risk of overanalyzing or misinterpreting a work. To that end, scholars must demonstrate that a musical quotation in a new piece was intentional and purposefully placed for someone’s benefit or recognition (usually the intended listener or likely audience). Furthermore, musical quotation has a long, relatively unexplored history, with composers reusing existing music in practical ways (as well as other aesthetically driven ways) since the sixteenth century, and scholars must make distinctions regarding the different types and purposes of musical quotation, which can vary widely from era to era or even piece to piece.

For works composed prior to the twentieth century, quotations are “in tension” with the new material around it: noticeable and distinct, but still integrated, and the treatment of the borrowed material helps determine its meaning in the new context. A much larger problem arises in modern music from Mahler to Stockhausen, which employ so many different quotations and allusions from different historical eras and styles that it is difficult to tell which elements are “central” to the composition and which are “borrowed” or “foreign bodies.” Moreover, even when listeners have access to a composer’s input through program notes or commentary, they are often at pains to hear the individual quotations and borrowed materials. Modern-day pluralistic, collage-like pieces such as Luciano Berio’s Sinfonia pose new challenges for semantics, analysis, and interpretation, and there is still much disagreement among composers and scholars over how such music is to be understood.

Works: Jacquet de Mantua: Dum vastos Adriae fluctus (123); Andreas Zweiller: Magnificat (124); Clemens non Papa: Drei Magnificat from Corpus Mensurabilis Musicae, Vol. 4 (125); Cipriano de Rore: Ancor che col partire (126); Adriano Banchieri: La pazzia senile (126); Francesco Rovigo: Magnificat “Benedicta es caelorum” (127); Georg Herner: Magnificat (127); Pietro Antonio Bianco: Magnificat (127); Stockhausen: Hymnen (130), Telemusik (130); Luciano Berio: Sinfonia (131-32).

Sources: Palestrina: Vestiva i colli (126); Lassus: Fleur de quinze ans (127); Jacob Regnart: Venus du und dein Kind (127); Giovanni Croces: Percussit Saul mille (127); Gustav Mahler: Symphony No. 2 in C Minor (“Resurrection”) (132); Richard Strauss: Der Rosenkavalier (132); Ravel: La Valse (132); Beethoven: Symphony No. 6 in F Major, Op. 68 (“Pastoral”) (132).

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew G. Leone

[+] Gruhn, Wilfried. "Integrale Komposition: Zu Bernd Alois Zimmermanns Pluralismus-Begriff." Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 40 (November 1983): 287-302.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Gruhn, Wilfried. "Lukas Foss Phorion. Die Obsession einer Melodie von Johann Sebastian Bach in den Baroque Variations. Analytische Betrachtungen und Materialien zur didaktischen Interpretation und Unterrichtsplanung." Musik und Bildung 13 (March 1981): 140-53.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Gruhn, Wilfried. "Zitat und Reihe in Schönbergs Ein Überlebender aus Warschau." Zeitschrift für Musiktheorie 5 (1974): 29-33.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Gruhn, Wilfried. “Schubert heute—eine Winterreise: Kompositorische Rezeption und didaktische Interpretation.” In Der kulturpädagogische Auftrag der Musik im 20. Jahrhundert, ed. Ute Jung-Kaiser, 77-93. Regensburg: Gustav Bosse, 1991.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Gunther, John G. “Transmigrations of Body and Soul: Three Contemporary Interpretations of a Jazz Classic Analyzed and Applied to Performance.” In Five Perspectives on “Body and Soul”: And Other Contributions to Music Performance Studies, ed. Claudia Emmenegger and Olivier Senn, 61-76. Zurich: Chronos, 2011.

Transcribing jazz improvisations should entail more than note-by-note recording, especially for advanced performance students. Three additional steps reinforce the pedagogical benefits of transcription: an overall description of what occurs in an improvisation, an assessment of the musical parameters that the improvisation highlights, and an application of that assessment to creating improvisations in a similar style. Analyses of three interpretations of Body and Soul by Bill Frisell, Cassandra Wilson, and Keith Jarrett encourage three different approaches to improvisation. From Frisell, an improvisational model includes incorporating looping technology for repeating aleatoric motives. From Wilson, an improvisational model encourages a singer to replace the notes of a song while keeping its lyrics. Finally, from Jarrett, an improvisational model provides a performer with preset motives that can be manipulated with a large-scale formal trajectory in mind.

Works: Johnny Green: Body and Soul as performed by Bill Frisell (64-66), Cassandra Wilson (66-69), and Keith Jarrett (70-75).

Sources: Johnny Green: Body and Soul (61-62).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Gutman, Hanns. "Der banale Mahler." Musikblätter des Anbruch 12 (March 1930): 102-5.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Halbreich, Harry. Arthur Honegger. Translated by Roger Nichols. Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1999.

Despite his highly individualistic style of composition, Honegger frequently borrowed music or musical gestures from several composers, with J.S. Bach chief among them. The book includes commentary regarding Honegger’s use of music by Bach, Campra, Debussy, Fauré, and Roussel.

Works: Honegger: Hommage à Albert Roussel (243), String Quartet No. 1 in C Minor (253), Toccata and Variations for Piano (365-66), Toccata on a Theme of Campra (365-66), Suite after J.S. Bach (383-84), Prelude and Fugue in C Minor (384), La Danse des Morts (434-35), Les Noces d’Amour (479).

Sources: Fauré: Theme and Variations, Op. 73 (239); Albert Roussel: Le festin de l’araignée, Op. 17 (243), Piano Concerto, Op. 36 (243); Debussy: Sonata for Flute, Viola, and Harp (253); André Campra: Camille (365); Johann Sebastian Bach: English Suites (383-84), Prelude and Fugue for Organ, BWV 545 (384), St. Matthew Passion, BWV 244 (437).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Keith Clifton

[+] Hall, Michael F. "Correspondence: The National Anthem." Gramophone 61 (November 1983): 567.

A letter written in response to a previous correspondence by Frank Hill on Shostakovich's borrowings (Oct. 1983 Gramophone). Hall wants to clarify that over 115 composers have used the tune of the British National Anthem in their compositions, in over 125 works of all types. No specific works are mentioned, but the list of composers includes J. C. Bach, Haydn, Beethoven, Liszt, Verdi, Brahms, Ives, and Stockhausen.

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Paula Ring Zerkle

[+] Hallowell, Sean Russell. “Towards a Phenomenology of Musical Borrowing.” Organised Sound 24 (August 2019): 174-83.

A phenomenology of musical borrowing as an intentional compositional act can be used to trace the tradition through Western art music history and uncover what musical borrowing is in itself. Borrowing (and related terms) generally implies a sense of ownership, which in turn invokes normative concepts of musical materiality, aesthetic idea, and compositional originality. Two repertories in Western art music stand out for their borrowing practices and different approaches to composition: medieval polyphony and musique concrète. Medieval polyphony lacks the commitment to the aesthetic notion of compositional originality found in modern music. Instead, the Medieval concept of auctoritas, or relying on existing authority to legitimate one’s work, holds that no music originates from one person alone. The relationship between Binchois’s chanson De plus en plus and derivative works such as Leonel Power’s motet Anima mea liquefacta est and Ockeghem’s Missa De plus en plus demonstrates this concept. The different understanding of musical materiality in the Medieval worldview also precludes ownership in the modern sense. Half a millennium later, musique concrète held a similar approach to musical materiality, where the work of a composer is to elaborate on pre-existing material. Pieces like Pierre Schaeffer’s Ètude aux chemins de fer can be construed as “musical borrowing” if the aesthetic potentiality of sound objects is considered. By comparing acts of musical borrowing across history, a more fundamental understanding of the aesthetic and ethical considerations of the phenomenon can be reached. Instead of being seen as a compositional anomaly, musical borrowing should be promoted as a cultivation of a musical community.

Works: Leonel Power: Anima mea liquefacta est (178-79); Johannes Ockeghem: Missa De plus en plus (178-79); Pierre Schaeffer: Ètude aux chemins de fer (180-81).

Sources: Gilles Binchois: De plus en plus (178-79).

Index Classifications: 1400s, 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Hamberlin, Larry. “National Identity in Snyder and Berlin’s ‘That Opera Rag.’” American Music 22 (Fall 2004): 380-406.

Snyder and Berlin’s “coon song” That Opera Rag is a strong case study for examining the complex attitudes towards class, race, nationality, and gender in the early 1900s. That Opera Rag, despite its many conventional features, has three which defy expectations: a mediant relationship between the two tonal areas of A minor and F major, operatic (as well as popular) quotations, and irregular phrase lengths resulting from the opera quotations. This song perhaps began as an instrumental example of “ragging the classics” by combining highbrow operatic music with lowbrow ragtime conventions, and can be heard as a spoof of operatic grandeur. The lyrics, which utilize minstrelsy misspellings, “humorously” portray black housepainter Sam Johnson as an opera neophyte who misidentifies the quotations. Johnson’s recognition of operatic music represents a contemporary fear for white Americans that African Americans were asserting cultural aspirations through the appreciation of opera. Yet That Opera Rag was also used in the Broadway play Getting a Polish, in which a (white) Montana widow tries to transcend her “common” status by seeking refinement in Paris. May Irwin, the star of Getting a Polish, used That Opera Rag as an unconventional vehicle to stardom by performing these racist songs in a masculine fashion; she gained much renown and success despite being a woman and not being traditionally attractive. Thus, critical interpretation of the song renders multiple levels of commentary which represent the coexisting and contradictory cultural spaces that existed in America in the early twentieth century.

Works: Ted Snyder and Irving Berlin: That Opera Rag; Irving Berlin: When the Midnight Choo Choo Leaves for Alabam’ (389).

Sources: Verdi: Miserere from Il Trovatore (387-88); Bizet: Toreador Song from Carmen (389); Donizetti: Sextet from Lucia di Lammermoor (389); Henry Bishop: Home! Sweet Home! from Clari, or the Maid of Milan (389); Ted Snyder and Irving Berlin: That Opera Rag (389-90).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Hamberlin, Larry. “Visions of Salome: The Femme Fatale in American Popular Songs before 1920.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 59 (Fall 2006): 631-96.

After the Met’s infamous one-night-only premiere of Richard Strauss’s Salome in 1907, a fad for stage and song representations of Salome and her Dance of the Seven Veils (dubbed “Salomania” by the New York Times) hit America. The reception of Salome in America was contextualized by an earlier fascination with “exotic” Egyptian dancing on display at the 1893 Chicago World’s Fair as well as a trend of Salome-themed vaudeville acts. Because of this earlier exposure, songwriters during the Salomania craze tended to be more aware of the inauthenticity of Orientalist dancing and poked fun at the scandalous opera and vaudeville interpreters alike. A popular theme was the artifice of Salome’s exotic seduction. Many Salome songs used the Salomy [sic] melody, a minor-key tune built from a 1–flat 7–5 core that came to be associated with pseudo-oriental dancing. The earliest known examples of the Salomy melody appear in Mariutch Down at Coney Isle (1907) and I’m Going to Get Myself a Black Salome (1908), although it is likely these songs quote an unknown earlier tune. Moreover, songs about a black Salome are likely referencing a real individual, vaudeville dancer Aida Overton Walker, who attempted to perform a restrained Salome as a springboard to artistic legitimacy but was rejected by audiences. After Strauss’s Salome returned to American opera houses in 1909, Salomania reached its peak and interest began to decline. Clarice Vance’s 1909 parody routine “Salome” and others like it lampooned the Salome craze itself. In the aftermath of Salomania, the Salomy melody receded into a general orientalist trope, used indiscriminately to evoke exoticism but not Salome herself.

Works: Harry Von Tilzer: Mariutch Down at Coney Isle (642, 647, 659-60); Stanley Murphy and Ed Wynn: I’m Going to Get Myself a Black Salome (658-64); Ben M. Jerome and Edward Madden: The Dusky Salome (660, 663-65); Archibald Joyce: Vision of Salome (660, 677-80); Jimmie V. Monaco and Joe McCarthy: Fatima Brown (661, 682-84); Abner Silver and Alex Gerber: Becky from Babylon (661, 683-85); Richard Howard: When They Play That Old ‘Salomy’ Melody (661, 686-88); Gus Kahn and Bud De Sylva: Moonlight on the Nile (661, 688-89); Ted Lewis and Frank Ross: Queen of Sheba (661, 688); Sigmund Romberg: Fat, Fat, Fatima (661, 688); Orlando Powell and John P. Harrington: Salome (671-74)

Sources: Unknown: Salomy melody (659-65, 677-88); Harry Von Tilzer: Mariutch Down at Coney Isle (659-60, 676); Felix Mendelssohn: Lieder ohne Worte, Op. 62, No. 6 (Spring Song) (673-74); Richard Strauss: Salome (677-81); Georges Bizet: Carmen (688); Edvard Grieg: In the Hall of the Mountain King from Peer Gynt (688)

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Hamm, Charles. Yesterdays: Popular Song in America. New York: W. W. Norton, 1979.

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Haney, Joel. "Slaying the Wagnerian Monster: Hindemith, Das Nusch-Nuschi, and Musical Germanness after the Great War." The Journal of Musicology 25 (Fall 2008): 339-93.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Hanninen, Dora A. “A Theory of Recontextualization in Music: Analyzing Phenomenal Transformations of Repetition.” Music Theory Spectrum 25 (Spring 2003): 59-97.

Because repetitions in music are over-generalized and under-analyzed, a framework is needed for analyzing transformations of repetitions which happen with an explicit change of context, including clear definitions for terms such as segment, criterion, instantiation, coincidence, realization, musical context, idea, and structural interpretation. This allows for a discussion of how repetitions are altered within a particular musical context, instead of simply noting that repetitions exist. Musical borrowings or quotations fulfill the setup conditions for recontextualization—repetition with an explicit change of context—but it is important that the context of these musical borrowings is actively transformed. In other words, quotations that are simply set down in a new context and are not “actively transplanted” are not recontextualized. The quotation of the opening of Tristan und Isolde in Berg’s Lyric Suite is an excellent example of a musical borrowing that is also recontextualized.

Works: Berg: Lyric Suite (64-65).

Sources: Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (64).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Chelsea Hamm

[+] Hansen-Appel, Gabriele. "Gustav Mahlers Kindertotenlieder: Quellenstudien und Interpretationen." Ph.D. diss., University of Saarbrücken, 1973.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Harbison, John. "Peter Maxwell Davies' Taverner." Perspectives of New Music 11 (Fall-Winter 1972): 233-40.

The opera Taverner by Peter Maxwell Davies highlights the composer's ability to portray the struggle between old and new musical styles. Davies has always been interested in musical borrowing. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, this was manifested by his interest in melodic fragments from the seventeenth century. In the 1970s, his interest turned toward theatrical venues and his borrowing became more extensive. The opera tells the story of the composer John Taverner and is based on Taverner's In Nomine, stated in full only at the end of the work. Throughout the work, Davies plays with certain intervals and phrases from Taverner's piece, including the whole tones found in the cantus firmus and the tritones that appear in several voices. By greatly slowing the harmonic motion, Davies is able to reinterpret the pitches and their functions as they stood in the original. This relates to the theme of the opera, which involves an examination of the artist being in league with the devil and with death.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Jessica Sternfeld

[+] Hare, Belva Jean. "The Uses and Aesthetics of Musical Borrowing in Erik Satie's Humoristic Piano Suites, 1913-1917." Ph.D. diss., University of Texas, Austin, 2005.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Harrison, Lou. "On Quotation." Modern Music 23 (Summer 1946): 166-69.

Many twentieth-century composers are motivated to borrow musical materials out of a sense of nostalgia. Two practices can be found: that of Mahler and Ives and that of the neo-classicists. Mahler and Ives both used quoted material drawn from popular and folk culture, Mahler for the purpose of capturing the spirit of the people and thus enabling himself to speak for them, Ives for the purpose of presenting his observations of life and nature; both seldom develop their musical materials. Ives's process of composition is similar to that of the writer James Joyce, in that both begin with simple subjects and use them to create multi-layered meanings. In contrast to Mahler and Ives, the neo-classicists display their nostalgia through reference not to popular music but to the art music of the 18th century. Ironically, the listener finds neo-classicism, with its limited frame of reference, easier to grasp than the music of Ives and Mahler, which draws from a larger pool of resources.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Sergio Bezerra, Randal Tucker, Jessica Sternfeld

[+] Hart, Alec. "Correspondence: Shostakovich's Borrowings." Gramophone 61 (August 1983): 212.

A quotation in the fourth movement of Shostakovich's Piano Concerto No. 1 is incorrectly attributed as Ach du Lieber Augustin. According to Hart, the quotation is actually from an English nursery song titled Poor Jennie is a-weeping, a-weeping.

Works: Shostakovich: Piano Concerto No. 1.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Lee Ann Roripaugh

[+] Hartford, Kassandra. “A Common Man for the Cold War: Aaron Copland’s Old American Songs.” The Musical Quarterly 98 (Winter 2015): 313-49.

Aaron Copland’s Old American Songs are a window into his career-spanning struggle with the nature of American music in the evolving Cold War political landscape. The earliest sketches for Old American Songs are dated to 1941, during a period in Copland’s career largely defined by his political engagement with the leftist Popular Front, but the two sets were not published until 1950 and 1954 respectively. The ten songs Copland selected for Old American Songs come from somewhat diverse origins: three Protestant hymns, three minstrel songs, two children’s songs, a campaign song, and an Anglo-American ballad. However, the songs are considerably more focused on white Anglo-Saxon traditions than the pluralist aesthetic of the Popular Front. In sketches, Copland also included John Henry, a ballad about the African American folk (and labor) hero that was widely performed by Popular Front-affiliated musicians. Copland removed John Henry from Old American Songs prior to publication, apparently for political reasons. The two late additions to Old American Songs, Zion’s Walls and The Little Horses, also support the idea that Copland was distancing himself from the Popular Front by the 1950s; Zion’s Walls in particular was drawn from a collection published by George Pullen Jackson, a major figure in the reactionary White Top Folk Festival. Copland also made numerous musical and textual changes throughout the set, softening any (left leaning) political lyrics and removing the dialect and references to African American traditions from the reworked minstrel songs. Through the presentation of a white, Anglo-Saxon American past and the omission of class and racial tensions from the source material, Old American Songs represents Copland’s retreat from populist causes in the face of Cold War politics and the threat of McCarthyism.

Works: Aaron Copland: Old American Songs (318-39)

Sources: Dan D. Emmett: The Boatman’s Dance (319-23, 337-39); Traditional, John A. Lomax and Alan Lomax (editors): The Dodger (319-23, 328-30, 335-37), The Little Horses (319-23, 325-27, 334-35); George Pope Morris (lyricist) and Charles Edward Horn (arranger): Long Time Ago (319-23, 331); Elder Joseph Brackett, Edward D. Andrews (editor): Simple Gifts (319-23); Traditional: I Bought Me A Cat (319-23), The Golden Willow Tree (319-23), Ching-a-Ring Chaw (319-23, 331-33, 338); John G. McCurry: Zion’s Walls (319-23, 325-27); Rev. Robert Lowry: At The River (319-23)

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Hartford, Robert. "Correspondences: Shostakovich, Wagner and the Revolution." Gramophone 61 (June 1983): 4, 89.

Shostakovich's Symphony No. 15 quotes Rossini's William Tell Overture in the first movement and Wagner's "Annunciation of Death" motive from Die Walküre in the final movement. These quotations are symbolically related to Eine Kapitulation (1870), a play by Wagner that expressed "contempt for the lost ideals of failed revolutionaries." Shostakovich, through the use of musical allusion, was making a forbidden political statement and giving his Soviet masters "the Russian equivalent of two fingers."

Works: Shostakovich: Symphony No. 15.

Sources: Rossini: William Tell Overture; Wagner: Die Walküre.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Lee Ann Roripaugh

[+] Harvey, Mark Sumner. "Charles Ives: Prophet of American Civil Religion." Ph.D. dissertation, Boston University, 1983.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Harwood, Gregory. “Musical and Literary Satire in Ravel’s L’Enfant et les sortilèges.” The Opera Journal 29, no. 1 (March 1996): 2-16.

Discusses the use of satirical elements in Ravel’s second and final opera. Suggests correspondences between the opera and specific borrowed works, including Massenet’s Manon, Stravinsky’s Le Rossignol, and self-borrowing from La Valse, Valses nobles et sentimentales, and the Sonata for Violin and Cello.

Works: Ravel: L’Enfant et les sortilèges.

Sources: Massenet: Manon (3, 6); Stravinsky: Le Rossignol (3, 6); Ravel: La Valse (3, 11-12), Valses nobles et sentimentales (3, 11), Sonata for Violin and Cello (3, 12).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Keith Clifton

[+] Hatten, Robert. "The Place of Intertextuality in Music Studies." American Journal of Semiotics 3/4 (1985): 69-82.

Intertextuality may be defined as "the view of a literary work as a text whose richness of meaning results from its location in a potentially infinite network of other texts." In adapting this notion for music, intertextuality operates on two essential levels: stylistic and strategic. A purely stylistic intertextuality arises when a composer makes reference to the conventions of an earlier style or musical tradition without evoking any particular earlier work. Beethoven exploits stylistic intertextuality in the third movement of his String Quartet in A Minor, Op. 132, where the music is imbued with richer meaning through the conscious evocation of Renaissance and Baroque styles. Strategic intertextuality arises when a composer makes reference to a specific earlier work or works. A "spectacular, perhaps unique, example of strategic intertextuality" occurs in the third movement of Berio's Sinfonia, which represents the end of a chain of intertextual references involving the third movement of Mahler's Symphony No. 2, Schumann's "Das ist ein Flöten und Geigen" from Dichterliebe, and Bach's Cantata No. 19 ("Es erhub sich ein Streit") along with an extensive collage of shorter quotations from musical, literary, and non-literary sources.

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

Contributed by: Mark S. Spicer

[+] Hay, Fred J. “Black Musicians in Appalachia: An Introduction to Affrilachian Music.” Black Music Research Journal 23 (2003): 1-19.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Healey, Gareth. “Messiaen’s Cantéyodijayâ: A ‘Missing’ Link.” The Musical Times 148 (Spring 2007): 59-72.

Messiaen’s Cantéyodijayâ, a single-movement work for solo piano best known for its incorporation of total serialism, contains numerous thematic, harmonic, and rhythmic features that derive from other Messiaen works. So many gestures, passages, and harmonic excerpts are self-borrowed that only 53 of the 347 measures of this work cannot be traced to other Messiaen pieces. Short melodic phrases (1-3 measures) are taken unchanged from the Turangalîla Symphony and from Cinq Rechants. These melodic self-quotations often contain the same timbres, rhythms, and pitches, making their source material clear. Instead of incorporating harmonic changes based on the “Modes of limited transposition” as in other works, in Cantéyodijayâ Messiaen reprises earlier harmonic progressions, such as those in Vingt regards sur l’Enfant-Jesus and the Turangalîla Symphony, and relies on earlier formulations such as the “Chords of inverted transposition on the same bass note.” Past rhythmic procedures are also incorporated in Cantéyodijayâ, as well as other self-borrowed compositional features such as serial organization and large-scale formal designs. On the whole, these self-quotations create a “collage” of Messiaen’s works of the past, by retaining their core technical features. A multi-page table summarizes thematic, harmonic, and rhythmic features of Cantéyodijayâ that derive from other Messiaen works.

Works: Messiaen: Cantéyodijayâ (60-71).

Sources: Messiaen: Turangalîla Symphony (63-65), Cinq Rechants (64), Vingt regards sur l’Enfant-Jesus (65-66).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Chelsea Hamm

[+] Heile, Björn. "Uri Caine's Mahler: Jazz, Tradition, and Identity." Twentieth-Century Music 4 (September 2007): 229-55.

Jazz pianist Uri Caine quotes extensively from symphonic and vocal works by composers in the classical or art music tradition. On his albums Dark Flame (2003) and Urlicht/Primal Light (1997), Caine's borrowing from Mahler takes a variety of forms, ranging from quotation of a full piece to selective quotation of important and sequential melodic fragments in order to mimic the structure of Mahler's original in a more condensed form. Mahler is a particularly appropriate source for the jazz artist's borrowing, as the earlier composer's use of "folk" materials provides a model for Caine's own appropriation of musical material to explore Jewish identity. Caine's use of Mahler's music is not simply a matter of performance, or of arrangement for different voices; rather, Caine's borrowing is a reflection upon Mahler, history, and subjectivity. Even so, Caine's borrowing within a jazz context raises valuable questions about the validity of the frequently assumed dichotomy between composition and improvisation.

Works: Uri Caine: Dark Flame (230-31, 237-38, 241, 248, 250-52), Urlicht/Primal Light (230-31, 233, 237-39, 241-42, 248-52).

Sources: Mahler: Symphony No. 5 (237, 238), Symphony No. 1 (237, 242, 247), Symphony No. 2 (238, 250), Des Knaben Wunderhorn (238, 241), Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen (238, 250), Das Lied von der Erde (239, 241, 248), Fünf Rückertlieder (241); Anonymous, Frère Jacques (237).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Heimbecker, Sara. "HPSCHD, Gesamtkunstwerk, and Utopia." American Music 26 (Winter 2008): 474-98.

Scholarship often portrays John Cage as a composer at odds with tradition, but such a portrayal obscures the composer's engagement with Gesamtkunstwerk and its utopian aesthetics. In 1967 Cage was working at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign with Lejaren Hiller. The university at this time had cutting-edge computer technology. Cage and Hiller collaborated to plan HPSCHD, a four-hour work for seven harpsichords, 51 tape players, 208 computer generated tapes, 64 slide projectors and 8 film projectors. Cage used chance procedures to create the harpsichord parts from pieces by Mozart, as well as Beethoven, Chopin, Schumann, Gottschalk, Busoni, Hiller, and himself. In HPSCHD, Cage aimed to create a microcosm of an ideal, utopian anarchist world of abundance. This is analogous to Wagner's conception of Gesamtkunstwerk as a model for social unity. HPSCHD is also a theater piece and offers a space in which participants can create their own postmodern narrative. Seeing Cage's work in conjunction with his politics helps one to see his participation in high modern European traditions like Gesamtkunstwerk.

Works: John Cage, HPSCHD (474-98).

Sources: Beethoven: Piano Sonata in F minor, Op. 57 (Appassionata) (493); Chopin: Prelude in D Minor, Op. 28, No. 24 (493); Schumann: "Reconaissance" from Carnaval (493); Gottschalk: The Banjo (493); Busoni: Sonatina No. 2 (493); Cage: Winter Music (493); Lejaren Hiller: Sonata No. 5 (493).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Kerry O'Brien

[+] Heister, Hanns-Werner. “Mimesis, Memoria, Montage: Über einige Prinzipien des Komponisten Ives.” In Charles Ives, 1874-1954: Amerikanischer Pionier der neuen Musik, ed. Hanns-Werner Heister and Werner Kremp, 163-78. Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier (WVT), 2004.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Heister, Hanns-Werner. “Trauer eines Halbkontinents und Vergegenwärtigung von Geschichte: Alberto Ginastera--Cantata para América mágica, Op. 27.” In Alberto Ginastera. Zu Leben und Werk, 45-75. Bonn: F. Spangemacher, 1984. Reprinted in Hanns-Werner Heister, Vom allgemeingültigen Neuen: Analysen engagierter Musik—Dessau, Eisler, Ginastera, Hartmann, ed. Thomas Phelps and Wieland Reich, 127-53. Saarbrücken: Pfau-Verlag, 2006.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Heller, Charles. "Traditional Jewish Material in Schoenberg's A Survivor from Warsaaw, Op. 46." Journal of the Arnold Schoenberg Institute 3 (March 1979): 69-74.

Schoenberg's setting in A Survivor from Warsaw of the Shema Yisrael has an audible similarity to traditional melodies used for this prayer. The emphasis of the minor second as the concluding interval in Schoenberg's version evokes the "Avavoh Rabboh" Jewish cantillation mode, closely related to the Phrygian mode of Western music. Schoenberg seems to have constructed the basis twelve-tone row used in this piece with its application to the Shema in mind. Heller joins Christian Schmidt in disputing the contention of Wilfried Gruhn that other material in this work also has sources in traditional Jewish music.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David Lieberman

[+] Henderson, Clayton W. "Ives's Use of Quotation." Music Educators Journal 61 (October 1974): 24-28.

Ives's method of quotation is seen as a reworking of borrowed material by altering melodic segments. These modifications range from omission or substitution of several notes to the paraphrasing of a hymn, with preexistent forms used in order to describe and/or serve as a structural foundation. Many musical examples illustrating Ives's techniques are cited. Examples are rhythmic transformation seen in the Fourth Symphony's use of Nettleton, treatment of the head motive of Foster's Old Black Joe in the Three Places in New England, and the improvised qualities of Erie in the First Piano Sonata. The article concludes with a diagram of the architectonic structure of."The 'St. Gaudens' in Boston Common" from Three Places in New England.

Works: Ives: Sonata No. 1 for Violin and Piano (24), Piano Sonata No. 2 ("Concord, Mass., 1840-1860") (24), Three Places in New England (24, 25, 28), Washington's Birthday (25), Symphony No. 4 (24-26), String Quartet No. 2 (24), Three Quarter-tone Piano Pieces (26), Piano Sonata No. 1 (26), Central Park in the Dark (26), Symphony No. 3 (26), General William Booth Enters into Heaven (26), Sonata No. 3 for Violin and Piano (26).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Moskovitz

[+] Henderson, Clayton W. "Quotation as a Style Element in the Music of Charles Ives." Ph.D. diss., Washington University, 1969.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Henderson, Clayton W. "Structural Importance of Borrowed Music in the Works of Charles Ives: A Preliminary Assessment." In Report of the Eleventh Congress of the International Musicological Society Held at Copenhagen, 1972, ed. Henrik Glahn, Soren Sorensen, and Peter Ryom, vol. 1, 437-46. Copenhagen: Wilhelm Hansen, 1974.

Henderson gives a survey of Ives's structural use of borrowed material and in some cases mentions its extramusical value. The following features are discussed and partially illustrated in figures: (1) Quotation in a rhapsodic/improvisatory style; (2) quotation in a chorale-oriented style (reminiscent of organ music); and quotations to create (3) a rondo form; (4) verse and refrain structures; (5) ternary forms; (6) arch-forms; and (7) cyclic forms. Several designs can be combined in one piece.

Works: Ives: Piano Sonata No. 1 (438), Symphony No. 3 (439), Symphony No. 4 (442), Central Park in the Dark (439), General William Booth Enters Into Heaven (439), Violin Sonata No. 3 (439), A Symphony: "New England Holidays" (440), "The 'St. Gaudens' in Boston Common" from Three Places in New England (441), Piano Sonata No. 2 ("Concord, Mass., 1840-1860") (443).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Henderson, Clayton W. The Charles Ives Tunebook. Bibliographies in American Music, no. 14. Michigan: Harmonie Park Press, 1990.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Henderson, Donald. "Hans Pfitzner's Palestrina: A Twentieth-Century Allegory." The Music Review 31 (February 1970): 32-42.

Pfitzner's opera about Palestrina's divinely inspired act of composing the Pope Marcellus Mass upholds the musical tradition of the Wagnerian music drama and the philosophical tradition of Schopenhauer. A quotation from the Pope Marcellus Mass, the Kyrie eleison head-motive, provides the structural and philosophical cornerstone of the work. Pfitzner's theory of composition based on divine musical inspiration receives its finest realization in the first act of the opera, which focuses on Palestrina's reception of that head-motive.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Amy Weller

[+] Henderson, Lyn. "How The Flaming Angel became Prokofiev's Third Symphony." The Music Review 40 (February 1979): 49-52.

Henderson points out in detail the cut and paste approach Prokofiev used to create a symphony from his unsuccessful opera, The Flaming Angel. Entire sections of the opera are simply added one after the other to form the various movements of this orchestral piece. A chart at the end of the article lists the measure numbers of the symphony followed by the location of their sources in the opera.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Bradley Jon Tucker

[+] Henrich, Heribert. "Eigenbearbeitung und Selbstentlehnung in Bernd Alois Zimmermanns Frühwerk." Musik-Konzepte (2005): 83-102.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Henze, Hans Werner. "Tristan." In Music and Politics: Collected Writings 1953-81, 222-29. Trans. Peter Labanyi. London: Faber &Faber, 1982.

This essay, written in 1975, is part of a collection of personal memoirs by the composer. Although many of his works involve borrowings of various kinds, this essay deals with the concept explicitly and presents a subjective, first-hand account of the process. In 1972, Henze wrote a piano piece he called "Prélude" which distantly recalled Wagner's Tristan und Isolde. Through further thinking and dreaming, the orchestra piece Tristan began to take shape. Part of the process involved a computer analysis of the first four measures of Act III of Wagner's opera. Tristan, written in 1973, uses tapes generated by the computer analysis of the Wagner excerpt as well as a full orchestra. Other quotations in the work include several bars of Brahms's First Symphony, which Henze explains is intended to represent an enemy, and Chopin's funeral march from his Sonata in B-flat major.

Works: Henze: Prélude (222), Tristan (223-29).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Jessica Sternfeld

[+] Henzel, Christoph. "Giuseppe Becces Musik zu 'Richard Wagner—Eine Filmbiographie' (1913)." Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 60, no. 2 (2003): 136-61.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

[+] Hepokoski, James A. "Formulaic Openings in Debussy." 19th-Century Music 8 (Summer 1984): 44-59.

Debussy's early works involve explicit reliance on existing models while in his later works the models become more tacit and personalized. This process can be observed in his formulaic openings to works. There are three main categories of such openings: (1) monophonic openings, (2) modal/chordal openings, and (3) introductory sequences and expansions. Numerous examples are cited for each. Such formulas are primarily a mid-to-late nineteenth-century phenomenon. Hepokoski invokes Dahlhaus's concept of originality and the influence of the Symbolists.

Works: Debussy: Printemps (46), La Damoiselle élue (48).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Hepokoski, James. “Temps Perdu.The Musical Times 135 (December 1994): 746-51.

Two paradoxical interpretations of Charles Ives’s use of borrowed music coexist: an authorial reading and a reading based on the element of lost time (“temps perdu”). The mature music of Charles Ives is internally teleological, building pieces or movements out of “memory fragments” of pre-existing American popular or sacred tunes and quoting the entire tune only at the end of the work (a form called “teleological genesis” or elsewhere “cumulative form”). An authorial reading of this technique situates the meaning of the piece in the creation of a peak experience, which itself intimates to the audience a transcendental understanding of the music beyond the sound itself. Listeners might consider thinking of Ives’s use of “memory-fragments,” or musical borrowings, through the filter of Ives’s personal experiences with his sources, which they may discover (at least in part) through his writings. The second reading of this phenomenon is that striking dissonance, “memory fragments,” and musical manipulation in Ives’s mature pieces represent his attempt to protect a treasured American past from the effects of adulthood and the modern world. Ives’s stylistic plurality in his mature years can be heard as a radical attempt to recover traditional securities of the past, a narrative thread (the “Motive of Lost Wholeness”) common in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century thought in general. Such pieces depict the past as only existing imperfectly in memory; thus listeners are invited by Ives to embark on a musical journey in search of lost time.

Works: Ives: The Fourth of July (747), Symphony No. 3 (747), Piano Sonata No. 2 (Concord, Mass., 1840-60) (747), String Quartet No. 2 (747), Violin Sonata No. 2 (747-49), Violin Sonata No. 4 (749-50), Violin Sonata No. 3 (750).

Sources: Robert Lowry: Need (750); Asahel Nettleton or John Wyeth (attr.): Nettleton (747); David T. Shaw: The Red, White, and Blue (Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean) (747-49); William Bradbury: Jesus Loves Me (749-50).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Kate Altizer, Chelsea Hamm, Daniel Rogers

[+] Hertz, David Michael. “Ives’s Concord Sonata and the Texture of Music.” In Charles Ives and His World, ed. J. Peter Burkholder, 75-117. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996.

A comparison of Charles Ives’s Concord Sonata with his Essays Before a Sonata shows shifts in Ives’s compositional practice from a patterned linearity of German classicism to coloristic explorations of the Romantic form and new models based on perception. Ives’s innovations, including cumulative form, sonic exuviation, and a mixing of voices (heteroglossia), have European precursors. The Concord Sonata can be interpreted as a further development of the virtuosic piano works by several European composers, a piece where Ives pushed the boundaries of form and sound while simultaneously breaking from earlier European models. The use of cumulative form in the Concord Sonata shows Ives’s rejection of the strict European sonata form; it can be seen also as a move toward psycho-perceptual models possibly derived from Liszt’s Sonata in B Minor. In addition, the use of stylistic traits such as the development and manipulation of motives and the modeling of visual sound, found in the solo piano works of Beethoven, Debussy, Chopin, and Scriabin, indicates Ives’s stylistic competency in canonic solo piano repertoire. Ives’s Essays Before a Sonata, published together with the Concord Sonata, offers an Emersonian insight into the potential method and purpose of the sonata. Historically and aesthetically speaking, Ives is similar to American poets Walt Whitman and Ralph Waldo Emerson, and an understanding of the poetics and ideology of these literary figures is necessary for understanding Ives’s own ideology and musical innovations.

Works: Ives: Piano Sonata No. 2 (Concord, Mass., 1840-60) (75-117), Violin Sonata No. 3 (81), The Unanswered Question (87).

Sources: Beethoven: Piano Sonata in B-flat Major, Op. 106 (Hammerklavier) (82, 84, 86-87, 92, 102, 114), Symphony No. 5 in C Minor (82-84, 91, 95-99, 102); Liszt: Piano Sonata in B Minor (82, 88-90, 92-93, 96-99, 102); Charles Zeuner: Missionary Chant (83, 85, 94, 114-15); Simeon B. Marsh: Martyn (83, 85, 87, 94, 114); Stephen Foster: Massa’s in de Cold Ground (94, 114); Chopin: Ballade No. 1 in G Minor, Op. 23 (100), Ballade No. 4 in F Minor, Op. 52 (100), Étude in C Minor, Op. 10, No. 12 (Revolutionary) (100-101), Piano Sonata in B-flat Minor, Op. 35 (100), Piano Sonata in B Minor, Op. 58 (103), Prelude in G Major, Op. 28, No. 3 (100); Debussy: Arabesques (103), Estampes (103), Images (103-5), L’isle joyeuse (104-5), Des pas sur la neige (104), Bruyères (104), Etudes, Book 2, No. 11 (“Pour les arpèges composes”) (107); Scriabin: Piano Sonata No. 5 (107-8), Piano Sonata No. 8 (107, 109), Piano Sonata No. 10 (109-11).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Christine Wisch

[+] Hertz, David Michael. Angels of Reality: Emersonian Unfoldings in Wright, Stevens, and Ives. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press, 1993.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Heyman, Barbara B. "Stravinsky and Ragtime." The Musical Quarterly 68 (October 1982): 543-62.

Discusses Stravinsky's incorporation of ragtime elements into Histoire du Soldat, Ragtime for Eleven Instruments, and Piano-Rag Music. Heyman presents convincing evidence that Stravinsky likely heard early jazz in Europe before 1918, contradicting Stravinsky's own statements that he had not. Stravinsky neither quoted from specific pieces nor used jazz pieces as formal models, but he used characteristic ragtime rhythms and instrumental colors of early jazz.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Fredrick Tarrant

[+] Hicks, Michael. "Text, Music, and Meaning in the Third Movement of Luciano Berio's Sinfonia." Perspectives of New Music 20 (Fall/Winter 1981-Spring/Summer 1982): 199-224.

Berio's aesthetic is one of communication and commentary. The third movement of the Sinfonia is first and foremost a setting and interpretation of the main text, Beckett's The Unnamable. Mahler's scherzo from the Second Symphony is the cantus firmus of the movement. An understanding of the song upon which Mahler based his movement, "Des Antonius von Padua Fischpredigt" from Des Knaben Wunderhorn, aids in the understanding of the Berio movement. A discussion of quotation and allusion includes reference to James Joyce. In the cases of Beckett, Mahler, Joyce, and Berio, "the artist has become the subject of art." A complete analysis of Berio's movement is beyond the scope of the article. Allusions to Schoenberg, Debussy, Mahler, Hindemith, Berg, Brahms, Ravel, Strauss, Berlioz, Stravinsky, Berio himself, Pousseur, Beethoven, Boulez, Webern, Stockhausen, and perhaps Schumann are pointed out. In music of the 1970s, especially in the music of American composers, quotation is the rule rather than the exception.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Hicks, Michael. "The New Quotation: Its Origins and Functions." D.M.A. diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1984.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Hill, Frank. "Correspondence: Shostakovich's Borrowings." Gramophone 61 (October 1983): 416.

While this correspondence has nothing to do with Shostakovich's borrowings, it contains several interesting comments on musical borrowings in general. Hill states that "Notte e giorno faticar" from Mozart's Don Giovanni is quoted in Offenbach's Tales of Hoffman because Hoffman is waiting for his latest love, Stella, who is appearing in a performance of Don Giovanni in the theater next door. Hill parenthetically adds that "it is very difficult to think of a work of any length without a quote," and states that at least 24 works borrow from God Save the King.

Works: Offenbach: Tales of Hoffmann.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Lee Ann Roripaugh

[+] Hillman, Roger. “Music as Cultural Marker in German Film.” In Unsettling Scores: German Film, Music, and Ideology, 24-46. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005.

Pre-existing music creates historical montage in a film, layering historical times to occur simultaneously in a single cinematic act. Reflecting their proximity to and distance from World War II, the films created by West German directors of the 1970s and early 1980s are particularly engaged in this act of historical montage. They are also distinct from Hollywood in their particular use of nineteenth-century art music, and New German filmmakers used the cultural weight of and audience deference to art music to resist traditional bourgeois values and highlight filmic and musical auteurs. Filmmakers juxtaposed the historically recent reception of Germanic music under the Nazis and the immediate reception of it by modern audiences, culturally marking the music, highlighting questions of national identity, and asserting cultural resilience in the face of both Germany’s history and the encroachment of Hollywood. Due to historical Germanic emphasis on music as a nonrepresentational art form, Germanic film music must transcend the theory of mimesis, commonly demonstrated by movies outside Germany. While reception theory is a promising tool for uncovering musical meaning, semiotics and the musical language of the borrowed work are also crucial elements in film music studies.

Works: Billy Wilder (director): soundtrack to A Foreign Affair (28); Rainer Werner Fassbinder (director): Deutschland im Herbst (35); Hans-Jürgen Syberberg (director): soundtrack to Hitler: A Film from Germany (37).

Sources: Miklós Rózsa: Violin Concerto, Op. 24 (28); Beethoven: Symphony No. 9 in D Minor, Op. 125 (36-37, 41, 44-45); Haydn: Deutschlandlied (36-37, 44-45); Wagner: Götterdämmerung (37).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kate Altizer

[+] Hillman, Roger. “The Great Eclecticism of the Filmmaker Werner Herzog.” In Unsettling Scores: German Film, Music, and Ideology, 136-50. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005.

Unlike many New German filmmakers, director Werner Herzog is not concerned about the historical baggage of twentieth-century Germany but is rather focused on forging new territory for the cinematic image. Similarly, he ignores the reception history of the Western art music he uses, in particular Germanic music. Herzog resists interpretation of his musical choices, despite the variety of music he employs, as well as his diverse treatment of that music. Music is used quite differently in the films Woyzeck (to underscore the transcendence of society), Fitzcarraldo (to enhance artifice and unreality and to underscore Herzog’s self-generated mythos in cinematic history), and Lessons of Darkness (to be a universal, rather than Germanic, herald of death and destruction). In each film, Herzog selects pre-existing music to enhance dramatic and narrative elements specific to the film, but does not engage the historic memory of the music itself.

Works: Werner Herzog (director): Nosferatu (148-49), Woyzeck (139-40), Fitzcarraldo (140-46), Lessons of Darkness (146-50).

Sources: Beethoven: Piano Sonata in E-flat Major, Op. 81a (139); Richard Strauss: Death and Transfiguration (141); Bellini: I Puritani (141, 145-46); Verdi: Un ballo in maschera (141), Requiem (147, 150), Ernani (141-46); Wagner: Die Walküre (141), Parsifal (147-48), Das Rheingold (147-49), Götterdämmerung (147); Grieg: Peer Gynt (147, 149); Mahler: Symphony No. 2 (147, 149); Pärt: Stabat Mater (147); Prokofiev: Sonata for Two Violins, Op. 56 (147); Schubert: Notturno in E-flat Major, Op. 148 (147).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Film

Contributed by: Kate Altizer

[+] Hilmar, Ernst. “Die musikalischen Vorlagen in Bertés Dreimäderlhaus.” Schubert durch die Brille: Internationales Franz Schubert Institut—Mitteilungen 13 (June 1994): 129.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Hinrichsen, Max. "Compositions Based on the Motive B-A-C-H." In Hinrichsen's Musical Yearbook: Vol. 7, ed. Max Hinrichsen, 379-81. London: Hinrichsen Edition, 1952.

A list of twenty-nine works using B-A-C-H, the majority of which are by German composers.

Works: Joseph Ahrens: Triptichon; Johann Albrechtsberger: Organ Fugue in G Minor; J. C. Bach: Organ Fugue in G Minor; J. S. Bach: Prelude and Fugue on the name BACH, Art of Fugue; Otto Barblan: Chaconne, Op. 10, Passacaglia, Variations, and Triple Fugue, Op. 24; Ludwig van Beethoven: 2 sketches for an Overture and Canon, 10th Symphony; Heinrich Bellerman: Organ Prelude and Fugue, Op. 8; Johannes Brahms: Cadenza to Beethoven's Piano Concerto No. 4 in G Major; Alfred Herbert Brewer: Meditation; Ferruccio Busoni: Fantasia Contrappuntistica; Alfredo Casella: Due Ricercari sul nome di Bach; Cyril S. Christopher: Soliloquy on B-A-C-H and the Chorale "Wenn wir in höchsten Nöten sein; Hanns Eisler: Piano Trio on the 12-tone Scale; Wolfgang Fortner: Fantasia; Vincent d'Indy: "Beuron," No. 11 from Tableaux de Voyage, Op. 33; Sigfrid Karg-Elert: Passacaglia and Fugue, Op. 150, Basso Ostinato, Op. 58, repeated in one of his two Op. 142, Sempre Semplice; Johann Ludwig Krebs: Organ Fugue in B-flat Major; Franz Liszt: Prelude and Fugue for Organ, Fantasia and Fugue for Piano; Felix Mendelssohn: 6 Fugues; Wilhelm Middelschulte: Canonical Fantasia; Riccardo Nielsen: Ricercare, Chorale and Toccata; Ernst Pepping: Three Fugues; Walter Piston: Chromatic Fantasy; Max Reger: Organ Fantasia and Fugue, Op. 46; Josef Rheinberger: Organ Fughetta, Op. 123a No. 3; Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov: Six Variations, Op. 1; Robert Schumann: 6 Fugues, Op. 60; Georg Andreas Sorge: 3 Fugues.

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Jean Pang

[+] Hinton, Stephen. "'Matters of Intellectual Property': The Sources and Genesis of Die Dreigroschenoper." In Kurt Weill: The Threepenny Opera, ed. Stephen Hinton, 9-49. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Because of the speed with which it was written and the collaborative nature of the project, the true origins of The Threepenny Opera are difficult to trace with precision. Nominally the work is a parody of John Gay's The Beggar's Opera, which had enjoyed a successful revival in London from 1920 to 1923. In fact the publisher Schott had contacted the young Paul Hindemith with the idea of providing new music for this play. Weill retained only one of the 69 melodies from the original Beggar's Opera, but several other tunes may have been patterned after specific models.

Works: Kurt Weill, The Threepenny Opera (13, 36-40).

Sources: Johann Christoph Pepusch: The Beggar's Opera (13, 36); Eduard Künneke: Der Vetter aus Dingsda (36); Puccini: Madame Butterfly (40); Engelbert Humperdinck: Hänsel und Gretel (40-41).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Felix Cox

[+] Hinton, Stephen. “Weill’s Self-borrowings.” In Kurt Weill und Frankreich, ed. Andreas Eichhorn, 89-101. Münster: Waxmann, 2014.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Hitchcock, H. Wiley. "Ivesiana: The Gottschalk Connection." Institute for Studies in American Music Newsletter 15 (November 1985): 5.

In Psalm 90, Ives quotes Louis Moreau Gottschalk's famous piano work, The Last Hope. The quotation appears in the second half of Verse 6, with the text "in the evening it is cut down, and withereth." Ives's borrowing may refer to The Last Hope, subtitled "religious meditation," or to the hymn Mercy, also known as Gottschalk, itself derived from The Last Hope and attributed to Edwin Pound Parker.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Elizabeth Bergman

[+] Hitchcock, H. Wiley. Ives. Oxford Studies of Composers 14. London, New York, and Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1977. Reprint with corrections as Ives: A Survey of the Music. Brooklyn: Institute for Studies in American Music, 1985.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Hobus, André. "Sweet Home Chicago ou un regard impertinent sur un mythe." Soul Bag 169 (December 2002): 23-25.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Hochhauser, Sharon. “Take Me Down to the Parodies City: How Heavy Metal Swings.” Journal of Popular Music Studies 30 (March 2018): 61-78.

Reflexive parody is a genre of musical comedy that can, through the musical and comedic devices it employs, both honor and satirize an artist or genre of music. Comedy in music often employs musical borrowing, either in small-scale interjections or in large-scale musical structures like quodlibets, medleys, and parodies. Reflexive parodies are distinct in that they re-examine genre conventions by transposing song into a disconnected musical genre. Heavy metal and rat pack swing are two genres often paired together in reflexive parody, creating a vehicle for comedic points about virtue, vice, and masculinity. Richard Cheese (created by Mark Jonathan Davis) and Bud E. Luv (created by Robert Vickers) are two characters that perform “swankified” heavy metal music with an exaggerated rat pack lounge singer persona. In doing so, they strip away the imagery of hegemonic masculinity inherent to heavy metal and replace it with another form of exaggerated masculine imagery associate with 1950s swing. By poking holes in the self-seriousness of heavy metal, Davis and Vickers uncover the underlying musical quality of heavy metal. Humor is created in their acts in several ways. Recognition of the source material is treated as part of the joke, as are interjections of other familiar tunes. Lyrics are not usually altered, as the dissonance of a clean-cut lounge singer voicing brazen profanity is also comedic, but occasional in-character changes are made. Musical quotations from genres beyond heavy metal or swing can also heighten the comedic absurdity. For example, Richard Cheese’s version of Closer by Nine Inch Nails includes snippets of the theme to Sesame Street, Linus and Lucy, and Old MacDonald Had a Farm. Reflexive parody is different from genre reinterpretations in that it relies on the comedic mediator or buffer of the comedian’s persona. Self-reflexive humor, along with the interpretive space it opens up, emerges from the sum of its musical parts.

Works: Beatallica: Sandman (63); “Weird Al” Yankovic: Angry White Boy Polka (63); Tom Lehrer: The Elements (63); Tim Minchin: Beelz (64), Rock and Roll Nerd (64); Barenaked Ladies: Grade 9 (64); Robert Vickers (as Bud E. Luv): Iron Man (70), Paranoid (70), Whole Lotta Love/Free Bird (70); Mark Jonathan Davis (as Richard Cheese): I’m Only Happy When It Rains (70), Enter Sandman (70), Bust A Move (70), People Equals Shit (70-71), Welcome to the Jungle (71), Girls, Girls, Girls (71), Closer (71-72); Lee Presson and the Nails: Mr. Crowley (71).

Sources: The Beatles: Taxman (63); Metallica: Enter Sandman (63, 70); System of a Down: Chop Suey (63); Disturbed: Down With the Sickness (63); Arthur Sullivan (composer), W. S. Gilbert (lyricist): I Am the Very Model of a Modern Major General from The Pirates of Penzance (63); Charlie Daniels: The Devil Went Down to Georgia (64); Rush: Tom Sawyer (64); Led Zeppelin: Stairway to Heaven (64); Garbage: I’m Only Happy When It Rains (70); Nacio Herb Brown (composer) and Arthur Freed (lyricist): Singing in the Rain (70); Pat Ballard: Mr. Sandman (70); Slipknot: People Equals Shit (70-71); Guns N’ Roses: Welcome to the Jungle (71); Solomon Linda: The Lion Sleeps Tonight (71); Mötley Crüe: Girls, Girls, Girls (71); Van Morrison: Brown Eyed Girl (71); Ozzy Osbourne Mr. Crowley (71); Europe: The Final Countdown (71); Nine Inch Nails: Closer (71-72); Joe Raposo (composer), Jon Stone, Bruce Hart, and Joe Raposo (lyricists): Can You Tell Me How to Get to Sesame Street (71-72); Vince Guaraldi: Linus and Lucy (71-72); Thomas d’Urfey (composer), Frederick Thomas Nettlingham (lyricist): Old MacDonald Had a Farm (71-72).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Hoffmann, Marleen. “Ethel Smyths ‘March of the Women.’” In Copy&Paste—meins, deins, unsers im Gespräch: Symposiumsband zum 23. internationalen studentischen Symposium des DVSM e.V. von 9. bis 12. Oktober 2009 am Institut für Musikwissenschaft der Universität Wien, ed. Jonas Pfohl, Steffen Rother, and Sabine Töfferl, 73-92. Aachen: Shaker Media, 2011.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Hold, Trevor. "Grieg, Delius, Grainger and a Norwegian Cuckoo." Tempo, no. 203 (January 1998): 11-19.

A web of influence and borrowing exerted itself in the friendships between Edvard Grieg, Frederick Delius, and Percy Grainger. Grieg's Norwegian folksong settings served as models for Grainger's own folksong arrangements, and specific musical quotations exist in Delius's On Hearing the First Cuckoo in Spring, a meditation on Grieg's "I Ola Dalom." Delius quotes the melody from Grieg's setting, but was also influenced by his textures, harmonic structure, free variation, and development. It has also been noted that Delius's composition has a resemblance to Grieg's "The Students' Serenade" from Moods, Op. 73, No. 6. Furthermore, the interval of a descending minor third from leading tone to dominant is borrowed from Grieg. This melodic interval resembles a cuckoo call and was likely to have prompted Delius to use Grieg's setting as a model from which to draw.

Works: Delius: On Hearing the First Cuckoo in Spring (13, 15-19).

Sources: Grieg: Norwegian Folk Songs, Op. 66: "Je gaar I tusind tanker" (12),"I Ola Dalom (12-18), Moods, Op. 73, No. 6, "The Student's Serenade" (17-18).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Christopher Holmes, Tong Cheng Blackburn

[+] Holliman, J.V. "A Stylistic Study of Max Reger's Solo Piano Variations and Fugues on Themes by Johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Philipp Telemann." PhD diss., New York University, 1975.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Holloway, Robin. Debussy and Wagner. 1979. [See Austin review.]

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Holm-Hudson, Kevin. "John Oswald's Rubaiyat (Elektrax) and the Politics of Recombinant Do-Re-Mi." Popular Music and Society 20, no. 3 (Fall 1996): 19-36.

Advances in technology in the twentieth century, such as the reproduction and manipulation of sound, have led to controversies regarding intellectual property, copyright law, and even the very definition of the "musical work." Modern sampling techniques allow artists to appropriate pre-existing musical material and then alter its codes of meaning through processes of recontextualization and alteration. This act of generating meaning through the use of existing "musical artifacts" can be highly subversive, as is the case with John Oswald's 1989 CD Plunderphonics and subsequent CD Rubaiyat (Elektrax). For Rubaiyat (Elektrax), commissioned by Electra records for the company's fortieth anniversary, Oswald utilized pre-existing material recorded by Electra artists as raw material that was then altered using various techniques that undermine and change the work's original meaning. Oswald's techniques include recontexualization of familiar material, the restoration of a previously controversial or "banished" text, and encouraging the listener to create similar works at home with available technology.

Works: John Oswald: O Hell (25-28), Vane (28-29), Mother (29-30), Plunderphonics (24-25), Rubaiyat (Elektrax) (25-34).

Sources: John Densmore, Robbie Krieger, Ray Manzarek, and Jim Morrison [The Doors]: Hello, I Love You (26-28), When the Music's Over (26-28); Carly Simon: You're So Vain (28-29), You're So Vain as performed by Faster Pussycat (28-29); Michael Davis, Wayne Kramer, Fred "Sonic" Smith, Dennis Thompson, and Rob Tyner [MC5]: Kick Out the Jams (29-30).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Holm-Hudson, Kevin. "Quotation and Context: Sampling and John Oswald's Plunderphonics." Leonardo Music Journal: Journal of the International Society for the Arts, Sciences, and Technology 7 (1997): 17-25.

Though sampling only emerged with the invention of digital technology in the 1980s, it is best understood as part of the long history of musical borrowing. Specific melodic quotation, akin to literal sampling, can be found throughout western art music in the works of composers like Bach, Berlioz, Tchaikovsky, and Ives. In this repertoire, the context in which the quotation appears imposes commentary or new meaning on the original. A similar process occurs with digital sampling where meaning is often generated through recontextualization and juxtaposition of samples. In attempts to generate a "taxonomy" of sampling practices, scholars David Sanjek, Thomas Porcello, and Chris Cutler have created classification systems based, respectively, on reconcilability of the source, procedural methods, and in terms similar to Christopher Ballentine's "musical-philosophical" ideals. The central difference between digital sampling and traditional borrowing is that "the timbre is appropriated in addition to pitch and rhythm." In addition to illustrating the role of recontextualization of sampled material in creating meaning, John Oswald's works Plunderphonics and Plexure demonstrate the role of timbre in conveying musical meaning. For example, Oswald experiments with the timbre of Michael Jackson's voice in the piece "DAB" on Plunderphonics.

Works: Alex Paterson and Youth [Orb]: Little Fluffy Clouds (18-19); James Tenney: Collage #1: Blue Suede (19); John Oswald: Plunderphonics (20-23), DAB (21-22), Plexure (23-24).

Sources: Ennio Morricone: Score for Once Upon a Time in the West (18-19); Steve Reich: Electric Counterpoint (18-19); Carl Perkins: Blue Suede Shoes as performed by Elvis Presley (19); Michael Jackson: Bad (21-22).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Hoogerwerf, Frank W. "Willem Pijper as Dutch Nationalist." The Musical Quarterly 62 (July 1976): 358-73.

Willem Pijper (1894-1947) crusaded actively for the cause of a Dutch musical style independent from the German and French traditions. His campaign was waged both in his writings and in some nationalist compositions. The opera Halewijn is based on the Halewijn Lied, one of the oldest known Dutch songs. The song recurs within the opera, and in addition, Pijper derived the scalar material of the entire work from one line of the Lied. Pijper's work Six Symphonic Epigrams uses a motive from the Dutch song O Nederland let op U saeck (Oh Netherlands, Heed Thy Cause), which is part of a seventeenth-century collection of national songs.

Works: Willem Pijper: Halewijn (369-70), Six Symphonic Epigrams (370-71).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Nancy Kinsey Totten

[+] Horn, David. "The Sound World of Art Tatum." Black Music Research Journal 20 (Autumn 2000): 237-57.

Reactions to Art Tatum have been divided between admiration of his technical proficiency and criticism of his perceived lack of creativity. Both of these stances, however, ignore the complex intertextual nature of Tatum's music. Tatum's music from throughout his career contains a significant number of quotations of tunes recorded by others during the 1920s and 1930s, recordings which Tatum would have heard and which might have had a greater impact on him than on many other musicians because of his partial blindness and his resulting difficulty in reading sheet music. Two consistent features in the majority of Tatum's quotations are the retention of the original melody, and the ornamentation of that melody in a manner which embellishes without comment or critique. The result is a relationship--frequently dialogic--between the original and the quotation.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Hoshowsky, Robert. "Plunderphonics Pioneer." Performing Art and Entertainment in Canada 31, no. 1 (Summer 1997): 12-13.

John Oswald's now infamous works were created through analogue and digital editing and recombining of pre-existing musical material. Oswald adjusted the speed, timbre, pitch, and other aspects of various fragments of music and then combined and layered them to create a type of musical collage. In 1989, he generated a great deal of controversy with the release of his album Plunderphonics, which consisted of exclusively borrowed material. Though Oswald had produced the album at his own expense and was receiving no profit from the endeavor, giving the copies away to libraries, radio stations, and others for free, legal action was taken by Michael Jackson, CBS Records, and the Canadian Recording Industry Association (CRIA). Oswald was forced to destroy the Plunderphonics master copy and any remaining copies in his possession. Since then, Oswald has produced Rubaiyat for Electra Records' 40th anniversary and the two-CD set Plexure. In Plexure, Oswald plays with the "threshold of recognizability" or the amount of material a listener must hear to identify the original source.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Hosokawa, Shuhei. "Distance, Sestus, Quotation: Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny of Brecht and Weill." International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music 16 (December 1985): 181-99.

The use of quotation in the context of opera creates a significant rhetorical and syntactical relationship to the text into which it is juxtaposed. It can be used to provide ironic commentary and lend deeper levels of meaning to characters and situations. Brecht and Weill use sources from Wagner, Weber, popular jazz, and folk tunes.

Works: Weill: Aufsteig und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Fredrick Tarrant

[+] Houtchens, Alan, and Janis P. Stout. "'Scarce Heard Amidst the Guns Below': Intertextuality and Meaning in Charles Ives's War Songs." The Journal of Musicology 15 (Winter 1997): 66-97.

Textual and musical ambiguity in Charles Ives's four war songs, In Flanders Fields, Tom Sails Away, He Is There!, and They Are There!, may reflect Ives's own ambiguous attitude towards war. In the first three songs, written in 1917, Ives quotes several patriotic, martial, and popular tunes, but these quotations do not always retain their original meaning. Ives uses patchwork technique or other means of quotation to include melodic fragments from unambiguously patriotic songs; however, he often combines these fragments with a morose character, complex harmonies, and inconclusive cadences. Collectively, these three songs reflect Ives's ambivalence towards World War I. Twenty-five years later, They Are There!, a World War II revision of the earlier He Is There!, moves from ambivalence to a direct expression of Ives's anti-war sentiments. In conjunction with contemporary biographical evidence and Ives's own biting recording of the song, They Are There! demonstrates a shift in Ives's personal stance towards war and brings into question the possibility of parody in his three earlier war songs.

Works: Charles Ives: In Flanders Fields (72-80), Tom Sails Away (80-84), He Is There! (84-87), They Are There! (91-97).

Sources: Taps (75, 77-78, 81-82); David T. Shaw: The Red, White, and Blue (Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean) (75-76, 78-79, 82, 86); George F. Root: The Battle Cry of Freedom (76-77, 86); Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle: La Marseillaise (76, 78, 86); America (God Save the King) (77-79); Reveille (78, 86); Henry S. Cutler: All Saints New (78); Samuel Woodworth and George Kiallmark: Araby's Daughter (The Old Oaken Bucket) (81); George M. Cohan: Over There (82, 86); Ives: Country Band March (86), He Is There! (91-97); Walter Kittredge: Tenting on the Old Camp Ground (86-87).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Mark Chilla, Laura B. Dallman, Paul Killinger

[+] Howard, Joseph. "The Improvisational Technique of Art Tatum." 3 Vols. Ph.D. diss., Case Western Reserve University, 1978.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

[+] Howland, John. “‘The Blues Get Glorified’: Harlem Entertainment, Negro Nuances, and Black Symphonic Jazz.” The Musical Quarterly 90 (Fall-Winter 2007): 319-70.

Duke Ellington’s and James P. Johnson’s concert jazz compositions of the 1930s and 1940s embody an urban-entertainment vision for racial uplift developed a generation earlier that promotes the high art potential of Harlem’s popular music. Ellington’s 1935 concert film Symphony in Black: A Rhapsody of Negro Life exemplifies the glorified entertainment aesthetic and symphonic jazz idiom developed in Tin Pan Alley and Harlem musical theater in the 1920s. An early example of symphonic jazz emerging from entertainment circles is Will Marion “Dad” Cook’s 1924 stage revue Negro Nuances. The production (which predates Gershwin’s Rhapsody in Blue) presents a version of the Africa-to-Dixie-to-Harlem narrative later used by Ellington in Black, Brown, and Beige. Musically, Negro Nuances is a pastiche of recycled material—some by Cook himself—arranged for Cook’s twenty-five-piece orchestra. The vaudeville aesthetic of the late 1920s and early 1930s was also influential in establishing stylistic formulas for arranging spirituals and vernacular music for an orchestral idiom. J. Rosamond Johnson’s choral arrangements of W. C. Handy’s St. Louis Blues for a 1929 short film of the same name and Rhapsody in Blue for the 1931 review Rhapsody in Black: A Symphony of Blue Notes and Black Rhythms exemplify the shifting textures and spectacle of musical theater arranging. For Ellington and James P. Johnson, both of whom worked in the entertainment space, the leap to symphonic jazz works was relatively small. James P. Johnson’s Mississippi Moan: Symphony Poem, Drums: Symphonic Poem, and Ellington’s Symphony in Black all closely adhere to the production number model and incorporate the sonic tropes of the Harlem stage. A critical understanding of these symphonic jazz works in terms of Afrological vernacular modernism highlights their artistic value and cross-cultural exchange.

Works: Will Marion Cook: Negro Nuances (330-333); Spencer Williams: Moan, You Moaners! (Fox Trot Spirituelle) (336-37); J. Rosamond Johnson: score to St. Louis Blues (337-42), Rhapsody in Blue from Rhapsody in Black: A Symphony of Blue Notes and Black Rhythm (345-47); Duke Ellington: The Blackberries of 1930 (344-45); James P. Johnson: Mississippi Moan: Symphonic Poem (347-51)

Sources: James P. Johnson: Runnin’ Wild (330-333); Anonymous: Deep River (336-37); W. C. Handy: St. Louis Blues (337-42); Stephen Foster: Swanee River (344-45); George Gershwin: Rhapsody in Blue (345-47); Perry Bradford and James P. Johnson: Echoes of Ole Dixieland (348-49), Mississippi River Flood (348-51); James P. Johnson: Yarnekraw: A Negro Rhapsody (350)

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Huang, Hao, and Rachel V. Huang. “Billie Holiday and Tempo Rubato: Understanding Rhythmic Expressivity.” Annual Review of Jazz Studies 7 (1996): 181-200.

Billie Holiday's recordings reveal a sophisticated use of tempo rubato, the slowing-down and speeding-up of a melody over a steady accompaniment. While Holiday's version of a tune rarely strays from the pitch material of the original, the rhythmic comparison is considerably more complex. Holiday tends to begin her lines or melodic fragments late relative to the accompaniment, yet she catches up to the accompaniment by the end of the passage. In fact, Holiday takes the given melody at a faster tempo than the original. Transcriptions of Holiday's recordings indicate that the ratio between her tempo and that of the accompaniment is as advanced as 6 to 5 or 7 to 5, a much higher ratio than similar procedures found in African, Afro-Cuban, and African-American music (such as the music of Louis Armstrong and Bessie Smith).

Works: Cole Porter: What is This Thing Called Love as performed by Billie Holiday (182-92) and Ella Fitzgerald (185-86); Gerald Marks and Seymour Simons (composers) and Billie Holiday (performer): All of Me (192-94).

Sources: Cole Porter: What is This Thing Called Love (182-92); Gerald Marks and Seymour Simons: All of Me (192-94).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Huber, Nicolaus A. "John Cage: Cheap Imitation." Neuland 1 (1981): 135-41.

Discusses the reasons behind Cage's use of Satie's Socrate and also what Cage himself says about how he utilized the music to compose a new piece. Through musical analysis Huber shows how Cage follows the precepts he set in borrowing Satie's work. Huber also mentions the beginning to Beethoven's Eroica and the second movement of Bruckner's Symphony No. 7 as employing similar compositional techniques.

Works: John Cage: Cheap Imitation.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Will Sadler

[+] Hufschmidt, Wolfgang. "Musik über Musik." In Reflexion über Musik heute: Texte und Analysen, ed. Wilfried Gruhn, 254-89. Mainz: Schott, 1981.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Hung, Eric. “Hearing Emerson, Lake, and Palmer Anew: Progressive Rock as ‘Music of Attraction.’” Current Musicology 79-80 (2005): 245-59.

Progressive rock, a loose label for music which combines elements of rock and roll with those of various forms of art music from around the world, has in the past been viewed by critics and scholars as being most successful (or most appalling) when elements of “high” and “low” culture are synthesized. However, Emerson, Lake, and Palmer’s popular “free transcription” of Pictures at an Exhibition by Modest Mussorgsky frequently shifts between different styles, suggesting that its success is due not to stylistic synthesis but an “ever-changing, channel-surfing quality.” Pictures at an Exhibition, which was played at every Emerson, Lake, and Palmer concert from 1970 to 1988, allowed fans to react to the changes in texture as they happened, dancing when it was appropriate and cheering when Emerson would destroy his organ in the final “Great Gate of Kiev” movement. These fans showed an interest in being “present” at concerts, enjoying each subjective moment as it happens now, like the counter-cultural hippies from the 1960s. This is related to Susan Sontag’s call in “Against Interpretation” for greater focus on “presentness” in art criticism, and to Tom Gunning’s “cinema of attractions” concept, which states that in films before 1908 the audience’s focus was not on the plot narrative but on the moment-to-moment spectacle.

Works: Emerson, Lake, and Palmer: Pictures at an Exhibition (247-53).

Sources: Mussorgsky: Pictures at an Exhibition (247-53).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Hunter, Mead. "Interculturalism and American Music." Performing Arts Journal 11, no. 3 and 12, no. 1 (1988): 186-202.

Interculturalism, musical borrowing from multiple cultures, is a burgeoning trend in twentieth-century art music, theatrical music (opera, musicals, Gesamtkunstwerks), film music, and popular music. "World beat," an aesthetic that fuses popular styles from different parts of the world, is one manifestation of interculturalism. Interculturalism creates meaning in musical works, which manifest as political statements, instructional tools, "syntheses of styles, cultures and perspectives," or works that embrace or reject particular cultural values. These extramusical meanings result from various intercultural borrowing techniques, including patchwork, collage, and "suggestive" allusion (stylistic and pertaining to specific works).

Works: Dissidenten: Sahara Electric (190); Toshi Tsuchotoris: score to Mahabharata (192); Bob Telson: score to Sister Suzie Cinema (192-93), score to The Gospel at Colona (193), score to The Warrior Ant (194); Philip Glass: Satyagraha (196), Akhnaten (197-98); John Cage: Truckera (200), Europeras 1 &2 (200-201).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz, Film

Contributed by: Victoria Malawey

[+] Husarik, Stephen. "John Cage and Lejaren Hiller: HPSCHD, 1969." American Music 1 (Summer 1983): 1-21.

The performance of John Cage's and Lejaren Hiller's HPSCHD, for seven harpsichords, tape, and a menagerie of multimedia, at the University of Illinois in 1969 was an event unlike any other, and especially unlike MUSICIRCUS, put on at the same university two years previous. For HPSCHD, Cage and Hiller set out to write a computer program that could divide the octave 52 ways, since this was something a computer could do that a human could not. Mozart's Musical Dice Game was used to come up with the material for the seven solo harpsichord parts, in conjunction with the I-Ching. For Solo Harpsichord II, 20 "passes" of the original part devised from the Dice Game and I-Ching were performed. Solo Harpsichords III and IV played the same material, but with replacement parts culled from Mozart piano sonatas included in place of some measures from the Dice Game. Parts V and VI were similar to III and IV, except that their replacement measures came from Beethoven, Chopin, Schumann, Gottschalk, Busoni, Cage, and Hiller piano pieces. Solo Harpsichord I was a transcription of the tape-orchestra part in which the octave was divided into 12 tones. Finally, VII played any Mozart piece or anything else anybody else was playing, at any time. Cage's interest in what happened when many layers were superimposed was the impetus behind the work, in addition to exploring different levels of microtonality.

Works: Cage and Hiller: HPSCHD.

Sources: Mozart: Musical Dice Game, K. 294d/K. Anh. C 30.01 (7-9), Piano Sonata in D Major, K. 284 (7), Piano Sonata in C Major, K. 330, Piano Sonata in G Major, K. 283, Fantasy in C Minor, K. 475, Piano Sonata in B-flat Major, K. 281; Beethoven: Piano Sonata No. 23 in F Minor, Op. 57, Appasionata (8); Frédéric Chopin: Prelude in D Minor, Op. 28 (8); Robert Schumann: Carnaval (8); Ferrucio Busoni: Sonatina No. 2 (8); Cage: Winter Music (8); Hiller: Sonata No. 5 (8).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Geelhoed

[+] Ives, Charles E. Memos. Edited and with appendices by John Kirkpatrick. New York: W. W. Norton, 1972.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Jablonski, Edward. "An Almost Completely New Work: Gershwin's Own Suite from Porgy and Bess." The American Record Guide 25 (August 1959): 848-49.

Gershwin's own Suite from his opera Porgy and Bess is a large improvement on the suites composed by Morton Gould and Robert Russell Bennett, in that the orchestration is left alone more often and less new material is written into it than in the other two versions. Basically a "scissors and paste job," the new suite includes some music cut from the opera itself, along with many of the hit songs. The suite demonstrates Gershwin's considerable mastery of orchestral writing and orchestration as well.

Works: Gershwin: Catfish Row: Suite from Porgy and Bess (848-49).

Sources: Gershwin: Porgy and Bess (848-49).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Geelhoed

[+] Jacobs, Michael. “Co-Opting Christian Chorales: Songs of the Ku Klux Klan.” American Music 28 (Fall 2010): 368-77.

When the Ku Klux Klan was revived in the early twentieth century, music co-opted from Protestant hymns, patriotic songs, folk songs, and popular music became an important tool for recruitment and entertainment. Klan songs, published professionally or at home, most frequently addressed topics of patriotism and Klan fraternalism. Many Klan songbooks printed patriotic songs and Christian hymns unaltered. Retexted versions of hymns with Klan symbols inserted were also frequently printed. For example, the little brown church depicted in The Church in the Wildwood is transformed into a burning cross in a Klan derivative, The Fiery Cross in the Vale. Secular music was often co-opted as well with lyrics changed to reflect the Klan’s anti-immigration, anti-Catholic, and anti-Semitic stances. The Ballad of Casey Jones and tunes by Stephen Foster proved especially popular in this regard. Original songs, printed both with and without overt Klan imagery on the cover, were also published. Surprisingly, African Americans are underrepresented as targets in Klan songs. There are even at least ten examples of Ku Klux Klan blues songs, capitalizing on the genre’s popularity to reach a wider audience. In all, over one hundred songs were co-opted by the Klan for propaganda and profit.

Works: Dora C. Goodwin: The Fiery Cross in the Vale (369-70); Anonymous: The Immigrant (372-73); Claudia P. Randolph: contrafactum on The Sidewalks of New York (373); W. R. Rhinehart (publisher): The Klansman’s Friend (374-75), Junior Boys Klan Chorus (375)

Sources: William S. Pitts: The Church in the Wildwood (369-70); Percy Wenrich and Edward Madden: The Red Rose Rag (372-73); Charles B. Lawlor and James W. Blake: The Sidewalks of New York (373); Eddie Newton, Wallace Saunders, and T. Lawrence Seibert: Casey Jones (374-75); William Charles Fry: Lily of the Valley (375)

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Jahnke, Sabine. "Materialien zu einer Unterrichtssequenz: Des Antonio von Padua Fischpredigt bei Orff-Mahler-Berio." Musik und Bildung 64 (November 1973): 615-22.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Jampol’skij, Izrail’. “Pamjati borcov-anti fasistov [To the memory of the anti-fascist fighters].” Sovetskaia muzyka (February 1976): 116-18.

German composer Karl Amadeus Hartmann had a deep appreciation and love of Russian music, partially inspired by his teacher, Hermann Scherchen. Hartmann’s piece Concerto Funebre, premiered in Switzerland in 1940, is a requiem for those who fought against Nazism. In its finale, Hartmann uses a Russian revolutionary song theme Vi zhertvuyu pali v bor’be rokovoi, adding a programmatic meaning to the chamber work. The work’s first two movements function as a modern take on a lamento style aria, expressed through the lonesome theme of the Introduction and the rhapsodic second movement. Concerto Funebre forms a striking example of anti-fascist statements conveyed by artists and musicians in the Third Reich.

Works: Karl Amadeus Hartmann: Concerto Funebre (116–18).

Sources: Anonymous: Vi zhertvuyu pali v bor’be rokovoi (116–17).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Maria Fokina

[+] Jefferson, Alan. The Lieder of Richard Strauss. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1971.

Strauss's songs contain a variety of quotations and allusions to preexistent material. The musical borrowings are cited but are not included in separate lists.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Fredrick Tarrant

[+] Jeffery, Charles. "BWV 80: Ein' feste Burg ist unser Gott." In Johann Sebastian Bach: Four Chorale Cantatas: A Commentary, 9-46. Stratford-upon-Avon: Sapphire Book Club, 1980.

Luther's hymn Ein feste Burg falls into a category of many tunes with a revolutionary cause, from La Marseillaise to John Brown's Body, because it signifies the German Reformation and the religious triumph of Lutheranism. Indeed, Luther's hymn emerges from a vernacular tradition, not only in the translation of the Bible into German, but also in the poetic and musical union meant to appeal to the people in the entire congregation rather than to specific members of the choir and clergy. J. S. Bach, inspired by many Lutheran chorales, chose to exhibit this piece for a Festival of 1730, marking the Bicentenary of the Confession of Augsburg in which the Protestants declared the aims of the Lutheran church. Bach entitled his setting In Festo Reformationis, and he meant for it to represent his piety. Some movements, including the soprano and bass duet as well as the bass recitative, feature the relatively unembellished tune to evoke its military and unifying purposes. In a more complex setting, the chorale fantasia on verse one, Bach uses the tune as a cantus firmus embedded within a set of variations. In addition, later composers such as Mendelssohn and Roderick-Jones, like Bach, use the tune to invoke powerful religious sentiment, whereas Meyerbeer strips it of its religious content and uses it to accompany a ceremonial march.

Works: J. S. Bach: In Festo Reformationis, BWV 80 (16-47); Mendelssohn: Symphony No. 5 in D Minor, Reformation (46); Meyerbeer: Les Huguenots (46); Richard Roderick-Jones: Chanticleer (46).

Sources: Luther: Ein feste Burg (9-15).

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Katie Lundeen

[+] Jeutner, Renate, ed. Peter Maxwell Davies. Bonn: Boosey and Hawkes, 1983.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Joe, Jeongwon. "Reconsidering Amadeus: Mozart as Film Music." In Changing Tunes: The Use of Pre-existing Music in Film, ed. Phil Powrie and Robynn Stilwell, 57-73. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.

While many writers have been critical of Amadeus for what they regard as trivial treatment of Mozart's music, the music used in the film acts as a structural support for visual rhythm and as a means to unify narratively related scenes through continuity of music, tonality, and motto. For example, Pergolesi's Stabat Mater is used to link three disjunct yet related events having to do with the death of Salieri's father. Milos Forman's use of music also both inscribes and subverts the standard practice of phantasmagoric aesthetics in Hollywood as well as displaying Brechtian alienation, with multiple examples of Brechtian interventions. For example, as soon as Salieri praises The Marriage of Figaro, the Emperor yawns, which obliterates the seriousness of Salieri's jealousy.

Works: Milos Forman (director): Sound track to Amadeus.

Sources: Mozart: Don Giovanni (60, 64-66, 68), Requiem (60, 64), Symphony No. 25 in G Minor, K. 183 (61), Mass in C minor, K. 427 (62), The Magic Flute (Die Zauberflöte) (62), The Abduction from the Seraglio (Die Entführung aus dem Serail) (62-63) The Marriage of Figaro (Le nozze di Figaro) (63-64, 67-68), Piano Concerto in D Minor, K. 466 (64-65, 69), Wind Serenade in B-flat Major, K. 361 (66-68); Pergolesi: Stabat Mater (62, 70).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Karen Anton Stafford

[+] Johnson, Julian. “The Precarious Present.” In Out of Time: Music and the Making of Modernity, 82-116. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Modernity is characterized by simultaneous pulling between two opposing directions, the lost past and the unlived future, which leaves the individual in an unstable and unsatisfying present. Because of this bifurcation, one experiences the present as fragmented. Music is especially apt at embodying this tension of past, present, and future, as can be seen in nineteenth- and twentieth-century composers’ appropriation of older styles into new idioms, and a renewed interest in those older forms. For example, Mendelssohn’s Preludes and Fugues, Op. 35 combines the general structure and style of Bach’s preludes and fugues with Romantic soloistic virtuosity that is anathema to Baroque aesthetics. The 1920s also saw increased activity in the transcription of works by J. S. Bach, Handel, and Palestrina, among others, with an emphasis on Classical and Baroque forms. Such examples of composers mixing older styles and forms into modern works suggests that we should resist dividing composers into conservative and progressive camps because musical modernity itself occurs in the precarious space between the past and present.

Works: Berg: Wozzeck (86); Bernd Alois Zimmermann: Die Soldaten (86); Camille Saint-Saëns: Le Carnaval des Animaux (97); Hans Pfitzner: Palestrina (105); Schoenberg: Concerto for Cello and Orchestra after a Harpsichord Concerto by G. M. Monn (107), Concerto for String Quartet and Orchestra in B-flat (107); Webern: Ricercare (107); Mendelssohn: Preludes and Fugues, Op. 35 (111); Fauré: Nocturne in E-flat Minor (111-12); Beethoven: Diabelli Variations, Op. 120 (113); Mozart: String Quartet in E-flat Major, K.171 (113), String Quartet in G Major, K.387 (113).

Sources: Offenbach: Orphée aux Enfers (97); G. M. Monn: Harpsichord Concerto (107); Handel: Concerto Grosso in B-flat Major, Op. 6, No. 7 (107); Johann Sebastian Bach: Musical Offering (107), Goldberg Variations (113); Chopin: Prelude in E Minor, Op. 28, No. 4 (111-12).

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

Contributed by: Sarah Kirkman

[+] Johnson, Lee. “The ‘Haunted’ Shostakovich and the Co-presence of Bach.” Tempo 63 (July 2009): 41-50.

Shostakovich depended on Bach to confront a tragic state of reality under Soviet rule, and musical co-presence serves as his creative response to the demands placed on his identity. Musical co-presence refers to a blurring of boundaries between past and present due to the incorporation of past work into the fabric of the present work. Both Shostakovich’s 24 Preludes and Fugues and the String Quartet No. 8 exhibit such co-presence and are closely associated with political crises in Shostakovich’s life and with his identity as a composer. It is impossible to isolate the composer’s life from his art; it was in times of crisis when Shostakovich turned to Bach as a mentor figure. Although the 1948 Zhdanov Decree denounced musical formalism, Shostakovich still decided to compose 24 Preludes and Fugues. His response should be interpreted as a strong reaffirmation of his identity as a composer by creating music derived from the very foundations of artistic expression. In doing so, he is heralding his own identity as being more significant than his contemporary cultural conditions. Bach thus represents Shostakovich’s renewed sense of identity under Soviet power. This heavy reliance on Bachian forms displays co-presence instead of allusion, as Bach’s presence constitutes the essence in the innovative design and ideological substance of the entire work. The more closely Shostakovich embodies Bach’s creative modes, the more authentic his own compositional voice becomes. David Fanning asserts that Shostakovich employs a specifically Bachian binary fugue in his work. The String Quartet No. 8 also displays co-presence in the Bachian fugal opening and closing movements.

Works: Shostakovich: Symphony No. 15 in A Major, Op. 141 (41), Prelude and Fugue in C Major, Op. 87, No. 1 (43), Prelude and Fugue in F-sharp Major, Op. 87, No. 13 (44), Prelude and Fugue in C Minor, Op. 87, No. 20 (44), Prelude and Fugue in G Minor, Op. 87, No. 22 (44), String Quartet No. 8 in C Minor, Op. 110 (45), Symphony No. 10 in E Minor, Op. 93 (45), Sonata for Viola and Piano in C Major, Op. 147 (49).

Sources: Rossini: Guillaume Tell (41); Wagner: Der Ring des Nibelungen (41); Shostakovich: The Song of the Forests, Op. 81 (43); Johann Sebastian Bach: Prelude and Fugue No. 1 in C Major, BWV 846, from The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book I (43), Prelude and Fugue No. 9 in E Major, BWV 878, from The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book II (44), Prelude and Fugue No. 2 in C Minor, BWV 871, from The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book II (44), Prelude and Fugue No. 16 in G Minor, BWV 885, from The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book II (45), The Art of Fugue, BWV 1080, Prelude and Fugue No. 4 in C-sharp Minor, BWV 849, from The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book I (45); Beethoven: String Quartet No. 14 in C-sharp Minor, Op. 131 (45); Shostakovich: Tormented by Grievous Bondage (46), Symphony No. 1 in F Minor, Op. 10 (46), Piano Trio No. 2 in E Minor, Op. 67 (46), Cello Concerto No. 1 in E-flat Major, Op. 107 (46), Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District, Op. 29 (46); Wagner: Götterdämmerung, WWV 86D (46); Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 6 in B Minor, Op. 74 (46); Shostakovich: Symphony No. 10 in E Minor, Op. 93 (46); Beethoven: Piano Sonata in C-sharp Minor, Op. 27, No. 2 (49).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Jingyi Zhang

[+] Johnson, Tim. “Out of Belfast and Belgrade: The Recent Music of Ian Wilson.” Tempo 57 (April 2003): 2-9.

Ian Wilson is an Irish-born modern composer whose works often reflect the violent conflict and its devastating effects that Wilson experienced while living in Belfast and Belgrade. One such work, Messenger, was written in Belgrade during the NATO campaign of the 1990s. The second movement of Messenger is almost unique in Wilson’s output, as it is one of only three works acknowledged by the composer to contain musical borrowings. This movement contains an allusion to Brahms’s Lullaby, Op. 49, No. 4; this musical borrowing is unique in Wilson’s work because it is a recognizable musical motif that is used to suggest something quite specific. This allusion to Brahms’s Lullaby is recapitulated in the middle of the fourth movement, another rarity for Wilson. In the second movement the allusion appears in a sparse texture and repeats the Lullaby’s opening minor third quite often. In the fourth movement the allusion is shorter (only three measures), and the often repeated minor third is transposed down a half-step from the second movement. Other recent works by Wilson do not contain allusions to outside musical sources, but do contain some elements of self-quotation. For example, a concerto for piano and strings, titled an angel serves a small breakfast, returns to a technique he first used in his 1998 concerto for piano and strings, Limena. The piano parts of these two works share much melodic material, and the parts of both accompaniments comprise reworked melodic material from the motives of the piano part. an angel serves a small breakfast also contains brass chorales in a style that is highly reminiscent of Messiaen.

Works: Ian Wilson: Messenger (3-4), an angel serves a small breakfast (5-6).

Sources: Brahms: Lullaby, Op. 49, No. 4 (3-4); Ian Wilson: Limena (5-6).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Chelsea Hamm

[+] Johnson, Timothy A. "Chromatic Quotations of Diatonic Tunes in Songs of Charles Ives." Music Theory Spectrum 18 (Fall 1996): 236-61.

Ives quoted many diatonic melodies in his songs, which were then transformed chromatically. A process of intervallic alteration created contrasting diatonic links, offered more intervallic material for exploitation, and used a process called "refracted diatonicism." Ives exploits the connections between the various diatonic areas through the use of the tritone.

Works: Ives: The Innate (239-43, 257), The Camp-Meeting (244-45, 256), At the River (245-47, 256, 257), Nov. 2, 1920 (249-51, 256), Hymn (250-53, 255, 258), Old Home Day (256-60).

Sources: Asahel Nettleton or John Wyeth (attr.): Nettleton (240-43); William Bradbury: Woodworth (244-45); Robert Lowry: The Beautiful River (245-47); John Stafford Smith: The Star-Spangled Banner (249-51); William Howard Doane: More Love to Thee (250-53); William Steffe (attrib.): The Battle Hymn of the Republic (257-60).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Felix Cox

[+] Jones, Andrew. Plunderphonics, 'Pataphysics, and Pop Mechanics: An Introduction to musique actuelle. Wembley, Middlesex, England: SAF Publishing Ltd., 1995.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz, Popular

[+] Jones, Nicholas. "Preliminary Workings: The Precompositional Process in Maxwell Davies's Third Symphony." Tempo, no. 204 (April 1998): 14-22.

The sketchbooks for Peter Maxwell Davies's Symphony No. 3 can be used to reconstruct the composer's precompositional workings. These sketchbooks illustrate the composer's use of sieving, pitch and durational matrices, and magic squares. The initial operation used is that of sieving, in which the pitch content of the borrowed material is reduced by selecting the portion to be used and omitting repeated pitches from the sieved set. A pitch matrix is a square in which each pitch of the sieved set is placed, much like a twelve-tone row matrix, horizontally across the top of the square. However, the set is also written vertically down the first column of the matrix. The square is then completed through transposition of each row in accordance with the first pitch of that row from the sieved set. To form the durational matrix, each note in the pitch matrix is numbered horizontally across each row, working left to right. Magic squares are mathematically generated squares which can correspond to celestial bodies; for example, Davies uses the Magic Square of Mercury in the Symphony No. 3. Each pitch from the pitch/durational matrix is transferred to the magic square according to its number. Davies subjects his borrowed material, a plainchant, to these manipulations to generate compositional material. Through abstract procedures, Davies creates a new musical work based on borrowed material, but without that material being evident.

Works: Davies: Symphony No. 3. (14-22).

Sources: Anonymous: Sancte Michael Archangele, defende nos in praelio (16, 18).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Christopher Holmes

[+] Jung, Hans Rudolf. "Weimar: Münchhausen, Ballett von Rainer Kunad uraufgeführt." Musik und Gesellschaft 31 (1981): 239-40.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Just, Martin. "Recomposition und Zitat in Stravinskijs Circus Polka." In Altes im Neuen: Festschrift Theodor Göllner zum 65. Geburtstag, ed. Bernd Edelmann and Manfred Hermann Schmid, 359-76. Tutzing: Schneider, 1995.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Kagel, Mauricio. Anlässlich der Schallplattenaufnahme von 'Ludwig van.' Bonn: Inter Nationes, 1970.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Kämper, Dietrich. "Dante im Musiktheater des 20. Jahrhunderts: Luigi Dallapiccolas Bühnenwerk Ulisse." Deutsches Dante-Jahrbuch 76 (2001): 89-101.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Kangas, Ryan R. “Mahler’s Early Summer Journeys through Vienna, or What Anthropomorphized Nature Tells Us.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 68 (Summer 2015): 375-428.

Mahler’s Third Symphony not only programmatically represents the dichotomy between winter and summer but also documents the interconnected urban and rural spheres of fin-de-siècle Austria-Hungary. This interpretation of Mahler’s symphony positions Vienna as the mid-point in Mahler’s working year and connects it to the arrival of summer. Mahler’s visits to Vienna in 1895 and 1896 coincided with local political upheavals concerning the election of Christian Social mayor Karl Lueger. While Mahler typically eschews politics, the mob section of the first movement of the Third Symphony does suggest the mobs in Vienna. A political reading of the symphony is further suggested by the similarities between the opening theme and Wir hatten gebauet ein stattliches Haus by August Von Binzer, which originated with Vormärz liberalism and became associated with socialists in the 1870s. The political valence of the opening theme and the mob section gives moments like the recapitulation extra significance as well: the opening funeral march regains control over the mob. The third movement of the symphony reworks Mahler’s own Ablösung im Sommer and its use of birdsong. Within the symphony, the lines between urban and rural are blurred, suggesting a halfway point between Mahler’s rural composing retreats in Steinbach and the urban polyphony of his professional life. The interruption of the Ablösung material by the post horn fanfare represents not only an intrusion of civilization on nature, but also (in a more literal sense) the arrival of communication (the mail). Personal resonances with Mahler’s biography can also be heard in the symphony. Nature cannot be a true escape from urban life as it is itself a construct of modern society. The true significance of the journey through nature in the symphony is the journey itself.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 3 in D minor (388-90, 407-11, 414-20, 420-21)

Sources: August von Binzer (lyrics): Wir hatten gebauet ein stattliches Haus (388-90); Mahler: Ablösung im Sommer (407-11, 420-21); Albert Hiller: Das große Buch vom Posthorn (414-20)

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Karbusicky, Vladimir. Gustav Mahler und seine Umwelt. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1978.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Karnauhova, Veronika Aleksandrovna. “Prozrenija Maksa Regera.” Muzykal’naâ academia 1 (2004): 185-87.

Max Reger predicted many of the tendencies of twentieth century music. His style could be analyzed to have two distinct strands: a penchant for the “neo” tendencies, particularly the neo-Baroque, as was later taken up by Hindemith; and a deep plumbing of Romanticism. Choral music became a realization of the composer’s forward-thinking style. Reger not only predicted the renewed prominence of choral music, he was one of the first who tackled the reworking of old song genres. Reger’s Psalm No. 100 for Choir and Orchestra in C minor, Op. 106, synthesized the forms of the oratorio, the symphony, and the cantata. His dual opus Der Einsiedler, Op. 144a, and Requiem, Op. 144b, exemplify the process of cyclization, as Der Einsiedler serves as a prelude to Requiem, and the works are unified together through the same orchestration and the use of the chorale Nun ruhen alle Wälder. Reger also began the trend of grouping cyclic forms, which impacted many composers. Stravinsky in particular followed this practice in his Choral Variations on “Vom Himmel Hoch”, transcribed from Bach. Reger’s Requiem, set to a text by Hebble, is an example of Reger’s union of sacred and secular requiem styles, taking as its model Brahms’ Ein Deutsches Requiem.

Works: Reger: Psalm No. 100 for Choir and Orchestra in C minor, Op. 106 (185–86), Der Einsiedler, Op. 144a (186), Requiem, Op. 144b (186).

Sources: Brahms: Ein deutsches Requiem, Op. 45 (187); Paul Gerhardt: Nun ruhen alle Wälder (186).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Maria Fokina

[+] Kassabian, Anahid. Hearing Film: Tracking Identifications in Contemporary Hollywood Film Music. New York: Routledge, 2001.

Film theory must include music as a "condition of identification," how film music is received and interpreted by the audience, taking into account the impact of the intertextual reference between different films which borrow the same music, as well as the emotional impact of less recognizable music on the listener. Film audiences develop "socio-historically specific musical languages," where all music becomes referential, especially through the use of quotation, allusion, and leitmotif. Musical quotation has become a staple form of contemporary film scores through "compilation," the use of a series of pre-recorded music tracks rather than a newly-composed film score, because previously recorded and distributed music may carry with it strong ties to time period, genre, or location. The concepts of "assimilating," describing borrowings that are closely aligned with dominant ideologies, and "affiliating," for uses that broaden the range of acceptable connections between the text and music, contribute to understanding how the identification of preexisting music by the audience member serves to form notions of cultural identities or stereotypes as part of character and or plot development within film.

Works: Charles Wolcott: score to Blackboard Jungle (50); Carmine Coppola: score to Apocalypse Now (50); Charles Strouse: score to Bonnie and Clyde (51); Dick Hyman: score to Moonstruck (51).

Sources: Max C. Freedman and Jimmy DeKnight: Rock Around the Clock (50); Wagner: "Ride of the Valkyres" from Die Walküre (50); Traditional: Foggy Mountain Breakdown (51); Puccini: "Che gelida manina" from La Boheme (51).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kathleen Widden

[+] Katz, Mark. "Music in 1s and 0s: The Art and Politics of Digital Sampling." Chapter 7 in Capturing Sound: How Technology Has Changed Music, 137-57. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2004.

Digital sampling is a specific type of musical borrowing in which one recorded sound is incorporated into a new recorded sound. Sampling, unlike other types of musical borrowing, is able to manipulate the recorded sounds of specific performances. Sampling is a transformative art, rather than a practice of technological quotation. New works, such as Fatboy Slim's Praise You, which samples Camille Yarbrough's Take Yo' Praise, raise questions about creativity, originality, gender, race, and class. An accompanying CD provides recordings of several mentioned works.

Works: Eric B. and Rakim: Lyrics of Fury (137); Philip King (composer), Sinéad O'Connor (performer): I Am Stretched on Your Grave (137); Robert Hunter and Jerry Garcia (songwriters), Sublime (performers): Scarlet Begonias (137); George Michael: Waiting for that Day (137); Paul Lansky: Notjustmoreidlechatter (141-145); Fatboy Slim: Praise You (145-151); Public Enemy: Fight the Power (151-156).

Sources: James Brown: Funky Drummer (137, 152, 154): Camille Yarbrough: Take Yo' Praise (145-151); Trouble Funk: Pump Me Up (151, 157).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Katz, Mark. “The Turntable as Weapon.” Chapter 6 in Capturing Sound: How Technology Has Changed Music, 114-36. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2004.

Turntablism in DJ battles subverts the intended function of musical recordings and demonstrates how users can shape recording technology instead of the other way around. Turntablism is a performative act of manipulating music recordings using a DJ turntable and has its roots in the beginnings of hip-hop. One modern practice of turntablism is DJ battles, in which two DJs taking turns demonstrating their turntable skills, with the crowd determining a winner based on technical and artistic ability. The origins of DJ battles are informal contests in the 1970s in the Bronx; by the mid 80s, formal competitions were organized by groups like the DMC (Disco Mix Club). Modern DJ battles are racially diverse, but are mainly dominated by young men. Despite the metaphorical violence of a “battle,” DJs battles are a safe space for young men to express themselves creatively. There is competition between contestants, but overall the performance and audience participation are more central to the activity. While there is no open discrimination of women in DJ battles, the lack of female participation is an issue. Underlying misogyny in rap music (indirectly related to DJ battles) and the battles themselves (dismissing opponents as “bitches,” for example), as well as a pervasive view of recording technology as gendered male, contribute to the relative lack of female battle DJs.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Kaufmann, Harald. "Figur in Weberns erster Bagatelle." In Neue Wege der musikalische Analyse: Acht Beiträge von Lars Ulrich Abraham, Jürg Bour, Carl Dahlhaus, harald Kaufmann und Rudolf Stephan, ed. Lars Ulrich Abraham, 69-72. Berlin: Verlag Merseburger, 1967.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Kay, Norman. "Shostakovich's 15th Symphony." Tempo, no. 100 (Spring 1972): 36-40.

Shostakovich achieves his life-long goal of writing a truly classical symphonic allegro in his Fifteenth Symphony. The work as a whole is characterized by economy: a quotation from Rossini's William Tell Overture forms the basis for all motives in the first movement. It is significant that Shostakovich chooses a model far removed from Viennese classicism from which to build this movement. The second movement quotes twice from the Eleventh Symphony, and the third introduces the infamous D-S-C-H motive. The final movement quotes Wagner's "Fate Motive" from Der Ring des Nibelungen as well as the rhythm of Siegfried's "Funeral March" from Gotterdämmerung. The quotation of the "Fate Motive" may be a back-handed comment on "poster-coloured" optimism, but becomes more personal when juxtaposed with the D-S-C-H motive. This progression from the Rossinian light-heartedness of the first movement to the gravity of the last exemplifies Shostakovich's affinity for tragedy.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Randal Tucker

[+] Kearns, William K. "Horatio Parker 1863-1919: A Study of His Life and Music." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, 1965.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Kearns, William K. Horatio Parker, 1863-1919: His Life, Music, and Ideas. Composers of North America, No. 6. Metuchen, N.J., and London: Scarecrow Press, 1990.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Kelly, Kevin O. "The Songs of Charles Ives and the Cultural Contexts of Death." Ph.D. diss., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1988.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Kennedy, Michael. Richard Strauss. London: Dent, 1976.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Kennedy, Michael. Strauss Tone Poems. London: British Broadcasting Corporation, 1984.

Strauss's tone poems contain a variety of quotations from preexistent sources. There is a separate list of self-quotations in Ein Heldenleben on pp. 46-47.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Fredrick Tarrant

[+] Keppler, Philip Jr. "Some Comments on Musical Quotation." The Musical Quarterly 42 (October 1956): 473-85.

Allusions to well-known tunes or passages may (1) deliver a concealed comment (as in a theatrical "aside") and (2) depend on the listener's knowledge of the source if the comment is to be effective or even noted. Several categories can be differentiated: incidental thematic quotation, topical thematic reference (to tunes such as the Marseillaise and to less familiar tunes), and quotation of vocal works in which the text is of significance. Commentarial quotation is distinguished from self-quotation (here with reference to Mahler, Rossini, and Beethoven) since in the latter knowledge of the source is of no significance. Commentarial quotation is a predominantly Romantic phenomenon and fits in with the desire to be exclusive and the tendency to refer to things outside the work of art.

Works: Elgar: Enigma Variations (473); Saint-Saëns: Carnival of Animals (473), Danse Macabre (474); Tchaikovsky: 1812 Overture (474); Schumann: Die beiden Grenadieren (474); Weber: Jubilee Overture (474), Battle Symphony (474); Brahms: Song of Triumph (474), Academic Festival Overture (474); Mendelssohn: Reformation Symphony (474); Wagner: Kaisermarsch (474); Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique (474); Liszt: Totentanz (474), Dante Symphony (474); Mussorgsky: Songs and Dances of Death (474); Rachmaninoff: Isle of the Dead (474), Variations on a Theme by Paganini (474); Schelling: A Victory Ball (475); Wagner: Parsifal (476), Die Meistersinger (477), "Wesendonck" Songs (477), Siegfried Idyll (478); Puccini: Il Tabarro (479); Mozart: Don Giovanni (480), The Marriage of Figaro (480); Strauss: Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme (481), Capriccio (482); Sterndale Bennett: Études Symphoniques, Op. 13 (483).

Sources: Mendelssohn: Calm Sea and Prosperous Voyage (473); Berlioz: Dance of the Sylphs (473); Rouget de Lisle: La Marseillaise (474); Arne: God Save the King (474); Luther: Ein feste Burg; Anonymous: Gaudeamus Igitur (474), Dies Irae (474); Rossini: "Una voce poco fa" from Barber of Seville (475), "Di tanti palpiti" from Tancredi (475-76); Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (477-78); Strauss: Death and Transfiguration (480); Martín: Una Cosa Rara (480); Sarti: I Due Litiganti (480); Marschner: The Templar and the Jewess (483).

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Kermode, Mark. "Twisting the Knife." In Celluloid Jukebox: Popular Music and the Movies Since the 50s, ed. Jonathan Romney and Adrian Wootton, 8-21. London: British Film Institute, 1995.

Popular music in film can serve to inspire and enliven directors and accompany, counterpoint, boost, or ironically comment upon their visual work. Popular music can create an instant period location, establishing time and place with just a few choice chords, haunting vocal phrases, or distinctive drumbeats. More than any other art form, popular music is a disposable, transient product that reflects, mimics, and occasionally shapes the American zeitgeist through film music. American popular music can serve as a film's memory, tapping into a nostalgic past or fixing the film firmly in the present. In the film score of Richard Brooks's Blackboard Jungle, which borrowed Bill Haley and the Comets' Rock Around the Clock, and Frank Tashlin's score for The Girl Can't Help It, which included music from Gene Vincent and the Blue Caps, Eddie Cochran, Julie London, Fats Domino, and Little Richard, Brooks and Tashlin were successful in capturing the essence of the 1950s teenage experience by incorporating the emerging genre of Rock and Roll. Contemporary popular music has also been used to help tell the story. Dennis Hopper's Easy Rider used Steppenwolf's Born to be Wild to epitomize the new breed of youth rebellion in the 1970s. John Badham's Saturday Night Fever featured the Bee Gees, Spike Lee's Do the Right Thing included rap and blues artists, and Cameron Crowe's Singles showcased Seattle 1990s grunge bands, all utilizing contemporary artists to place the film in the "now." John Carpenter's sound track to Christine, based on Stephen King's novel, references the nostalgic 1950s through the radio of the 1958 Plymouth Fury. American films based on the Vietnam War rely heavily on the political sentiments expressed via 1970s Rock and Roll; Francis Ford Coppola's Apocalypse Now opens ominously with The Door's The End, while Mark Rydell's For the Boys has Bette Midler on screen singing The Beatles' In My Life as her son is killed in battle. Film scores often develop a symbiotic relationship between pop music and film, where the music borrowed for a film is re-released as a marketing scheme for the movie.

Works: Richard Brooks: score to Blackboard Jungle (9); Bobby Troup: songs for The Girl Can't Help It (9); Dennis Hopper: score to Easy Rider (12); Barry Gibb, Maurice Gibb, Robin Gibb, and David Shire: songs for Saturday Night Fever (12); Spike Lee: score to Do the Right Thing (12); Cameron Crowe, et al.: score to Singles (12); Mike Nichols: score to The Graduate (12); Michelangelo Antonioni: score to Blowup (12), Zabriskie Point (12); John Carpenter: score to Christine (13); Carmine Coppola: score to Apocalypse Now (16); Philip Kaufman: score to The Wanderers (16); Dave Grusin and Diane Warren: score to For the Boys (17).

Sources: Max C. Freedman and Jimmy DeKnight: Rock Around the Clock as performed by Bill Haley and the Comets (9); Mars Bonfire (Dennis Edmonton): Born to be Wild as performed by Steppenwolf (12); Paul Simon: Mrs. Robinson (12); Paul Simon and Art Garfunkel: Scarborough Fair (12); Jeff Beck, Chris Dreja, Jimmy Page, and Keith Relf [The Yardbirds]: Stroll On (12); David Gilmour, Nick Mason, Roger Waters, Richard Wright [Pink Floyd]: Come in Number 51, Your Time is Up (12); Traditional: Sugar Babes as performed by The Youngbloods (12); Jerry Garcia and Robert Hunter [The Grateful Dead]: Dark Star (12); The Doors: The End (16); Bob Crewe and Bob Gaudio: Walk Like a Man as performed by the Four Seasons (16); Lee Feldman, Jerry Goldstein, and Richard Gottehrer: My Boyfriend's Back as performed by The Angels (16); Dion DiMucci and Ernie Maresca: Runaround Sue,The Wanderer (16); Bob Berryhill, Jim Fuller, and Ron Wilson [The Surfaris]: Wipe Out (16); Acker Bilk and Robert Mellin: Stranger on the Shore as performed by Mel Martin (16); John Lennon and Paul McCartney: In My Life (17).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kathleen Widden

[+] Kibby, Marj, and Karl Neuenfeldt. "Sound, Cinema and Aboriginality." In Screen Scores: Studies in Contemporary Australian Film Music, ed. Rebecca Cole, 66-77. Sydney: Australian Film Television and Radio School, 1998.

The didjeridu is misleadingly used on the soundtrack of Burke and Wills (1986) to suggest an Aboriginal presence, by borrowing the distinct timbre of the instrument but discarding the free rhythmical form of aboriginal music. The timbre of the didjeridu, electronically synthesized and symmetrically organized in meter, is used in film scores aimed at western audiences to signify a single element of Australian Aboriginal culture as complex histories of "otherness," networks of beliefs, and the relationships between peoples and lands. Borrowing the distinct timbre and register of the didjeridu in Australian cultural representations provides for white Australians and Western cinematic audiences a spurious notion of Australian Aboriginal musics, which are primarily vocal musics accompanied by drum and whistle.

Works: Peter Sculthorpe: score to Burke and Wills (66); Guy Gross: score to Adventures of Priscilla, Queen of the Desert (69); J. Peter Robinson: music for Encino Man (69); Martin Armiger, William Motzing, and Tommy Tycho: music for Young Einstein (72); Ira Newborn: score to Ace Ventura, Pet Detective (72); Bill Conti: score to The Right Stuff (73).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kathleen Widden

[+] Kiesewetter, Peter. "Meyerbeer-Paraphrasen." In Meilensteine eines Komponistenlebens, ed. G. Speer and H.J. Winterhoff, 49-55. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1977.

An analysis of Günter Bialas's Meyerbeer-Paraphrasen for orchestra (1970) demonstrates the composer's technique and his ability to infuse it with twentieth-century ideas. References are made to melodic, harmonic, and structural material from Meyerbeer's opera Le Prophète within a tightly organized six-part formal scheme. Bialas intended his piece to be understood as a concert fantasy about the historical kind of paraphrase, a "skeptical apotheosis" of the nineteenth-century model.

Works: Günter Bialas: Meyerbeer-Paraphrasen.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Amy Weller

[+] Kinderman, William. “‘Ich bin der Welt abhanden gekommen’: Mahler’s Rückert Setting and the Aesthetics of Integration in the Fifth Symphony.” The Musical Quarterly 88 (Summer 2005): 232-73.

The final two movements of Mahler’s Fifth Symphony are deeply interrelated and can understood in light of his techniques of integrating song and symphony and his interest in the aesthetics of polarity. The use of the Adagietto of Mahler’s Fifth in Visconti’s film Death in Venice colors its reception as it is used to underscore the isolation of the film’s central character, fictional composer Gustav von Aschenbach. However, the similarities between the Adagietto and Mahler’s setting of “Ich bin der Welt abhanden gekommen,” composed just before the Adagietto, challenges this reading. When understood as a song without words (as Adorno describes the movement) based on “Ich bin der Welt,” the distancing from the world and isolation is cast in a positive light as the sanctuary of the inner self. The falling seventh motif in the Adagietto also has a musical affinity to the glance motive in Wagner’s Tristan und Isolde. The relationship between the Adagietto and the other movements of the symphony, particularly the Rondo-Finale, also suggests a deep integration of the movements of the Fifth Symphony. The integrated aesthetic and fugal writing of the Adagietto and Finale correspond to similar double perspectives in Die Meistersinger. In opposition to what Adorno perceives as a “brokenness” in Mahler’s music, the integrated, dialectical relationship between the Adagietto and the Rondo-Finale represents the unity in Mahler’s symphonic forms.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 5

Sources: Mahler: “Ich bin der Welt abhanden gekommen” from Rückert-Lieder (234-247), “Lob des hohen Verstandes” from Des Knaben Wunderhorn (262-63); Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (250-51)

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] King, Alec Hyatt. "Mountains, Music, and Musicians." The Musical Quarterly 31 (October 1945): 395-419.

When nature became a source of inspiration in literature in the nineteenth century, composers began to write musical works using the mountains as a theme. This was accomplished either with a programmatic title or with the use of a folk tune. Different versions of the Ranz des Vaches, a type of improvisatory tune played on the alphorn to call the cattle home at the end of the day, were quoted by many composers and served as a model for others desiring to evoke an alpine scene. In addition to the many pieces cited within the text and listed below, a list of works by lesser-known composers using the mountains as inspiration or setting is given at the conclusion of the article.

Works: Beethoven: Symphony No. 6, fifth movement (403), Six Variations facile pour le clavecin ou Harpe (Sur un air Suisse) (403); Berlioz: "Scene aux champs" from Symphonie fantastique (402); Grétry: Overture to Guillaume Tell (400); d'Indy: Symphonie Cévenole (413-14); Liszt: "Vallée d'Obermann" (409), "Improvisata sur le ranz des Vaches de Ferdinand Huber" (409), "Nocturne sur le chant montagnard d'Ernest Knop" (409), and "Rondeau sur le Ranz des Chèvres de Ferdinand Huber" (409) from Album d'un voyageur, and Grande Fantaisie sur la Tyrolienne de l'opera "La Fiancée" (transcription of Auber) (409); Mendelssohn: Two early unpublished symphonies (408); Meyerbeer: Song on the Appenzell Ranz des Vaches (400); Rossini: Overture to William Tell (400); Schumann: Manfred (406); Richard Strauss: Don Quixote (415); Wagner: Act III of Tristan und Isolde (411); Webbe: Song on the Appenzell Ranz des Vaches (400); Weigl: Song on the Appenzell Ranz des Vaches (400).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Nancy Kinsey Totten

[+] Kirchmeyer, Helmut. "Vom Sinn und Unsinn musikliterarischer Schlagwortzitate: Eine Studie zum Thema 'Demagogie der Informationen.'" Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 122 (1961): 490-96.

This article discusses the deep symbolic ramifications of musical quotations and leitmotivs. According to Kirchmeyer, quotations and leitmotivs possess demagogical powers or properties. He feels that composers of the German school such as Mahler, Schoenberg, and particularly Wagner were highly aware of these demagogical powers and properties, and consequently exploited them through the use of quotations and/or leitmotivs in their compositions. Kirchmeyer discusses the way in which these three German composers strengthen the symbolic meanings of their works through the use of quotations and leitmotivs.

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Lee Ann Roripaugh

[+] Kirkpatrick, John. "Comparison of Sources." In Charles E. Ives, The Pond, 8. Hillsdale, N.Y.: Boelke-Bomart, 1973.

The final version of The Pond ends with a brief reference to "Taps." But two earler drafts features longer, more complete quotations, shown in examples. Kirkpatrick suggests that, in shortening the quotation in his revision, "Ives apparently decided to be more reticent or cryptic."

Works: Ives: The Pond

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: J. Peter Burkholder

[+] Kirkpatrick, John. "Critical Commentary." In Charles E. Ives, Trio for Violin, Violoncello, and Piano, edited by John Kirkpatrick. New York: Peer International, [1984].

The second movement is a medley of popular tunes and fraternity songs. The finale reworks Ives's The All Enduring, composed for the Yale Glee Club. The finale closes with Toplady ("Rock of Ages"), and a theme heard earlier in the movement may be a cryptic variant of that hymn tune.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: J. Peter Burkholder

[+] Kirkpatrick, John. "Ives as Prophet." In South Florida's Historic Ives Festival 1974-1976, edited by F. Warren O'Reilly, 61-63. Coral Gables, Fla.: University of Miami at Coral Gables, 1976.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Kirkpatrick, John. "Ives, Charles E(dward)." In The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 1980. Revised as "Ives, Charles (Edward)," with additions to the work-list by Paul C. Echols, in The New Grove Dictionary of American Music, 1986.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Kirkpatrick, John. A Temporary Mimeographed Catalogue of the Music Manuscripts and Related Materials of Charles Edward Ives 1874-1954. New Haven: Library of the Yale School of Music, 1960; reprint, 1973.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Kirkpatrick, John. Liner notes to recording of Charles Ives: Five Violin Sonatas, by Daniel Stepner, violin, and John Kirkpatrick, piano. Tinton Falls, N.J.: Musical Heritage Society MHS 824501, 1982.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Kirkpatrick, John. Notes to the songs, in the recording Charles Ives: The 100th Anniversary. New York: Columbia M4 32504, 1974.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Klein, Michael. “Musical Borrowing in Postmodernism and the End of Historicity.” In Musik aus zweiter Hand: Beiträge zur kompositorischen Autorschaft, ed. Frédéric Döhl and Albrecht Riethmüller, 9-24. Spektrum der Musik 10. Laaber: Laaber-Verlag, 2017.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Klein, Michael. “Musical Borrowing in Postmodernism and the End of Historicity.” In Musik aus zweiter Hand: Beiträge zur kompositorischen Autorschaft, ed. Frédéric Döhl and Albrecht Riethmüller, 9–24. Spektrum der Musik 10. Laaber: Laaber-Verlag, 2017.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Klement, Udo. "Oratorium Das Friedensfest; oder; die Teilhabe von Günter Kochan." Musik und Gesellschaft 31 (April 1981): 213-16.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Klüppelholz, Werner. "Ohne das Wesentliche der Ideen unkenntlich zu nachen: Zu Kagels Variationen ohne Fuge." In Die neue Musik und die Tradition, ed. Reinhold Brinkmann, 114-29. Mainz: Schott, 1978.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Klüppelholz, Werner. "Variationen ohne Fuge für grosses Orchester über Variationen und Fuge über ein Thema von Handel fur Klavier op. 24 von Johannes Brahms (1861/1862)." In Mauricio Kagel 1970-1980, 74-100. Köln: DuMont, 1981.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Klusen, Ernst. "Gustav Mahler und das böhmisch-mährische Volkslied." In: Bericht über den Internationalen Musikwissenschaftlichen Kongress Kassel 1962, ed. Georg Reichert and Martin Just, 246-51. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1963.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Knapp, Alexander. "The Jewishness of Bloch: Subconscious or Conscious?" Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association 97 (1970-71): 99-112.

Bloch turned to his Jewish identity for inspiration in part because the latent hostility toward Jews in his native Geneva left him ostracized from that city's musical life. His incorporation of Jewish materials in his music ranges from direct quotations, which are consciously intended, to materials associated with Jewish music but not directly quoted from any particular source, which are less consciously recalled. The latter include Jewish cantillation modes, less specifically Jewish exotic scales allowing for melodic skips of an augmented second or fourth, and rhapsodic, quasi-improvised passages.

Works: Bloch: Baal Shem Suite, Abodah, Suite Hébraïque,Israel Symphony,Avodath Hakodesh, Schelomo, Voice in the Wilderness.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David Lieberman

[+] Knapp, Raymond. "Music, Electricity, and the 'Sweet Mystery of Life' in Young Frankenstein." In Changing Tunes: The Use of Pre-existing Music in Film, ed. Phil Powrie and Robynn Stilwell, 105-18. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.

Music and electricity have become specific accretions to the Frankenstein story over time, with American popular music serving as a subset of music in Mel Brooks's Young Frankenstein. The film plays like an operetta by focusing on personal stories and songs with special personal significance to the characters, staying away from the larger issues of human appropriation of the divine powers of electricity and music. Pre-existing songs used in the film offer both thematic verbal content as well as immediate jokes, whether or not the audience is aware of thematic conventions in which the film is engaging, although the broader humorous effect of the songs often obscures the appropriateness of the musical choice.

Works: James Whale (director): Sound track to Bride of Frankenstein (110); Mel Brooks (director): Sound track to Young Frankenstein.

Sources: Victor Herbert: Dream Melody (107-08, 112-13, 116); Irving Berlin: Puttin' on the Ritz (108, 113-15); Battle Hymn of the Republic (108, 113, 115); Schubert: Ave Maria (110-11); Wagner: Lohengrin (115).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Karen Anton Stafford

[+] Knaus, Herwig. "Die Kärntner Volksweise aus Alban Bergs Violinkonzert." Musikerziehung 23 (January 1969-70): 117-18.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Kneif, Tibor. "Collage oder Naturalismus?: Anmerkungen zu Mahlers 'Nachtmusik I.'" Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 134 (1973): 623-28.

Mahler's innovations in instrumentation required the use of nonmusical instruments in a collage technique, characterized by sounds in free, non-metric patterns that are set against the remaining instruments. 'Nachtmusik I' of the Seventh Symphony employs a cowbell as a nonprogrammatic layer of the texture. Although this style resembles that of Ives, Mahler had no Ivesian connection. However, he undoubtedly borrowed this style from selected textures in Beethoven's Leonore Overture and Meyerbeer's Le Prophète, but he did not use direct quotations.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Fredrick Tarrant

[+] Kneif, Tibor. "Zur Semantik des musikalischen Zitats." Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 134 (1973): 3-9.

A consideration of hermeneutics compounds Lissa's list of methods of citation by proposing the necessity of composer intent in order to defend a possible quotation. The character of the citation is defined by the connection between the composer and the listener, not between the composer and the quoted material. Reasons for parody are found in Bach and Schubert examples, "contrast citation" in Debussy, Beethoven, and Bartók examples, and self quotation in Wagner, Strauss, and Mozart examples. Contemporary composers, such as Cage and Stockhausen, show their affinity for the character of earlier works through citation, even while they vocally reject such styles.

Index Classifications: General, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Bradley Jon Tucker

[+] Kneipel, Eberhard. "Wir klären Fachbegriffe Zitat/Collage." Musik in der Schule 35, no. 4 (1984): 100-4.

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

[+] Knight, Ellen. "The Evolution of Loeffler's Music for Four Stringed Instruments." American Music 2 (Fall 1984): 66-83.

Music for Four Stringed Instruments was first composed in August, 1917, as a tribute to Victor Chapman, the first American aviator killed in World War I and the son of a friend of the composer. Before its publication in 1923, it underwent several revisions, and in publishing the work Loeffler withheld the written program and dedication to Chapman's memory that accompanied the 1919 premiere performance. The revisions emphasize the thematic role of the plainchant melody Resurrexi in the first movement. This chant also appears in the second movement, but there the central role is played by Victimae paschali. The programmatic, episodic third movement also employs Resurrexi, but the climactic statement is of a motive from a plainchant antiphon used in the funeral service. The pervasiveness of the Resurrexi music suggests a spiritual interpretation: an affirmation of spiritual victory over earthly sorrow.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David Lieberman

[+] Knights, Vanessa. "Queer Pleasures: The Bolero, Camp, and Almodóvar." In Changing Tunes: The Use of Pre-existing Music in Film, ed. Phil Powrie and Robynn Stilwell, 91-104. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.

Pedro Almodóvar's use of sentimental boleros and Latin popular musical heritage in his films may have contributed to the renaissance of the bolero song genre in late twentieth-century Spain. He used boleros through a process of bricolage, choosing pre-existing songs to indicate of mood, aid narration, and create commentary, often depicting the bolero as camp or queer. Further, due to semiotic shifters in Spanish, bolero lyrics have multiple meanings which alter depending on the gender identifications of singers and listeners. This reinforces a blurring of boundaries between masculine and feminine as well as a homoerotic articulation of desire through the use of boleros in Almodóvar's films.

Works: Pedro Almodóvar (director): Sound track to Entre tinieblas (Dark Habits) (93, 96-98), Sound track to La ley del deseo (Law of Desire) (93, 98-101), Sound track to Tacones lejanos (High Heels) (93, 100-103), Sound track to Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios (Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown) (94), Sound track to La flor de mi secreto (The Flower of My Secret) (94-95); Sound track to Carne trémula (Live Flesh) (95-96).

Sources: Catalino Curet Alonso and La Lupe: Puro teatro (94); Lola Beltrán: Soy infeliz (94); Vargas: En el ultimo trago (95), Somos (95-96); Bola de Nieve: Déjame recordar (99); Jacques Brel: Ne me quitte pas (100); Jean Cocteau: La Voix humaine (100); Agustín Lara: Piensa en mí (100-102); Luz Casal: Un año de amor (102-103).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Karen Anton Stafford

[+] Knyt, Erinn E. “‘How I Compose’: Ferruccio Busoni’s Views about Invention, Quotation, and the Compositional Process.” Journal of Musicology 27 (Spring 2010): 224-64.

Composer and transcriber Ferruccio Busoni valued arrangements and new compositions equally, and his compositions mixed borrowed and new musical material even as transcriptions became aesthetically undesirable in the early twentieth century. In his writings, Busoni blurs the line between composition and arrangement with his philosophy that composers do not create music, but rather capture and represent heavenly music already in existence. In many of his transcriptions and arrangements, Busoni “corrects” the original scores in order to conform more closely to his vision of the ideal piece. In the case of Busoni’s unsolicited arrangement of Schoenberg’s Klavierstück, Op. 11, No. 2, this license provoked a negative response from Schoenberg. In his compositional process, Busoni begins with an abstract, non-musical Idee, which is transformed into an abstract musical concept, or Einfall. This must then go through the process of Transkription and Arrangement to translate it into a musical work. Many of his original compositions, such as Fünf kurze Stücke zur Pflege des polyphonen Spiels (1923), mix arrangement, transcription, and composition in unique ways. His edition of Liszt’s Grande Étude de Paganini No. 6 included Paganini’s original Caprice No. 24, Liszt’s two versions of the work (1838 and 1851), and original conflations of the three. An unpublished arrangement of Mozart’s Piano Concerto in G Major, K. 453, demonstrates Busoni’s attempt to modernize and perfect Mozart’s score. Occasionally, Busoni describes his work as Nachdichtung, or the assimilation of an older style into a modern idiom. This includes his Fantasia nach J. S. Bach, which combines altered renditions of several Bach chorale compositions. While Busoni’s approach is comparable to contemporary virtuosos creating their own performance arrangements, his idiosyncratic approach to transcription, arrangement, and composition—especially in a musical culture praising originality above all—made him one of the most original thinkers of the early twentieth century.

Works: Ferruccio Busoni: arrangement of Schoenberg’s Klavierstück, Op. 11, No. 2 (228-30), Fantasia Contrappuntistica (234), Fünf kurze Stücke zur Pflege des polyphonen Spiels (238), Doktor Faust (239-40), edition of Liszt’s Grande Étude de Paganini No. 6 in A Minor (243-51), arrangement of Mozart’s Piano Concerto in G Major, K. 453 (252-54), Fantasia nach J. S. Bach (256-60)

Sources: Schoenberg: Klavierstück, Op. 11, No. 2 (228-30); J. S. Bach: The Art of the Fugue, BWV 1080 (234), Christ der du bist der helle Tag, BWV 766 (256-60), Gottes Sohn ist kommen, BWV 703 (256-60), Lob sei dem allmächtigen Gott, BWV 602 (256-60); Mozart: The Magic Flute (238), Piano Concerto in G Major, K. 453 (252-54); Ferruccio Busoni: Nocturne Symphonique (239-40); Liszt: Grande Étude de Paganini No. 6 in A Minor (243-51); Paganini: Caprice No. 24 (243-51)

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Kolodin, Irving. "Berio, Rochberg, and the Musical Quote." Saturday Review 2 (February 8, 1975): 36, 38.

Luciano Berio's well-justified and innovative use of the third movement of Mahler's Second Symphony in the middle movement of his Sinfonia has given rise to other uses of borrowed music which are neither innovative or justified. Many more recent pieces using the technique of collage, like George Rochberg's Music for a Magic Theater, are not destined to survive because they do not represent a significant contribution by the composer.

Works: Mozart: Don Giovanni (36); Beethoven: Diabelli Variations (36); Berio: Sinfonia (36); Ian Hamilton: Alastor (38); Offenbach: Tales of Hoffmann (36); Rochberg: Music for a Magic Theater (38); Richard Strauss: Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme (36); Stravinsky: Le Baiser de la Fée (38), Jeux de Cartes (38), Pulcinella (38); Tippett: Symphony No. 3 (38); Wagner: Die Meistersinger (36).

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] Korman, Clifford. “Criss Cross: Motivic Construction in Composition and Improvisation.” Annual Review of Jazz Studies 10 (1999): 103-26.

Jazz analysts have frequently pointed to Thelonious Monk's Criss Cross as an exemplar of motivic development and coherence in jazz literature. Full transcriptions of Monk's four recordings of Criss Cross, previously unavailable in analytical literature, confirm and elaborate on this claim. Monk's melody is composed entirely of three measure-long motives and variants of those motives. His improvisations incorporate these motives at their respective places in the original melody. In both the main statement and solo sections of two recordings from 1963 and 1971, Monk augments the motives rhythmically, changes the timings of some eighth-note passages, enriches the accompaniment in the left hand, and adjusts the lengths of concluding notes. Monk's solos occasionally deviate from motivic coherence, especially in two recordings from 1951. Deviations most often occur, however, when previous solos by members of Monk's band focus more on harmonic and scalar improvisation than motivic improvisation. Milt Jackson and Sahib Shibab, both on the two 1951 recordings, use a vocabulary that consists of bebop and quotation. In contrast, Charlie Rouse, on the 1963 and 1971 recordings, maintains motivic coherence in his improvisations with Monk's theme.

Works: Thelonious Monk: Criss Cross as recorded in 1951, 1963, and 1971.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Nathan Blustein

[+] Korstvedt, Benjamin M. “Mahler’s Bruckner, between Devotion and Misprision.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 70 (Summer 2017): 357-432.

Gustav Mahler’s significant revisions to Bruckner’s Fourth Symphony amount to what Harold Bloom calls “creative misprision,” demonstrating Mahler’s self-understanding of Bruckner’s influence on his work. Publicly and privately, Mahler had a complicated relationship with the older Bruckner. Mahler’s conducting score and the orchestral parts used for his performance of Bruckner’s Fourth Symphony reveal significant changes to the text that went far beyond the standard of the time. He started with Bruckner’s 1888 final version and throughout the work altered orchestrations and cut around fifteen minutes, including nearly one third of the final movement. Major moments in Bruckner’s score were also altered or removed entirely, including both appearances of the fortissimo theme in the finale—precisely the section with the greatest stylistic influence on Mahler. These revisions can be understood by Bloom’s theory of influence, particularly the concept of misprision: the act of alleviating the anxiety of influence by creatively altering earlier works. Other indications of Mahler’s anxiety of Bruckner’s influence include his unease at charges of the similarity between his music and Bruckner’s. The similarities between passages in the scherzos of Mahler’s Symphony No. 1 and Bruckner’s Symphony No. 3, as well as the similarities between the opening themes of the Adagios of Mahler’s Symphony No. 9 and Bruckner’s Symphony No. 9, suggest a creative influence that Mahler was intent on publicly minimizing. Acknowledging this influence helps to recontextualize both Mahler’s and Bruckner’s positions in music history.

Works: Bruckner, Mahler (revisor): Symphony No. 4 in E-flat Major, WAB 104 (367-98, 416-425); Mahler: Symphony No. 1 in D Major (407-8), Symphony No. 9 (409-11), Symphony No. 5 (411-12)

Sources: Bruckner: Symphony No. 4 in E-flat Major, WAB 104 (367-98, 416-425), Symphony No. 3 in D Minor, WAB 103 (407-8), Symphony No. 9 in D Minor, WAB 109 (409-11), Symphony No. 5 in B-flat Major, WAB 105 (411-12)

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Korzun, Jonathan Nicholas. “The Orchestral Transcriptions of John Philip Sousa.” Ed. diss., University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, 1994.

John Philip Sousa performed many orchestral transcriptions, leading both his professional band and the US Marine Band before that, but only a handful of these transcriptions still exist today. Despite the lack of material, a number of features of Sousa’s transcriptions become apparent, including keeping wind and percussion parts generally intact, writing for choirs of instruments, using clarinets like orchestral violins, and shifting scoring even when the original doesn’t change. Most of the transcriptions performed by the Sousa Band were written by Sousa’s assistants and copyists, not by Sousa himself. Only five orchestral transcriptions in full score in Sousa’s hand remain today: Grieg’s Peer Gynt Suite No. 1, Wagner’s Overture to The Flying Dutchman, Elgar’s Salut d’Amour, Massenet’s “Angelus” from Suite No. 4, and Leo Sowerby’s Comes Autumn Time. One significant addition not in Sousa’s hand is Wagner’s Overture to Tannhäuser, which does not share the same scoring practices of Sousa’s own transcriptions. Other existing transcriptions come from keyboard music, for example Liszt’s Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2.

Works: Sousa: transcriptions of Grieg’s Peer Gynt Suite No. 1 (214–34), Wagner’s Overture to The Flying Dutchman (235–61), Elgar’s Salut d’Amour (262–66), Massenet’s “Angelus” from Suite No. 4 (267–77), and Leo Sowerby’s Comes Autumn Time (278–87).

Sources: Grieg: Peer Gynt Suite No. 1 (214–34); Wagner: Overture to The Flying Dutchman (235–61); Elgar: Salut d’Amour (262–66); Massenet: “Angelus” from Suite No. 4 (267–77); Leo Sowerby: Comes Autumn Time (278–87).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Kosovsky, Robert. "Bernard Herrmann's Radio Music for the Columbia Workshop." Ph.D. diss., City University of New York, 2000.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Kowalke, Kim H. "For Those We Love: Hindemith, Whitman, and 'An American Requiem.'" Journal of the American Musicological Society 50 (Spring 1997): 133-74.

Hindemith, upon becoming a citizen of the United States, began working on what is considered his only nationalistic, American piece: When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd: A Requiem "For Those We Love." Like many other American composers living during World War II, Hindemith was drawn to the poetry of Walt Whitman as the essence of American nationalism. Within this composition, however, there are allusions to the Germanic tradition that Hindemith had left. There are many similarities between Hindemith's Whitman Requiem and Brahms's Ein deutsches Requiem, such as elaborate choral fugues, funeral marches, an orchestral prelude that uses an extended pedal point in the bass, almost identical orchestration, tempo indications, and motivic material. Other than the allusion to Brahms, Hindemith uses only two other musical borrowings within the Requiem. The first is an offstage trumpet playing "Taps" during a militaristic march. The last borrowing is found in the eighth movement, entitled "For Those We Love." Previous scholarship has only found parallels in the Whitman text with the text of the popular Episcopal hymn "For Those We Love." However, by looking deeper into the history of this hymn text, one finds it used in another hymnal but set to "Yigdal," a traditional Jewish melody sung either before or after the service proper on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur, which is note-for-note the same as the tune used by Hindemith in the eighth movement of the Requiem. Hindemith takes the quotation one step further by using many of the same rhythmic values, the same key, and the same shift to the major mode for the final cadence as the traditional Jewish melody.

Works: Hindemith: When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd: A Requiem "For Those We Love" (133-74); Gaza, traditional Jewish melody from The Hymnal of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America 1940 (148-56).

Sources: Brahms: Ein deutsches Requiem (142-45); Yigdal (155-61).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Altizer

[+] Kraemer, Uwe. "Das Zitat bei Igor Strawinsky." Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 131 (1970): 135-41.

Lists many folk songs from which Stravinsky quotes in his music. Stravinsky claimed that he was not always conscious of the sources from which he quoted, but there is convincing evidence that his compositional process was deliberate.

Works: Stravinsky: L'Oiseau du feu (135), Petrouchka (135), Le Sacre du Printemps (136), Les Noces (138), Jeu de Cartes (138), Circus Polka (139), Greeting Prelude (139), Four Norwegian Impressions (Moods) (140).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Fredrick Tarrant

[+] Kramer, Lawrence. “Cultural Politics and Musical Form: The Case of Charles Ives.” In Classical Music and Postmodern Knowledge, 174-200. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.

Beneath the radical heterogeneity of Ives’s style runs a strong undercurrent of moral ambivalence which reinforces the regressive hierarchies—especially those of gender, race, and class—inherent in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century America. By placing certain tunes, such as Protestant hymns, at the top of this hierarchy, Ives musically articulates his nostalgia for his idealized America, where traits such as white-ness, rural-ness, and masculinity dominate social order. In multi-movement works especially, Ives performs his ambivalence using three strategies. First, “Interplay” pits representations of heterogeneity against those of homogenizing idealism within a programmatic context. Second, “Excess” occurs in up-tempo second movements framed by soft, static music that contains and negates the hectic energy and suggests a transcendental truth. Finally, “Hierarchy” resolves the previous movements by privileging a single, often ideologically weighted, musical gesture, affording hegemonic status to white, rural Protestant culture. The recognition of this hierarchical structure leads to a more thorough interpretation of Ives’s music, its cultural context, and the composer’s ideals.

Works: Ives: String Quartet No. 2 (178-79, 187-91), Orchestral Set No. 1: Three Places in New England (182), Majority (185-87), Orchestral Set No. 2 (189-92), Song of Myself (191), Symphony No. 4 (192-94), Piano Sonata No. 2: Concord, Mass., 1840-60 (194-98).

Sources: David T. Shaw: Columbia, Gem of the Ocean (178); George Frederick Root: Battle Cry of Freedom (182); Henry Clay Work: Marching Through Georgia (182); Stephen Foster: Old Black Joe (182); Lowell Mason: Watchman, Tell Us of the Night (188); Joseph P. Webster: In the Sweet Bye and Bye (191-92); Lowell Mason: Bethany (194).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew G. Leone, Daniel Rogers, David G. Rugger

[+] Kramer, Lawrence. “Music and the Politics of Memory: Charles Ives’s A Symphony: New England Holidays.Journal of the Society for American Music 2 (November 2008): 459-75.

The relationship between Ives’s musical forms and his political beliefs manifests itself in his music, where Ives created progressive sonic backgrounds to house his regressive views of America in the form of American tunes (quoted or otherwise). Ives identified America as New England before the Civil War: a prominently rural, white and Protestant community. His main challenge in creating a true American music was to incorporate tunes of Americana in a musically authentic way. The music needed not to sound American, but intrinsically be American. Ives utilized two compositional techniques to accomplish his aims. The first is the creation of a sparse “acoustic horizon” in which various pieces can be quoted, altered, or layered. The second is a cyclical form that is created when the end of the piece recalls the beginning, though not necessarily the beginning melody. These two methods of composition create the world that Ives thought was destroyed by urban modernity, the old-fashioned America he idealized so much.

Works: Ives: Thanksgiving and Forefathers’ Day (466) and Washington’s Birthday (470) from A Symphony: New England Holidays.

Sources: Ives: Prelude and Postlude for a Thanksgiving Service (466); Edwin Pearce Christy: Goodnight Ladies (470).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Devin Chaloux, Cynthia Dretel, Nathan Landes

[+] Krämer, Ulrich. "Quotation and Self-Borrowing in the Music of Alban Berg." Journal of Musicological Research 12 (1992): 53-82.

Despite Adorno's interpretation of Berg's quotation practice as deliberately disjunct, Berg's quotations are painstakingly incorporated into the surrounding musical context, as demonstrated by an analysis of his use of the Carinthian folk song in his Violin Concerto. Berg's quotations fall into four categories: (1) Quotations from Schoenberg, especially Schoenberg's early works; (2) thematic references to works from different stylistic spheres which Berg incorporates into his own idiom; (3) quotations in Wozzeck and Lulu that function as ironic commentary on the stage action; (4) quotations that form an integral part of the surrounding motivic network. The folk-song quotation in the Violin Concerto is an example of the last type. Berg's self-borrowings are largely from a collection of early sonata fragments, dating from 1908 to 1909, and are also of the fourth category. The quotations may work simultaneously on a variety of levels: as the sort of technical problem Berg requires as a creative stimulus; as representative of Berg's desire to retrieve musical ideas important to the evolution of his musical language; and as reminiscences of his period of study with Schoenberg. There is detailed discussion of these self-borrowings as they appear in Wozzeck and the String Quartet, Op. 3. The article's appendix offers a detailed list of Berg's works in which borrowings have been identified and the sources of the borrowings.

Works: Berg: Four Songs, Op. 2, String Quartet, Op. 3, Wozzeck, Chamber Concerto, Lyric Suite,Lulu, Violin Concerto.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David Lieberman

[+] Krasnow, Carolyn. "Fear and Loathing in the 1970s: Race, Sexuality and Disco." Stanford Humanities Review 3, no. 2 (Fall 1993): 37-45.

In the late 1960s rock began to appropriate values more closely resembling the classical tradition, such as virtuosity, creativity, and originality. One of the complaints leveled against newly emergent disco by proponents of rock was disco's perpetual use of pre-recorded music as the basis of new dance tracks. Reusing existing music was seen as an affront to rock's newly won creativity and individuality and represented a collective approach to music found frequently in African-American musical traditions. Because of its use of musical borrowing, therefore, disco represented a challenge to white hegemony in the production of popular culture.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa

[+] Kravitt, Edward F. "Mahler's Dirges for his Death: February 24, 1901." The Musical Quarterly 64 (July 1978): 329-53.

Mahler's Kindertotenlieder, written in the aftermath of the nearly fatal hemorrhage of February 24, 1901, may be considered dirges for his own death. The work is thus autobiographical to an important extent. Several musical connections between the Kindertotenlieder cycle and other of Mahler's works are noted. The phrase at mm. 12-15 in "Nun will die Sonn' so hell aufgehn" is used in the Funeral March movement of the Fifth Symphony. The melodic idea at the beginning of "Nun seh' ich wohl" is reshaped to become the principal idea of the Adagietto of the Fifth Symphony and of the song "Ich bin der Welt abhanden gekommen." Connections exist between the cycle and the Sixth Symphony as well. Important musical relationships exist between the first and last songs of the cycle (p. 345).

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 3 (330-31), Symphony No. 5 (348), Symphony No. 6 (348, 353).

Sources: Mahler: Kindertotenlieder.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Krellmann, Hanspeter. "Mit Collage und Kurzwelle: Mauricio Kagels und Karlheinz Stockhausens Beiträge zum Beethoven-Jahr." Fono forum 15 (September 1970): 608-9.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Krenek, Ernst. "Parvula Corona Musicalis." Bach 2 (October 1971): 18-31.

A testimony and dedication precedes the facsimiles of Krenek's Parvula Corona Musicales (1950), notes to each movement, and the derived twelve-tone rows with which he worked. The work was prompted by the idea of creating a musical symbol of a wreath to be placed at the monument of Bach, the master. The work also derives twelve-tone series from Bach's Art of the Fugue, three of Beethoven's last quartets, and Wagner's Tristan.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Jean Pang

[+] Kreutziger-Herr, Annette, and Rüdiger Jantzen. “Mittelalter in Hollywoods Filmmusik: Miklós Rózsa, Ivanhoe und die Suche nach dem Authentischen.” In Geschichte—Musik—Film, ed. Christoph Henzel, 31-57. Würzburg: Königshausen &Neumann, 2010.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Kropfinger, Klaus. "Bemerkungen zu Schönbergs Händel-Bearbeitungen." In Bericht über den 2. Kongress der Internationalen Schönberg Gesellschaft: Die Wiener Schule in der Musikgeschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts, ed. Rudolf Stephan and Sigrid Wiesmann. Wien: Elisabeth Lafite, 1986.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Krylova, Larisa. “Funkcii citaty v muzykal’nom tekste [The function of quotation in music].” Sovetskaja muzyka (August 1975): 92-97.

The use of a musical quotation can create contrast that affects multiple levels of the music and creates multiple meanings. Although the meanings of a quotation can vary, the quotation carries in itself a wealth of connotations and associations. The categories of quotation usage can be divided up into: homage, illustration, commentary, and explication of the composer’s artistic intent. The semantic functions of a quotation reveal the work’s intent, depending on how the quotation is integrated into the piece. A quotation that begins a piece can function like an epigraph or the thematic nucleus of a work, while a quotation placed in a cumulative setting can create striking stylistic interplay. However, when a quotation is inserted suddenly, indicating an abrupt stylistic change, it could indicate satirical intent. A fascinating example that integrates quotations is Shostakovich’s song cycle Satires. Shostakovich uses quotations from Beethoven and Rachmaninoff in a stylized and farcical way prominently throughout the cycle, which almost conceals the composer’s individual style to create a “mask” of quotations.

Works: Strauss: Metamorphosen (93); Debussy: Children’s Corner (93); Britten: Albert Herring (93); Berg: Violin Concerto (94); Mikael Tervidiev: Music (94); Eugène Ysaÿe: Violin Sonata No. 2 (94); Rachmaninoff: Letter to Konstantin Stanislavsky (94); Shostakovich: Satires, Op. 109 (95, 96).

Sources: Beethoven: Symphony No. 3, Op. 55 (93), Violin Sonata No. 9, Op. 47 (96); Wagner: Tristan and Isolde (93); Chopin: Ballade No. 1, Op. 23; Johann Sebastian Bach: Violin Partita No. 3, BWV 1006 (94), Wir Danken dir, Gott, wir danken dir, BWV 29 (94); Ilya Satz: Blue Bird (94); Anonymous: Dies Irae (93, 94); Rachmaninoff: Spring Waters, Op. 14, No. 11 (96).

Index Classifications: General, 1900s

Contributed by: Maria Fokina

[+] Kube, Michael. "Paul Hindemiths Jazz-Rezeption: Stationen einer Episode." Musiktheorie 10 (1995): 63-72.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Kugelberg, Johan, ed. Born in the Bronx: A Visual Record of the Early Days of Hip Hop. New York: Rizzoli, 2007.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

[+] Kühn, Clemens. "Bernd Alois Zimmermann: Photoptosis; Ein Blick auf das Zitat in der Kunst der Gegenwart." Musik und Bildung 6 (February 1974): 109-15.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Kühn, Clemens. Das Zitat in der Musik der Gegenwart: Mit Ausblicken auf bildende Kunst und Literatur. Hamburg: Verlag der Musikalienhandlung Karl Dieter Wagner, 1972.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Kühn, Clemens. Die Orchesterwerke Bernd Alois Zimmermanns: Ein Beitrag zur Musikgeschichte nach 1945. Hamburg: Verlag der Musikalienhandlung Karl Dieter Wagner, 1978.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Kulisiewicz, Aleksander. “Polish Camp Songs, 1939-1945.” Modern Language Studies 16 (Winter 1986): 3-9.

Song parodies written in Nazi concentration camps between 1939 and 1945 generally featured two distinct types of newly created lyrics. The first type tended to be pessimistic, but could also include themes of resistance and rebellion, and writers sometimes added poetic phrases to tunes that reminded them of the beauty of their native tongue and music. The second category showcased darker, more macabre subject matter. Despite featuring lyrics describing the horrors of camp life, the transformation of the subject matter provided a way for the writers to gain control over their situation by turning daily horrors into something humorous in order to enliven their spirits. Several songs also feature pre-existing melodies drawn from classical opera arias, hymns, carols, and popular genres such as foxtrots, waltzes, and tangos.

Works: Anonymous: Kolysanke dla synka w kremato-rium (3); Anonymous: Tango truponoszow (3); Anonymous: Dicke Luft (3); Anonymous: Judische Todessang (3); Anonymous: March to the Crematorium (4); E. Polak: How tenderly the wind caresses the birch tree (6).

Sources: Anonymous: Wojtusia z popielnika iskiereczka mruga (4); Beethoven: Germania (7).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Cynthia Dretel, Matthew G. Leone

[+] Kupfer, Peter. “Volga-Volga: ‘The Story of a Song,’ Vernacular Modernism, and the Realization of Soviet Music.” Journal of Musicology 30 (Fall 2013): 530-76.

Soviet director Grigory Aleksandrov and composer Isaak Dunayevsky’s third musical comedy film, Volga-Volga (1938), successfully balances entertainment and the ideological demands of Socialist Realism in large part through its music. The main conflict of the film is a feud between a folk music ensemble and a classical orchestra that culminates in a joint performance of the film’s theme song, Song about the Volga. During the opening meeting between the two leads, Strelka (folk musician) and Alyosha (classical musician), Alyosha tries to convince Strelka of the grandeur of classical music by performing an excerpt of Wagner’s Tristan und Isolde, which Strelka finds boring. Likewise, Alyosha does not immediately accept Strelka’s folk song, Song about the Volga. During a later “divertissement,” various classical and folk ensembles chase a city official around town, eager to demonstrate their musical ability so that they may be selected to represent the town at the upcoming Olympiad. Throughout the film, the performances by Alyosha and Strelka dramatize the apparent divide between high art and low art, a central concern of 1930s Soviet music. Ultimately, the film’s thesis is presented in the final performance of Song about the Volga presented with full orchestral accompaniment, modeling an ideal blend of classical, popular, and folk music traditions that spoke to audiences and Socialist Realist critics alike.

Works: Isaak Dunayevsky: score to Volga-Volga (542-43, 546-47, 549-53, 554)

Sources: Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (542-43); Mozart: Rondo alla turca from Piano Sonata No. 11 in A Major, K. 331 (546-47); Traditional: Samara (546-47), Shire krug (546-47); Iz-za ostrova na strezhen (546-47), Ei ukhnem (Song of the Volga Boatmen) (546-47), Zhil-bïl u babushka serekiy kozlik (546-47); Rossini: William Tell Overture (546-47); Dunayevsky: Molodezhnaya (546-47, 549-53); Schubert: Moment musical No. 3 in F Minor, D. 780 (549), Tchaikovsky: Eugene Onegin (554)

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Kusz, Veronika. “A Wayfaring Stranger in the New World: Ernst von Dohnányi’s American Rhapsody.” American Music 32 (Summer 2014): 201-22.

Hungarian composer Ernst von Dohnányi’s American Rhapsody has previously been analyzed as his tribute to America. However, interpreting the rhapsody in the context of his compositional oeuvre reveals more about his conservatism and critical reception. American Rhapsody was commissioned by Ohio University and premiered in 1954. Throughout the work, popular American tunes chosen from Margaret Bradford Boni and Norman Lloyd’s Fireside Book of Folk Songs (1947), including On Top of Old Smokey, I Am a Poor Wayfaring Stranger, and Turkey in the Straw, are used as melodic material. This use is similar to Liszt’s use of folk tunes in his Hungarian Rhapsodies. While a few tunes are heard only in passing, Dohnányi develops the Wayfaring Stranger material, recalling the texture of his earlier Symphonic Minutes, which quotes a Hungarian church song. The use of folksong in Rhapsody also recalls the irony in Dohnányi’s popular Nursery Variations, evoking children’s music alongside more serious orchestral music. After facing accusations of anti-Semitism and war crimes from some US newspapers soon after he arrived in the US in 1948, Dohnányi largely avoided politics in his American period; American Rhapsody was the most political work of his late career. While American Rhapsody can be understood as a musical tribute to his new home, it also represents Dohnányi taking a retrospective look at his own compositional career.

Works: Ernst von Dohnányi: American Rhapsody (203-15)

Sources: Traditional, Margaret Bradford Boni and Norman Lloyd (editors): On Top of Old Smokey (203-4, 212-15), I Am a Poor Wayfaring Stranger (203-4, 206-10), The Riddle (203-4, 212-15), Turkey in the Straw (203-4, 212-15); John A. Stone: Sweet Betsy from Pike (203-4, 215); Kenneth S. Clark: Alma Mater Ohio (203-4); Ernst von Dohnányi: Symphonic Minutes (208-10), Nursery Variations (212-15)

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Lacasse, Serge. "Intertextuality and Hypertextuality in Recorded Popular Music." In The Musical Work: Reality or Invention?, ed. Michael Talbot, 35-58. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2000.

In his book Palimpsestes: la littérature au second degree, Gérard Genette addresses intertextual and hypertextual relationships between texts utilizing a theoretical framework that could be enlightening if applied to recorded popular music. Genette defines intertextuality as the "actual presence of a text within another." Thus, the techniques of quotation and allusion fall into this category. Genette goes on to define hypertextuality as the modeling of a new text (the hypertext) on a previous text (the hypotext). Parody, which is defined as the alteration of subject matter while retaining style characteristics, and its converse travesty, in which the subject matter is retained but the style is altered, fall under this category. Also, included in the category of hypertextuality are pastiche, covering, copy, translation, instrumental cover, and various types of remixes. An additional distinction in the categorization of intertextual relationships is the differentiation between borrowings with a "sameness of spelling" or autosonic borrowing (e.g., sampling) and those with a "sameness of sounding" or allosonic borrowings (e.g., a performed allusion or quotation).

Works: John Bonham, Puff Daddy (Sean Combs), Mark Curry, Jimmy Page, and Robert Plant: Come With Me (39-40); Kurt Cobain, Nirvana, and Weird Al Yancovic: Smells Like Nirvana (41-42); Noel Gallagher: Wonderwall as performed by Mike Flowers (42); Arthur 'Big Boy' Crudup: That's All Right as performed by Elvis Presley (46).

Sources: John Bonham, Jimmy Page, and Robert Plant [Led Zeppelin]: Kashmir (40); Kurt Cobain and Nirvana: Smells Like Teen Spirit (41-42); Noel Gallagher [Oasis]: Wonderwall (42); Arthur 'Big Boy' Crudup: That's All Right (46).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Sarah Florini

[+] Lacasse, Serge. "La musique pop incestueuse: Une introduction à al transphonographie." Circuit: Musiques Contemporaines 18 (2008): 11-26.

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

[+] Larson, Randall D. "Reused Music." In Music from the House of Hammer: Music in the Hammer Horror Films 1950-1980, 15-16. Lanham, MD: The Scarecrow Press, 1996.

Musical self-borrowing was a popular method of scoring in America's Universal Pictures, which during the 1940s and 1950s often scored entire films (Erle C. Kenton: House of Dracula, Jack Arnold: Revenge of the Creature) with little more than tracked cues from their music library. Nevertheless, Hammer only sporadically reused their music tracks; fewer than a dozen Hammer films contain credited reused cues. Choosing to reuse music often arose from deadline pressures and budgetary pressures.

Works: Humphrey Searle: score to The Abominable Snowman of the Himalayas (15); Benjamin Frankel: score to The Curse of the Werewolf (15).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kathleen Widden

[+] Larson, Steve. "Dave McKenna's Performance of 'Have You Met Miss Jones?'" American Music 11 (Fall 1993): 283-315.

Jazz pianist Dave McKenna's recording of Rodgers and Hart's Have You Met Miss Jones? reveals clever improvisational strategies, procedures, and devices. For instance, throughout the multiple improvised choruses McKenna slowly expands in register, creating a sense of large-scale unity. In one instance, McKenna also borrows melodic material from the song How to Handle a Woman by Lerner and Loewe. McKenna also uses a "polymetric riff" and when returning to the "head," his restatement of the melody recollects salient features from the improvisation. McKenna's insertions of fragments of the melody within his improvised choruses reveal that in this case, the performer does not improvise simply over harmonic changes, but also keeps the original tune in mind.

Works: Rodgers/Hart: Have You Met Miss Jones? as performed by Dave McKenna.

Sources: Rodgers/Hart: Have You Met Miss Jones?; Lerner/Loewe: How to Handle a Woman (293).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan

[+] Lau, Frederick. “When a Great Nation Emerges: Chinese Music in the World.” In China and the West: Music, Representation, and Reception, ed. Hon-Lun Yang and Michael Saffle, 265-82. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2017.

The convenient label of East-West fusion in describing the recent rise of Chinese-inspired new works by Chinese-born American composers like Bright Sheng, Chen Yi, Zhou Long, and Ge Ganru demands reinterpretation. There is no fundamental connection between one’s ethnicity and one’s music; the borrowing of Chinese tunes, timbres or other musical devices merely reflects a matter of compositional choice and aesthetic preference instead of one’s own ethnicity. The composers’ reliance on Chinese materials to evoke a specific form of “Chinese” accent recalls the eighteenth-century artistic practice of chinoiserie, but the nature and perception of current hybrid compositions have totally transformed. Musical encounters between the East and West traces back to the Baroque era when Couperin composed his famous keyboard work “Les Chinois,” but it reveals Europeans’ false impressions of Chinese music. It was not until the turn of the twentieth century when the adoption of European musical tradition took root as a practice in China. According to Western evolutionary conception of music, Chinese music’s monophonic and heterophonic styles are inferior to the complexities of European music, and this attitude persisted into the nineteenth century, when Europeans started visiting China more frequently. The relationship between music and ethnicity is an artificial construct, as these composers employ various extramusical signifying techniques to forge a connection between sound and ideas. They self-consciously make references to China, Chinese ideology and philosophy through their program notes and descriptive titles, evoking a sense of “sonic Chineseness.” Bright Sheng’s Nanking! Nanking! resembles Béla Bartók synthesis procedure whereby he alludes to folk song without direct quotation. A close look at this work reveals that the only instrument that represents China is the pipa, a Chinese instrument.

Works: Bright Sheng: Nanking! Nanking! (277-78).

Sources: Anonymous: Ambush from All Sides (278), The Tyrant Removes His Armor (278).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s

Contributed by: Jingyi Zhang

[+] Lawn, Richard, and Jeffrey Hellmer. "Rhythm Changes: The Classic Jazz Model." In Jazz Theory and Practice, 203-19. Los Angeles: Alfred Publishing, 1993.

Jazz performers and composers adopted the chord structure of George Gershwin's 1930 song I Got Rhythm both as a useful improvisational vehicle and as supporting harmony for newly composed melodies. Gershwin's chord structure, known as "the Rhythm Changes," was subjected to a variety of harmonic alterations by subsequent users, including adding chords between two original chords, changing minor chords into major, and substituting new chords for selected originals. The resulting variety of versions of "the Rhythm Changes" is so great that there is no "standard" version used by a large number of jazz performers or arrangers. Sonny Rollins's Oleo, and J. J. Johnson's Turnpike (both included here in notated versions) are two frequently played examples of the many new melodies composed to "the Rhythm Changes." They include extensive alterations to Gershwin's original chords. A partial list of other compositions based on "the Rhythm Changes" is included, as well as a list of recordings of these compositions.

Works: Johnson: Turnpike (216-17); Rollins: Oleo (217-18).

Sources: Gershwin: I Got Rhythm (203-19).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Scott Grieb

[+] Lawson, Katheryn. “Girl Scout Contrafacta and Symbolic Soldiering in the Great War.” American Music 35 (Fall 2017): 375-411.

The contrafacta of popular war songs printed in the Girls Scouts of the USA magazine Rally during World War I reflected two narratives of wartime girlhood: one connecting girls to common domestic feminine roles and another placing girls at the center of the narrative as soldiers. Music, including creating parodies of Girl Scout songs, has been a part of the Girls Scouts program since its founding in 1912 even though the specific uses of music are difficult to pin down in extant sources. Contrary to other early-twentieth-century girls’ clubs and lingering ideas of womanhood, Girl Scouts of the USA embraced equality with men. In the contrafact Scouts Yankee Doodle, domestic actions (cooking, growing food, making bandages) are framed in a military call to action (“the stars and stripes bugle call”). Anna Nelson’s contrafact of George M. Cohan’s Over There calls on fellow Girl Scouts to join in and do their parts “over here,” directly paralleling the heroic rhetoric of Cohan’s lyrics. The Rally contrafact of I Didn’t Raise My Boy to Be a Soldier subverts the pacifist sentiment of the original in the manner of other response songs such as America, Here’s My Boy, asserting that the Girl Scouts are “ready to do or die.” These Scout songs exist within the context of contrafacta as a means of organized protest music, a practice common in the Temperance, Suffragist, and Labor movements of the time. Contrafacta of Civil War tunes are particularly meaningful in turn-of-the-century American protest movements, and the Girl Scouts participate in this tradition as well. Adding to their protest nature, the rhetoric of active militarism in the Girl Scouts songs run counter to the passive “angel of the house” trope of girlhood present in published war music. Through these contrafacta, the women and girls in the Girl Scouts engage in a safe form of protest, recasting themselves as active agents in the home front of the war in opposition to their prescribed domestic roles.

Works: Unattributed (lyricist): Scouts’ Yankee Doodle (376, 380-82); Anna Nelson (lyricist): Over Here (Over There) (380, 382-84); Unattributed (lyricist): Why Don’t You Raise Your Girl to Be a Girl Scout (I Didn’t Raise My Boy to Be a Soldier) (384-85); Lois Henderson (lyricist): We’ll Do Our Bit for Our Country (Marching Through Georgia) (380, 389); Henry W. Roby: Marching Together (Marching Through Georgia) (391-92), Woman’s Rights in Dixie (397-98); Minnie B. Horning: Contest Song (392-93); Antoinette Arnold Hawley: Under the Star Spangled Banner (393-94); L. May Wheeler: November Twenty-Two, 1883 (394); Lillian Sunden (lyricist): And Thus We Stand United (Dixie) (394-96)

Sources: Anonymous: Yankee Doodle; George M. Cohan: Over There (382); Alfred Bryan and Al Piantadosi: I Didn’t Raise My Boy to Be a Soldier (384-85); Arthur Lange and Andrew B. Sterling: American, Here’s My Boy (384-85); Henry Clay Work: Marching Through Georgia (389-94); Dan Emmett: Dixie (394-98)

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Lebermann, Walter. "Apokryph, Plagiat, Korruptei oder Falsifikat?" Die Musikforschung 20 (October/December 1967): 413-25.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Lee, Jonathan Rhodes. “Texts, Drugs, and Rock ’n’ Roll: Easy Rider and the Compilation Soundtrack.” Journal of Musicology 38 (Summer 2021): 296-328.

The soundtrack for Easy Rider (1969), compiled by director/writer/actor Dennis Hopper and producer/writer/actor Peter Fonda, illustrates the complexity of rock compilation soundtracks and their potential to generate both inter- and intratextual meaning. When used as film music, rock and popular songs behave differently from traditional underscoring in that they are not easily manipulated and tend to create audiovisual “set-pieces.” Throughout Easy Rider there is a tight integration of song lyrics and images, suggesting a conscious intertextual negotiation by the filmmakers. For example, the shots that accompany Wasn’t Born to Follow by the Byrds mirror the forest imagery and “clear and jeweled waters” presented in the lyrics. This kind of deliberate intertextuality through citation and reference is a hallmark of New Hollywood cinema, of which Easy Rider is an early example. The rock soundtrack also resonates with the countercultural themes and social consciousness of the film. The soundtrack generates meaning through intratextual means; the musical set-pieces interact with the narrative structure of the film as well as each other. For example, in one segment, Fraternity of Man’s country-styled Don’t Bogart Me, accompanied by shots of a bucolic countryside, is interrupted sonically by Jimi Hendrix’s If 6 Was 9 and visually by shots of Louisianan imagery: a river bridge, grand Southern homes, and African American workers, the only black faces in the film. The sonic elements of the soundtrack also mirror the geographical progression of the film West to East, starting in Los Angeles with electric rock (Steppenwolf), then shifting to country rock (The Byrds), faux-country music (Fraternity of Man), and finally ending in Louisiana with blues-tinged electric rock (Jimi Hendrix). The central tragedy and theme of the film—that the idealism of the 1960s was doomed to be corrupted by its commodification—is expressed through song lyrics and is heightened by the self-awareness exemplified in its compiled rock soundtrack.

Works: Dennis Hopper (director), Peter Fonda (producer): compiled soundtrack to Easy Rider (303-28)

Sources: The Byrds: Wasn’t Born to Follow (303-5, 317-19); Fraternity of Man: Don’t Bogart Me (305-6, 313, 316-17); Electric Prunes: Kyrie Eleison (306); Steppenwolf: Born to Be Wild (306, 312-13), The Pusher (313, 323-25); The Jimi Hendrix Experience: If 6 was 9 (313, 315-17); Bob Dylan (songwriter), Roger McGuinn (performer): It’s Alright Ma (I’m Only Bleeding) (325); Bob Dylan and Roger McGuinn (songwriters), Roger McGuinn (performer): Ballad of the Easy Rider (325-26)

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular, Film

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Lee, Jung Ah. "Polystylism and 'A Paganini' for Violin Solo by Alfred Schnittke." DMA diss., Boston University, 2009.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Leeper, Jill. “Crossing Musical Borders: The Soundtrack for Touch of Evil.” In Soundtrack Available: Essays on Film and Popular Music, edited by Pamela Robertson Wojcik and Arthur Knight, 226-43. Durham: Duke University Press, 2001.

Henry Mancini’s score for Touch of Evil (1958) is innovative for its new approach to diegetic cues rather than continuous background music, and for its use of jazz and rock idioms. The music does work as a suturing effect (connecting the audience to the setting) but rather destabilizes the perception of time and place and emphasizes contradictions and incongruity within the film through its hybrid nature. Jazz is itself a hybrid genre of West African and European music; Mancini’s genres of choice for this film were also a hybrid of Afro-Cuban and cool jazz, as well as mariachi. These musics were chosen to signal an emphasis on race within the film, particularly with different cultural motifs associated with different characters, regardless of the actual race of the actors. Though some critics, particularly jazz musicians, found Mancini’s score to be “faux jazz,” it was still pioneering for the time, introducing popular music sounds into what was previously pseudo-classical and Romantic era music. Different versions of the film further problematize Mancini’s score. The most recent version from 1998 cuts his theme entirely, removing most of his influence from the movie, in an attempt to follow director Orson Welles’s desire to limit the film to only diegetic music.

Works: Orson Welles (director): Touch of Evil (226-40).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz, Film

Contributed by: Emily Baumgart

[+] Leeson, Daniel N. "The Enigma Enigma." International Journal of Musicology 7 (1998): 241-57.

Many attempts have been made to identify the origin of Elgar's "Enigma" theme. However, such study of melodic affinity is futile. Melodic similarities can be found among many different pieces, most of which bear no relationship with each other. To prove this point, a computer was utilized to identify the relationship of material between compositions. The first study was that of Mozart's Requiem in D Minor, K. 626, to determine the amount of melodic affinity between the movements by Mozart and those by Süssmayr. This method was then employed for the purposes of identifying similarities with the "Enigma" theme. The compositions employed in this study were Elgar's Variations on an Original Theme for Orchestra, Enigma, his overture Alassio (In the South), and the slow movement from Mozart's Symphony No. 38 in D, K. 504 (Prague). As expected, many affinities were discovered between the three works. Thus, the study of melodic affinity is not conclusive, or even probable, when it cannot be coupled with documentary evidence.

Works: Elgar: Variations on an Original Theme for Orchestra, Enigma (241-44, 251-57).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Christopher Holmes

[+] Leikin, Anatole. "Chopin's A-Minor Prelude and Its Symbolic Language." International Journal of Musicology 6 (1997): 149-62.

Even though Chopin denounced and laughed at any attempts to relate his works to programmatic narratives, his notion of absolute music is betrayed by borrowed melodies and topical gestures that may be found in his works. The Prelude in A Minor, Op. 28, No 2, is an ideal subject for hermeneutic or semiotic interpretation due to its juxtaposition of funereal and religious elements. The musical texture is permeated with references to the Dies Irae chant. Chorale and funeral march topics also appear in the score. The structural troping of these elements leads one to believe that death was on the mind of the composer. The sharp decline in Chopin's health while composing these preludes gives further credence to a programmatic interpretation. Interestingly, Alexander Scriabin borrowed elements from this work for his second Prelude of Op. 74, which also alludes to his own failing health.

Works: Chopin: Prelude in A Minor, Op. 28, No. 2 (149-59); Scriabin: Prelude, Op. 74, No. 2 (159-62).

Sources: Dies Irae (149-62); Chopin: Prelude in A Minor, Op. 28, No. 2 (159-62).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Randy Goldberg

[+] Lerner, Neil. "Copland's Music of Wide Open Spaces: Surveying the Pastoral Trope in Hollywood." The Musical Quarterly 85 (Fall 2001): 477-515.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

[+] Lessem, Alan. "Schoenberg, Stravinsky, and Neo-Classicism: The Issues Reexamined." The Musical Quarterly 68 (October 1982): 527-42.

Despite clear similarities in the evolution of the Neoclassical styles of Schoenberg and Stravinsky, comparisons often prove more insightful when used to highlight their differences. Both composers felt a strong need to reconcile current compositional trends with those of the past, and attempted this partially through borrowing from the established classical tradition, as seen in Stravinsky's use of established forms in non-conventional ways. Stravinsky's tendency to use existing music as musical material to be manipulated is evident in the third movement of his Piano Sonata, which is clearly based on Beethoven's Sonata in F Major, Op. 54. While there is a clear relationship between these pieces, Stravinsky's use of the material completely reconceives Beethoven's ideas of form and harmony, a trait common to many of Stravinsky's recompositions.

Works: Stravinsky: Piano Sonata (541), Octet for Winds (541-42).

Sources: Beethoven: Piano Sonata in F Major, Op. 54 (541).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Sherri Winks

[+] Levin, Gregory. "An Analysis of Movements III and IX from Le Marteau sans maitre by Pierre Boulez." Ph.D. diss., Brandeis University, 1975.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Levin, Henry. "Gershwin, Handy and the Blues." Clavier 9 (October 1970): 10-20.

Two of the principal motives in Rhapsody in Blue are direct borrowings from two of W. C. Handy's compositions, "Beale Street Blues" and "St. Louis Blues." Gershwin also employs a three-against-four accent cycle that is a prominent feature of Handy's style. A sidebar disproves the persistent rumor that the E major main theme of Rhapsody in Blue was inspired by Gershwin's hearing of the "Chimes of Erie" at St. Peter's Cathedral in Erie, Pennsylvania; the chimes were installed at St. Peter's four years after the publication of Rhapsody in Blue.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David Lieberman

[+] Levy, Daniela Smolov. “Parsifal in Yiddish? Why Not?” The Musical Quarterly 97 (Summer 2014): 140-80.

The impetus for Boris Thomashefsky’s 1904 adaptation of Richard Wagner’s Parsifal at the People’s Theater, a fashionable Yiddish theater in New York City, was a convergence of the opera’s reputation as a serious, highbrow work of art with a movement in American Jewish circles toward staging more refined and edifying entertainment. In the years around 1900, Yiddish theater was central to the cultural lives of immigrant Jews, and broadly appealing musical productions (characterized as shund or “trash” by intellectuals) were in high demand. Around this time, playwright Jacob Gordin led a reform movement of Russian-Jewish socialists and anarchists seeking to replace the shund programming in Yiddish theaters with more uplifting and edifying works, a goal that was in line with the broader Progressive Era democratization of high art. In this intellectual context, director Thomashefsky, dramaturg Leon Mantel, and an unidentified chorus master of the Met adapted Parsifal, the quintessential edifying work in 1900s America, for the Yiddish theater. The text was translated into vernacular Yiddish, and the plot was likely simplified to be performed with a combination of spoken dialogue and vocal music. While details about the performance are scarce, according to reviewer Max Smith, a selection of random tunes from the opera were cobbled together and performed as “soft music” at various points without regard for which scenes the music originally accompanied. It is unclear to what proportion various factors led to its short run of just ten performances. Lack of interest in high culture, discomfort with a Christian topic, and poor production quality all likely played a part in the closure of this unusual opera adaptation.

Works: Leon Mantel (dramaturg), Boris Thomashefsky (director), anonymous (arranger): Parsifal (163-68)

Sources: Wagner: Parsifal (163-68)

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Lewin, David. "A Transformational Basis for Form and Prolongation in Debussy's 'Feux d'artifice.'" In Musical Form and Transformations: Four Analytic Essays, 97-159. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.

A detailed analysis of Debussy's "Feux d'artifice," the last of his twenty-four Préludes for piano, reveals a network of musical ideas and transformational relations that shape the overall form and character of the piece. A melodic fragment of the French national anthem "La Marseillaise" appears during the coda. The most obvious role of this quotation on the surface level is to evoke a spirit of French nationalism, which seems especially appropriate considering the immediate prewar period when Debussy composed this music. Yet on a deeper level of structure, the quotation of "La Marseillaise" achieves greater significance in that its headnote represents the culmination of a large-scale ascending chromatic progression initiated at the second reprise (from m. 82).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Mark S. Spicer

[+] Lewis-Hale, Phyllis. “From Old Creole Days: Sampling the Afro-Creole Folk Song of Louisiana in the Late Nineteenth through the Mid-Twentieth Centuries.” Journal of Singing 73 (May 2017): 481-95.

The Afro-Creole folk song tradition of Louisiana, as disseminated in concert adaptations, presents distinctive challenges and rewards for singers. The language of these folk songs, Afro-Creole patois, was constructed by African slaves brought to Louisiana in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and differs from standard French. While many Afro-Creole melodies have been preserved in instrumental music by such composers as Louis Moreau Gottschalk, the vocal sources are less familiar. Piano-vocal arrangements of Afro-Creole folk songs show different approaches to adapting the music for concert singers. Dansé, Conni Conné, arranged by Camille Nickerson, adapts a traditional bamboula dance song. At times, the accompaniment rises to become an equal partner of the vocal line. Maud Cuney Hare’s Dialogue d’Amour, also known as Z’Amours Marianne, is an arrangement of canlinda dance song, and features a rare brief modulation from minor to major. W. T. Francis’s arrangement of Zozo Mokeur (The Mockingbird) contains several highbrow, operatic touches. Julien Tiersot’s arrangement of the call and response counjaille, Aurore Bradère, features a sparse accompaniment, highlighting the simple melody. Afro-Creole folk songs have been neglected in performance, but offer a rich cultural tradition for singers to explore.

Works: Camille Nickerson: Dansé, Conni Conné (485); Maud Cuney Hare: Z’Amours Marianne (486); W. T. Francis: Zozo Mokeur (486-89); Julien Tiersot: Aurore Bradère (489-90).

Sources: Traditional: Bamboula (484-85), Dialogue d’Amour (486), Zozo Mokeur (486-89), Aurore Bradère (489-90).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Likhacheva, Irina. “Carmen-Suita.” In Muzykal’nyĭ Teatr Rodiona Shchedrina, 100–165. Moscow: Sovetskii Kompozitor, 1977.

Although there have been many arrangements of Bizet’s Carmen, Shchedrin’s Carmen-Suite sheds new light onto the process of transcription. His work is unified, with a strict dramaturgical outline, and presents an individualized view on Carmen’s tragic story that focuses on her relationship with broader society. Shchedrin achieves this through a focus on bold contrasts in the sequential order of scenes, which puts conflict and juxtaposition as the main force of momentum for the ballet. In order to heighten the sense of contrast, Shchedrin alters the original’s orchestration, structure, and sequence of episodes, and he also reworks small-scale melodic fragments. He constructs the ballet in contrasting episodes, representing the battle between Carmen’s freedom and tempestuousness against the backdrop of her alienating society, as represented by masks on the stage. To bring this conflict to the forefront of the ballet, Shchedrin chooses moments from the opera with the greatest emotional expressivity, occasionally altering the tonality and omitting phrases, and associating certain instrumentation with specific characters. He maximises the dramaturgical potential of his chosen orchestration of strings and a large array of percussion instruments. The percussion section can be seen as equal to the strings in this ballet, as they punctuate and define the melody’s rhythmic contour, create timbral variation, and give exotic colouring. The resulting orchestration and adaptation of Carmen reignites the function and practice of transcription in the twentieth century.

Works: Rodion Shchedrin: Carmen-Suite (100–165).

Sources: Bizet: Carmen (100–165).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Maria Fokina

[+] Lindlar, Heinrich. "Musikalische Zitate: Diakritisches zu Schostakowitsch und Strawinsky." In Bericht über das Internationale Dimitri-Schostakowitsch-Symposion Köln 1985, ed. Klaus Wolfgang Niemüller, Vsevolod Zaderackij,and Manuel Gervink, 34 5-354. Kölner Beitrage zur Musikforschung 150. Regensburg: Gustav Bosse, 1986.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Lissa, Zofia. "Ästhetische Funktionen des musikalischen Zitats." Die Musikforschung 19 (October/December 1966): 364-78.

One finds quotation in almost every epoch. Quotation must be distinguished from parody technique, contrafactum, variation, transcription, phantasy on known themes, paraphrase, pasticcio, metamorphosis, and stylization. Some thirteen criteria for quotation are listed (pp. 365-67). Four aesthetic functions of quotation are discussed with numerous examples of each: (1) a quotation may serve as the symbol for a well-defined expressive character; (2) a quotation may be used not so much as a symbol but rather as a means of expressing the content of a programmatic work (quotation as commentary); (3) a quotation may serve as an allusion or reference which will be more or less understood by the listener; and (4) a quotation may express parody, irony, or grotesquerie. The significance of quotation must be considered in relation to the genre in which it appears, such as pure instrumental music, vocal music, opera and ballet, music for film, and Jazz.

Works: Wagner: Die Meistersinger (368); Britten: Albert Herring (368); Bax: Tintagel (368); Berg: Lyrischen Suite (368); Mendelssohn: Reformation Symphony (369); Tchaikovsky: 1812 Overture (369); Prokofiev: Aleksander Newski (369); Shostakovich: Symphony No. 12 (369); Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique (369); Liszt: Dante Symphony (369), Totentanz (369); Rachmaninoff: Die Todesinsel (369); Dallapiccola: Canti di prigionia (369); Miaskowski: Symphony No. 6 (369); Schubert: Der Tod und Das Mädchen (369); Strauss: Ein Heldenleben (370), Don Juan (370), Tod und Verklärung (370), Don Quixote (370), Also Sprach Zarathustra (370), Til Eulenspiegel (370); Offenbach: Orpheus (371); Strauss: Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme (372).

Index Classifications: General, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Lissa, Zofia. "Historical Awareness of Music and Its Role in Present-Day Musical Culture." International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music 4 (June 1973): 17-32.

The presence of history and of the past is very powerful in the music of today and is made evident in quotations. Quotations can function as associative symbols, as a means of representing past times, as symbols of fear, as reminiscences of specific ideas, or as parodies. Examples of each of these functions are given (see p. 26). Collage technique is also discussed with reference to works by Zygmunt Krause, Luciano Berio, Arvo Pärt, Enrique Raxach, Vittorio Galmetti, and Charles Ives. In the end, Lissa comes down hard on collage technique, wondering if it perhaps indicates an inability on the part of the composer to speak with an individual voice and stating that collage technique also devalues art by placing the quotation of artworks on the same level as street noises.

Works: Wagner: Die Meistersinger (26); Britten: Albert Herring (26); Berg: Lyric Suite (26); Tchaikovsky: The Queen of Spades (26); Liszt: Dante Symphony (26); Dallapiccola: Canti di Prigionia (26); Strauss: Heldenleben (26), Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme (26); Mussorgsky: Klassiker (26); Hindemith: Nusch-Nuschi (26); de Falla: The Three Cornered Hat (26); Stravinsky: Pulcinella (26); Krause: Recital (28); Berio: Sinfonia (29); Pärt: Collage sur Bach (29); Raxach: Inside Outside (29); Galmetti: L'opera abandonnata (29); Ives: Symphony No. 4 (29), Concord Sonata (29).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Litwin, Stefan. "Politische Musik kontra musikalische Politik: Arnold Schönbergs Ode to Napoleon Buonaparte op. 41." In Stil oder Gedanke?: Zur Schönberg-Rezeption in Amerika und Europa, 24-33. Saarbrucken: Pfau, 1995.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Logan, Adeline Marie. "American National Music in the Compositions of Charles Ives." M.M. thesis, University of Washington, 1943.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Long, Michael. Beautiful Monsters: Imagining the Classic in Musical Media. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008.

Musicology is in need of generalist methodologies and perspectives for fragments, clichés, and non-sequiturs of classical music that occur in twentieth-century media and culture. Such music is related to the “vernacular imagination,” the shared phenomenon of twentieth-century American (and occasionally European) media audiences in which an artist’s imaginative priorities intersect with the past and with memory. Musicologists can adapt the notion of register, a tool used to locate a work culturally, to study this music in a way that traces the development and intersection of its fluctuating meanings, emphasizing audience reception of an expressive mass media rather than arguing for the absolute value of a musical object.

Works: Barry Manilow: Could it Be Magic (17); Kiss: Great Expectations (17); Billy Joel: This Night (18); DMX: What’s My Name? (34-40); Busta Rhymes: Gimme Some More (34, 38-40); Alan Crosland (director) and Louis Silvers (composer): score to The Jazz Singer (51-55, 73-81, 86, 177); Otto Preminger (director) and David Raksin (composer): score to Laura (42, 44-47, 52, 58-59, 76, 163); Irving Rapper (director) and Max Steiner (composer): score to Now, Voyager (59-60); Victor Fleming (director) and Max Steiner (composer): score to Gone with the Wind (69-70); Gregory La Cava (director) and Max Steiner (composer): score to Symphony of Six Million (86-101); Jefferson Airplane: White Rabbit (122-24); The Doors: Light My Fire (124); Led Zeppelin: Stairway to Heaven (126-27); Procol Harum: A Whiter Shade of Pale (129-39, 149-51); The Swingle Singers: Aria (135-37); Lawrence Kasdan (director) and Meg Kasdan (composer): soundtrack to The Big Chill (152-56); Alfred Hitchcock (director) and Bernard Herrmann (composer): score to Psycho (171-73); Robert Z. Leonard (director): soundtrack to Strange Interlude (181-83); James Whale (director) and Franz Waxman (composer): score to Bride of Frankenstein (190-95); Stephen Herek (director) and Michael Kamen (composer): score to Mr. Holland’s Opus (196-202); William Hanna and Joseph Barbera (directors) and Scott Bradley (music editor): score to Tom and Jerry, no. 29, The Cat Concerto (197-98); Friz Freleng (director): score to Merrie Melodies, episode Rhapsody Rabbit (197, 205); Carlos Santana and Dave Matthews: Love of My Life (214-16); Albert Lewin (director): The Picture of Dorian Gray (216-21); Queen: Bohemian Rhapsody (222-35); Penelope Spheeris (director): soundtrack to Wayne’s World (222-23, 231-32).

Sources: Chopin: Prelude in C minor, Op. 28, No. 20 (17); Beethoven: Piano Sonata in C Minor, Op. 13 (18); Richard Addinsell: Warsaw Concerto (34-35, 41); Bernard Herrmann: score to Psycho (34, 38-40); Tchaikovsky: Romeo and Juliet Fantasy Overture (51-58), Symphony No. 6 in B minor, Op. 74 (59-63); Handel, “Ombra mai fu” from Serse (69-70); Ravel: Bolero (123-24); Johann Sebastian Bach, Air from Suite in D Major, BWV 1068 (133-34), Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme, BWV 140 (133-34, 136-37); Procol Harum: A Whiter Shade of Pale (152-56); George Antheil: Symphony No. 4; Dukas: The Sorcerer’s Apprentice (190); Gottfried Huppertz: score to Metropolis (194-95); Liszt: Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 (198, 204-6); The Toys: Lover’s Concerto (196, 202-9, 213); The Supremes: I Hear a Symphony (196, 202-4, 213); Brahms: Symphony No. 3 in F Major, Op. 90 (214-16); Chopin: Prelude in D Minor, Op. 28, No. 24 (217-21); Queen: Bohemian Rhapsody (222-23); Mascagni: Cavalleria rusticana (227); Richard Strauss: Ariadne auf Naxos (227-31).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular, Film

Contributed by: Kate Altizer

[+] Loos, Helmut. “Ballett, Suite, Sinfonie: Die Fassungen des Verlorenen Sohnes und die 4. Sinfonie von Sergej Prokofjew.” In Bericht über das Internationale Symposion ‘Sergej Prokofjew: Aspekte seines Werkes und der Biographie’, ed. Silke Schloen and Klaus Wolfgang Niemöller, 305-23. Kölner Beiträge zur Musikforschung 175. Regensburg: Gustav Bosse, 1992.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Losada, Catherine. “Between Modernism and Postmodernism: Strands of Continuity in Collage Compositions by Rochberg, Berio, and Zimmermann.” Music Theory Spectrum 31 (Spring 2009): 57-100.

Many questions about musical collages still remain to be answered, especially with regard to the relationships between the seemingly disparate elements on their musical surface. Analysis shows that seemingly disparate features in Luciano Berio’s Sinfonia, George Rochberg’s Music for the Magic Theater, and Bernd Alois Zimmermann’s Musique pour les Soupers du Roi Ubu, are actually governed by a multitude of associations that create unconventional structures and relationships. Chromatic saturation within pitch (not pitch-class) space in the Sinfonia provides the motivation for relating disparate passages in this collage, while aggregate completion and the saturation of certain motivic units connects seemingly disparate passages in the Music for the Magic Theater. Finally, the lack of aggregate completion and several inconclusive gap-fill processes lead to a lack of closure in Musique pour les Soupers du Roi Ubu, which is used in tandem with other musical features to provide dramatic meaning. Analyses of these three musical collages should not ignore contrasts in musical language, but instead should embrace them as fundamental building blocks, emphasizing the associations and relationships between seemingly disparate elements which make up the work’s structure. Organic unity should not be attempted to be “proven” in these works, but the idea of total disjunction of the musical surfaces of these collages is an illusion.

Works: Luciano Berio: Sinfonia (64-81); George Rochberg: Music for the Magic Theater (81-87); Bernd Alois Zimmermann: Musique pour les Soupers du Roi Ubu (87-94).

Sources: Mahler: Symphony No. 2 (64-66, 69); Mozart: Divertimento in B-flat Major, K. 287 (81-86); Berlioz: Symphonie Fantastique (87-90); Wagner: Die Walküre (87-90).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Chelsea Hamm

[+] Losada, Catherine. “The Process of Modulation in Musical Collage.” Music Analysis 27 (2008): 295-336.

Musical collages are distinguished from other forms of musical borrowing because of the excessive amount and diversity of quoted material, as well as the degree to which the quoted material retains its individuality. Techniques for analyzing musical collages are few, and the process of modulation in musical collage still remains to be examined. The term “modulation” refers to the shift between distinct harmonic domains, the recurrence of a main or dominant sound world, and sharp contrasts and the efforts to reconcile these contrasts. There are several modulatory techniques of collages. Overlap is a technique that traverses the spectrum in terms of varying degrees of subtlety and can function on different conceptual levels. Types of overlap include pitch convergence, which encompasses pitch connections at different levels of abstraction, and textural dispersal/emergence, which is produced when two quotations sound simultaneously and are subjected to a process of fragmentation. In chromatic insertion, chromatic passages fulfill a modulatory function, filling in the intervening tonal space between surrounding passages of quotations. Finally, rhythmic plasticity denotes the ways in which the rhythmic profile of the music is manipulated in order gradually to introduce or to lead away from a quotation.

Works: Luciano Berio: Sinfonia (298-99, 302-4, 310-15, 326-27); George Rochberg: Music for the Magic Theater (299-300, 304-310, 318-27); Bernd Alois Zimmermann: Musique pour les Soupers du Roi Ubu (300-301, 305-307, 317-18, 326-27).

Sources: Mahler: Symphony No. 2 (298-99, 302-4, 310-12, 321-24); Mozart: Divertimento in B-flat Major, K. 287 (300-301, 307); Berlioz Symphonie Fantastique (301, 304-5, 317-18); Wagner: Die Walküre (301, 304-305, 317-18).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Chelsea Hamm

[+] Lowe-Dugmore, Rachel. "Delius and Elgar: A Postscript." Studies in Music 8 (1974): 92-100.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Lowe-Dugmore, Rachel. “Frederick Delius and Norway.” Studies in Music 6 (1972): 27-41.

Even in his earliest compositions, Frederick Delius showcased the influence of Norwegian music and Edvard Grieg on his practice. Letters from Edvard Grieg to Delius demonstrate that the composer encouraged the young Delius to pursue his compositional craft. Further letters indicate Grieg provided comments and criticism on Delius’s works, including Song of the High Hills, which developed from the overture Paa Vidderne. Norwegian influence is shown in other works by Delius, such as the use of the Norwergian national anthem Ja, vi elsker dette landet in the 1897 play Folkeraadet. Additionally, Delius’s song Over the Hills and Far Away shows direct homage to Grieg. The period of 1909–12 marks a move away from pure Impressionism in Delius’s work, to an imitation of human states, culminating in the composer’s post-Impressionist stage, which had its roots in his Norwegian influenced works.

Works: Delius: Paa Vidderne (34), Song of the High Hills (35, 40), Folkeraadet (37), Over the Hills and Far Away (38), Life’s Dance (39–40).

Sources: Rikard Nordraak: Ja, vi elsker dette landet; Delius: Paa Vidderne.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Maria Fokina

[+] Ludwig, Wolfgang. "Untersuchungen zum musikalischen Schaffen von Frank Zappa: Ein musiksoziologische und -analytische Studie zur Bestimmung eines musikalischen Stils." Ph.D. diss., Freie Universität Berlin, 1991.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Lumby, Catherine. "Music and Camp: Popular Music Performance in Priscilla and Muriel's Wedding." In Screen Scores: Studies in Contemporary Australian Film Music, ed. Rebecca Cole, 78-88. Sydney: Australian Film Television and Radio School, 1998.

ABBA's music is used to negotiate the formation of gay identity in Muriel's Wedding. ABBA's "Dancing Queen" becomes the theme for the main character as she struggles to establish her unique persona in a small town. Muriel is marked by her friends as having outdated taste in music for listening to ABBA while at the same time making her more sympathetic to an urban audience that placed value on retro style and music. Through the use of 1970s popular music, Muriel's Wedding and The Adventures of Priscilla, Queen of the Desert established a sense of camp, rather than kitsch, creating the identification with gay counter-culture. Alicia Bridges's "I Love the Nightlife" is used in Priscilla to portray both the town's backwater status and the theatrical nature of the drag queen performance, highlighting the tension between the main characters' identification with gay culture and the unyielding conservative culture of the small town.

Works: Peter Allen and Peter Best: music for Muriel's Wedding (79); Guy Gross: score to The Adventures of Priscilla, Queen of the Desert (83).

Sources: Benny Andersson, Stig Anderson, Bjorn Ulvaeus: Dancing Queen (79); Benny Andersson, Bjorn Ulvaeus: Fernando (83); Benny Andersson, Stig Anderson, Bjorn Ulvaeus: Waterloo (83), I Do, I Do (86); Alicia Bridges: I Love the Nightlife (81); Ken Hirsch and Ron Miller: I've Never Been to Me, as performed by Charlene (85); Henri Belolo, Jacques Morali, and Victor Willis: Go West (85); Dino Fekaris and Freddy Perren: I Will Survive as performed by Gloria Gaynor (87).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kathleen Widden

[+] Lumsden, Rachel. “‘The Pulse of Life Today’: Borrowing in Johanna Beyer’s String Quartet No. 2.” American Music 35 (Fall 2017): 303-42.

Johanna Beyer’s prominent quotations of Mozart’s Die Zauberflöte in her String Quartet No. 2 are notable for several reasons: for quoting a tonal piece in the context of ultramodern dissonant counterpoint, for demonstrating the lasting impact of ultramodern compositional practices in the late 1930s, and for exemplifying the way musical borrowing carries extramusical meaning for women composers in particular. In the first and fourth movements of String Quartet No. 2, Beyer borrows the melody from Papageno’s aria “Ein Mädchen oder Weibchen” but sets it against dissonant counterpoint in the vein of ultramodern composers such as Charles Seeger and Ruth Crawford. The contrast between the quoted material and the ultramodernist aesthetic is more than just sonic; the use of a tonal melody by Mozart flouts the ultramodernist rejection of European musical tradition. The particular quotation of an aria about Papageno’s desire for a wife introduces another layer of interpretive meaning to the quartet. Beyer composed in an era where the structures of musical modernism were especially misogynist. Unmarried women like Beyer faced further hardships during the Depression. Around the time Beyer composed String Quartet No. 2, she proposed an arranged open marriage to Henry Cowell so that they may reap the social benefits. This arrangement never materialized, but one detail linking the quartet to the idea of marriage is Beyer signing the manuscript “Persephone,” the wife of Hades from Greek mythology. The subversion of gendered tropes is a common theme with modernist women artists. Reading Beyer’s quotation of “Ein Mädchen oder Weibchen” in this context sets the free, ultramodern counterpoint of the upper lines against the fixed cello line that repeats Papageno’s tune through the whole first movement. The content of the aria, Papageno’s desire to marry any woman at all, provides further analytical material, as this perspective is tied to the rigid cello, never achieving the freedom of the upper strings. Borrowing Papageno’s aria allows Beyer and her audience to think subversively about marriage and gender roles. Examining the connections between musical borrowing and gender opens up a rich array of analytical possibilities.

Works: Johanna Beyer: String Quartet No. 2 (306-13, 320-32)

Sources: Mozart: Die Zauberflöte (306-8, 313, 320-32)

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Lusk, Franklin L. "An Analytical Study of the Music and Text of Ralph Vaughan Williams' On Wenlock Edge." D.M.A. diss., Indiana University, 1975.

One reference to borrowing is present: the second song of On Wenlock Edge, "From Far; From Eve and Morning," recalls "The Infinite Shining Moment" from Songs of Travel with its widespread common chords.

Works: Vaughan Williams: On Wenlock Edge (36).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] MacKay, John. "'Les jeux sont faits': Ensemble Strategies and Historical 'Borrowing' in the Music of Bengt Hambraeus." Ex Tempore: A Journal of Compositional and Theoretical Research in Music 10 (Summer 2000): 12-67.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Maehder, Jürgen. “Studien zum Fragmentcharakter von Giacomo Puccinis Turandot.” In Studien zur italienischen Musikgeschichte. XIII: Aufsätze zur italienischen Musikgeschichte von Giovanni Gabrieli bis zu Giacomo Puccini, ed. Friedrich Lippmann, Sabine Henze-Döhring, and Wolfgang Witzenmann, 297-379. Analecta musicologica 22:1. Laaber: Laaber-Verlag, 1984.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Magee, Jeffrey. "'Everybody Step': Irving Berlin, Jazz, and Broadway in the 1920s." Journal of the American Musicological Society 59 (Fall 2006): 697-732.

In the early 1920s, when public familiarity and associations with jazz were amorphous and inconsistent, Irving Berlin cultivated a sense that his theatrical music defined jazz. In addition to textual and musical references to ragtime or blues characteristics, Berlin used quotations of his own music, which had already gained ragtime associations, to reinforce this idea. One notable example is Berlin's quotation of his earlier songs Alexander's Ragtime Band, Everybody's Doing It Now, and The Syncopated Walk in his 1921 Everybody Step. Berlin's self-borrowing ranged from nearly exact quotation of a full phrase of both music and lyrics to more subtle use of one- or two-measure units of rhythms, fills, or pick-ups that were nevertheless recognizable as being drawn from his earlier pieces. The earlier songs' associations with jazz implied that Berlin's newer music also fit into the genre. To further build upon this personal jazz lineage, Berlin borrowed from Everybody Step in later works.

Works: Irving Berlin: Everybody Step (698-10), The Syncopated Vamp (706, 708), Pack Up Your Sins and Go to The Devil (710-12).

Sources: Irving Berlin: Alexander's Ragtime Band (706-07, 709-10), Everybody's Doing It Now (706, 708-09), The Syncopated Walk (706-09), Everybody Step (710-13).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz, Popular

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Magee, Jeffrey. "Irving Berlin's 'Blue Skies': Ethnic Affiliations and Musical Transformations." Musical Quarterly 84 (Winter 2000): 537-80.

Applying the technique of a "song profile," or the compositional and performance history of a tune that reveals socially constructed meanings, to Irving Berlin's Blue Skies reveals several borrowings that suggest reinterpretation. Many of Berlin's songs reflect a Jewish tradition, incorporating modal mixture and chromatic inflection. Although this tradition is not uniquely Jewish, listeners interpreted as such in Manhattan in Berlin's day. Looking at the tune history of Blue Skies demonstrates the shift from its Jewish origins in the 1920s to subsequent revisions that change its ethnic associations. A performer such as Belle Baker, for example, who sang the song in Betsy, attempted to identify directly with Jewish culture, whereas Al Jolson, who played straightforward and jazzy renditions in The Jazz Singer, gave the song, in addition to its Jewish characteristics, jazz overtones. Benny Goodman and Mary Lou Williams employed allusion; Bing Crosby crooned a slow, balladic version and marketed it toward a broader, Caucasian, middle-class audience. Through contrafact, Thelonius Monk virtually disguised the source in In Walked Bud, while Ella Fitzgerald used scat. Willie Nelson and Pete Seeger reinterpreted the song further to represent an American folk song. Above all, the transcendent power of the tune proves the "assimilative power of Jewish culture" and effectively reinforces its roots.

Works: Rodgers and Hart: Betsy (552-57); Berlin: Blue Skies as performed by Al Jolson in The Jazz Singer (557-59), Fletcher Henderson and Benny Goodman (559-63); Mary Lou Williams: Trumpet No End, arrangement for Duke Ellington (560-62); Berlin: Blue Skies as performed by Bing Crosby (563-65); Thelonius Monk: In Walked Bud (566-69); Berlin: Blue Skies as performed by Ella Fitzgerald (569-70), Willie Nelson (570-71), Pete Seeger (571-72).

Sources: Berlin: Blue Skies (537-38, 540-44, 547, 549-52, 572-73).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz, Popular

Contributed by: Katie Lundeen

[+] Magers, Roy Vernon. "Aspects of Form in the Symphonies of Charles Ives." Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University, 1975.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Magers, Roy Vernon. "Charles Ives's Optimism: or, The Program's Progress." In Music in American Society 1776-1976, ed. George McCue, pp. 73-86. New Brunswick, N. J.: Transaction Books, 1977.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Magrill, Samuel Morse. "The Principle of Variation: A Study in the Selection of Differences with Examples from Dallapiccola, J. S. Bach, and Brahms." Ph.D. diss., University of Illinois, 1983.

Index Classifications: 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

[+] Mah, Eileen. “Alternative Facts in Musicology and Vechnaya Pamyat’ in Shostakovich’s Symphony No. 5.” Current Musicology 108 (November 2021): 81-114.

The musicological “war” over the interpretation of Shostakovich’s Symphony No. 5 as an expression of political dissidence has over time generated alternative facts, adversarial rhetoric, and cynical apathy among scholars, all of which get in the way of fully analyzing the music. Setting aside the prominent, polarized interpretations, the symphony illustrates the simultaneous presence of multiple layers of meaning and purposeful ambiguity in Shostakovich’s music. By fusing abstract musical structures with specifically meaningful references, Shostakovich may have created his own kind of alternative fact, making his symphony both provably dissident and provably not dissident. In his extensive Shostakovich scholarship, Richard Taruskin’s main concern seems to be debunking the image of “dissident” Shostakovich as inaccurate. Despite this position, Taruskin identifies a “near citation” of the Orthodox requiem hymn Vechnaya pamyat in the third movement. While the passage does not actually contain a “near citation,” this claim has been repeated by other scholars, becoming an alternative fact. A full quotation of the hymn would likely have been dangerous to include in the Stalin era, but Vechnaya may possibly be referenced in motivic fragments throughout the entire symphony. Three motives—three ascending steps in equal, long note value; three repeated notes in equal, long note value; and three steps ascending or descending half-step to whole-step—are musically significant throughout the symphony and are present in the Vechnaya melody. The three-note ascending motive is especially prominent in the principal theme of the fourth movement. At various points in the third movement, the exact motives, rhythms, and timbre of Vechnaya are present and audible, lending credence to an intentional reference on the part of Shostakovich. The half step-whole step variation of the three-note ascending motive may also be (as Taruskin suggests) a reference to Shostakovich’s setting of Vozrozhdeniye (rebirth), which was composed immediately prior to the symphony and is directly quoted elsewhere in the symphony. The motive of three repeated notes also appears throughout the symphony in a few forms. The repeated short-short-long form could also remind listeners of the (arguably funereal) second movement of Beethoven’s Symphony No. 7. The meaning of these three motives can be multivalent without being mutually exclusive; the motives could reference Vechnaya or Vozrozhdeniye, convey a dead-end feeling, or simply be repeated rhythmic and scalar patterns. Although the nature of truth or meaning in a work of art differs from truth in other fields, musical “data” (the notes on the page) are like any other data, open to different analysis and contextualization by people with different goals and perspectives.

Works: Shostakovich: Symphony No. 5 in D Minor, Op. 47 (90-107)

Sources: Anonymous: Vechnaya pamyat’ (90-107); Shostakovich: Vozrozhdeniye (98-101)

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Maier, Franz Michael. “The Idea of Melodic Connection in Samuel Beckett.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 61 (Summer 2008): 373-410.

The relationship between music and image, particularly understood through the idea of melodic connection, is central to Samuel Beckett’s late works. This relationship is predicated on two observations about Beckett’s work. First, deconstruction is used as a tool for constructing meaning, not as an end in itself. Second, Beckett viewed music as an “ideal art,” therefore musical form is used as an end in itself. In Beckett’s 1953 novel Watt, singing makes several appearances. In one instance, the character Watt recalls a frog concert in which a trio of frogs croak in a rhythmically organized pattern which is remarkably similar to a scene in Jean-Philippe Rameau’s opera Platée. Music also plays a major part in Beckett’s 1982 television play Nacht und Träume, which includes barely audible hummed and sung excerpts of Franz Schubert’s lied of the same title. By removing the harmonic context, Beckett emphasizes the melodic essence and references Schopenhauer’s philosophy of Zusammenhang (connection), or the idea of temporal coherence connecting moments to form a continuity of conscience. The music in Nacht und Träume, along with other aspects of the play, depicts a standpoint “from within” as opposed to the “from without” standpoint of the earlier Watt.

Works: Samuel Beckett: Nacht und Träume (396-405)

Sources: Franz Schubert: Nacht und Träume (396-405)

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Mallet, Franck. "Orient-Occident: De l'emprunt á l'intégration." Cité musiques: Journal de la Cité de la Musique 29 (Summer 2000): 6-7.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Mann, William. Richard Strauss: A Critical Study of the Operas. London: Cassell, 1964.

Among Strauss's fifteen operas, there are a large number of quotations, stylistic allusions, and melodic derivatives, most of which have a programmatic intent. The musical borrowings are cited but are not included on separate lists.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Fredrick Tarrant

[+] Marcus, Jason. "Don't Stop That Funky Beat: The Essentiality of Digital Sampling to Rap Music." COMM-ENT: Hastings Journal of Communications and Entertainment Law 13, no. 4 (Summer 1991): 767-90.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

[+] Mark, Christopher. "Britten's Quatre Chansons Françaises." Soundings 10 (Summer 1983): 23-35.

Britten's Quatre Chansons Françaises, written in 1928, show four possible sources of influences: Frank Bridge, Britten's composition teacher; works whose scores Britten owned; broadcasts, recordings, and concerts; and orchestration books. Britten may have used Bridge as a model for some of the harmonies and orchestration in the first song "Les Nuits de Juin," but this is difficult to trace. Of the works he knew in score, those that seem to have had the most influence are Wagner's Tristan und Isolde and Siegfried and Ravel's Introduction and Allegro.Tristan serves as a model for the end of the song cycle where the similarities are key (B Major/C-flat Major), and the spacing of the strings in the final chord, which is repeated three times as in Tristan. Also, the soprano ends on the same note (F-sharp/G-flat); the utilization of suspensions is similar; and the "Tristan chord" is blatantly quoted in the third song "L'Enfance." The influence of Ravel, along with that of Debussy, may have been acquired through broadcasts as well as scores. This French influence appears in the vocal writing; the use of non-functional progressions of seventh and ninth chords; an oscillating triplet figure in "Les Nuits de Juin"; a melodic line constructed from a chain of 025 trichords in the final song "Chanson d'Automne"; and modal inflection such as is found in the second song "Sagesse." Finally, Cecil Forsyth's book Orchestration appears to have influenced not only the orchestration but also various instructions written in the parts.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Nikola D. Strader

[+] Markewich, Reese. The New Expanded Bibliography of Jazz Compositions Based on the Chord Progressions of Standard Tunes. New York, N.Y.: Reese Markewich, 1974.

Many modern jazz and popular compositions have been written based on the chord progressions of standard popular songs and other jazz compositions. They provide a fresh approach, both melodically and harmonically, to familiar material, and serve jazz musicians in jam sessions as an acceptable common denominator of chord progressions known to all. In addition to brief introductory comments, this book lists groups of compositions (more than one hundred compositions are included) that share the same chord progressions. Compositions based on the twelve-bar blues harmonic scheme and George Gershwin's song I Got Rhythm are not included.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Scott Grieb

[+] Marks, Martin. "Music, Drama, Warner Brothers: The Cases of Casablanca and The Maltese Falcon." Michigan Quarterly Review 35, no. 1 (Winter 1996): 112-42.

Music in film can serve to strengthen the plot and emotional intensity if it is made an essential part of the narrative. In the case of Casablanca, Max Steiner scores approximately forty-five minutes of music that makes an indelible mark on the film's narrative through borrowing the French national anthem, La Marseillaise, the German national anthem, Deutschland über alles,As Time Goes By, and Watch on the Rhine, scoring them repeatedly in various ways to show sympathy for the star-crossed lovers. Adolph Deutsch's score for the Maltese Falcon contains fifty minutes of composed music that does not contain borrowed tunes, lending itself to a less noticeable role in the film's narrative. Steiner borrowed La Marseillaise to symbolize the French, and by extension, the Allied resistance to Nazi oppression. Deutschland über alles and Watch on the Rhine were used to symbolize the Nazi German menace. As Time Goes By is scored unobtrusively with background music throughout the score as a theme song, enhancing the unity of the film and imbuing the narrative with a strong sense of nostalgia.

Works: Max Steiner: score to Casablanca (118); Adolph Deutsch: score to The Maltese Falcon (128).

Sources: Joseph Haydn (tune), Hoffman and Fallersleben (poem): Deutschland über alles (119); Herman Hupfeld: As Time Goes By (121); Karl Wilhelm: Watch on the Rhine (121).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kathleen Widden

[+] Marks, Martin. “Screwball Fantasia: Classical Music in Unfaithfully Yours.” 19th-Century Music 34 (Spring 2011): 237-70.

The 1948 screwball comedy Unfaithfully Yours, written, produced, and directed by Preston Sturges, satirizes the elevated status of classical music through an extended fantasy sequence set in the mind of a conductor during a concert. Sir Alfred De Carter, the conductor, suspects his wife’s infidelity and imagines three scenarios inspired by the three works on the concert program: Rossini’s Semiramide, Wagner’s Tannhäuser, and Tchaikovsky’s Francesca da Rimini. Throughout the film, Alfred is depicted as a caricature of high society, only enjoying the veneer of high culture. During the fantasy sequences, the classical soundtrack fluctuates between being in the foreground and functioning as underscoring. Alfred’s fantasies take the original narratives of the music and distort them to comedic effect. In the Tannhäuser sequence, Alfred turns the opera’s theme of love and redemption on its head by patronizingly redeeming his adulterous wife, treating her as a prop for his noble act of forgiveness. In the sequence featuring Francesca da Rimini, based on a vignette from Dante’s Inferno, Alfred imagines himself the melodramatic hero, tormented in hell. The Semiramide sequence is the most involved, opening with a six-minute scene of the orchestra rehearsing the overture before delving into Alfred’s fantasy. In the rehearsal, Rossini’s overture serves as the background for slapstick humor, as in a bit where a percussionist has to rush offstage to grab a pair of comically large cymbals. At one point during the Semiramide fantasy, musical cues in pop styles humorously intrude on the classical score as Alfred sneaks boogie-woogie records into a stack of classical records within his fantasy. Music is core to the humor in other ways as well: several running jokes are tied to repeated musical cues. The final scene offers one last send-up of Hollywood’s use of classical music to evoke sentiment. Tannhäuser is heard once again, this time as non-diegetic underscoring to Alfred reaffirming his undying love for his wife, which—given his misreading of the music in his fantasies—rings flowery and hollow. Unfaithfully Yours demonstrates Preston Sturges’s control over his film score and his assessment of classical music’s role in American culture.

Works: Preston Sturges (director) and Alfred Newman (music director): score to Unfaithfully Yours (246-260)

Sources: Wagner: Tannhäuser (246-247), Tristan und Isolde (258-260); Tchaikovsky: Francesca da Rimini (247); Rossini: Semiramide (247-258); James Lord Pierpont, et al.: Jingle Bells (258-260)

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Marmande, Francis. "Le Travail de la 'citation': Espace rupture." Jazz Magazine 194 (November 1971): 16-19.

The enormous variety of borrowing (citation) in free jazz cannot be adequately described by our current rigid and limited terminology. The rhetoric and ideology present in outmoded descriptions of borrowing that use language and assumptions advanced by Philippe Carles and Jean-Louis Comolli obligate us to intervene and create a new system for writing about borrowing. We must do away with mythical and mystical language of inspiration and creation, as well as the inflexible idea that jazz emerged solely from the condition of Black Americans. Furthermore, distinctions between types of borrowing are useless if divorced from the texts--"text" in this case being a flexible term that refers not just to our traditional ideas of notated music, but to any heard performance. If we separate term and text, we slide back towards old unconstructive accusations of copying and plagiarism. The new terminology should incorporate the many types of borrowing that occur, including collage, mélange, collision, juxtaposition, reminiscence, and self-borrowing, as well as the performance conditions and the reason for the use of a particular source.

Index Classifications: General, 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Marschner, Bo. "Stravinsky's Le baiser de la fée and Its Meaning." Dansk årbog for musikforskning 8 (1977): 51-83.

Despite Stravinsky's protestations to the contrary, it is possible to find meaning in his music, especially in Le baiser de la fée. As the work borrows from Tchaikovsky and makes reference to Richard Wagner a great deal, meaning can be found by examining Le baiser de la fée's borrowing and incorporations. The ballet's climax uses the half-diminished seventh chord, which is identical to the "Curse structure" of Wagner's Ring and the "Tristan structure" in Tristan und Isolde. Incidentally, this particular chord is also found in many of the Tchaikovsky works from which Stravinsky borrows. This structure is used abundantly throughout Le baiser de la fée, by both avoiding it and eventually capitulating. This is one example of a "symbol" that can be traced throughout the work and that can be said to carry "meaning."

Works: Stravinsky: Le baiser de la fée (51-83).

Sources: Tchaikovsky: Soir d'Hiver (62), Tant Triste, Tant Douce (62), Polka peu dansante (63), Ah, qui brûla d'amour (63, 68); Wagner: Tristan und Isolde (64, 70, 71); Tchaikovsky: Humoreske (71-73, 81-82), Reverie du Soir (72, 81), Berceuse de la Tempête (75-76); Wagner: Das Rheingold (76).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Geelhoed

[+] Marshall, Dennis. "Charles Ives's Quotations: Manner or Substance?" Perspectives of New Music 6 (Spring/Summer 1968): 45-56. Reprinted in Perspectives on American Composers, ed. Benjamin Boretz and Edward T. Cone, 13-24. New York: W. W. Norton, 1971.

The common assumption that Ives's use of borrowed material is primarily programmatic is not valid. Ives himself differentiated between "mannered" quotation, or the use of "local musical sources merely for surface effect," and the creation of meaning, substance, and compositional structure in a work through various types of quotation, paraphrase, and motivic and structural development related to borrowed material. The juxtaposition of sacred hymns with ragtime in the second and fourth movements of Ives's First Piano Sonata provides an example. Ives used both the formal and melodic organization of three hymns, I Hear Thy Welcome Voice, Bringing in the Sheaves, and Happy Day, as a basis for the ragtime movements. The simultaneous use of both sacred and secular music may be a result of Ives's Transcendentalist philosophy, which prompted him to draw on the entire range of music he knew. But Ives also selected his sources for quotation according to the motivic relationships present in the borrowed material. For example, the hymn tune Missionary Chant plays an important role in the Second Piano Sonata ("Concord") because of its melodic similarity to the opening motive from Beethoven's Fifth Symphony. In The Fourth of July, Ives uses the patriotic song The Red, White, and Blue throughout, a procedure that is comparable to the chorale preludes of J. S. Bach.

Works: Ives: Piano Sonata No. 1 (46-53), Orchestral Set No. 2 (46), Piano Sonata No. 2, "Concord, Mass., 1840-60" (54), The Fourth of July (54-56).

Sources: Ives: Set of Four Ragtime Pieces (46); Hartsough: "I Hear Thy Welcome Voice" (46-47, 49-50); Minor: "Bringing in the Sheaves" (46, 48, 50-53); Rimbault: "Happy Day" (46, 49-53); Zeuner: "Missionary Chant" (54); David T. Shaw: "The Red, White and Blue" (55-56); William Steffe?: "The Battle Hymn of the Republic" (55-56).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Will Sadler

[+] Marshall, Wayne. “Giving up Hip-Hop’s Firstborn: A Quest for the Real after the Death of Sampling.” Callaloo 29 (Summer 2006): 868-92.

By examining the criticism and liner notes written by The Roots’ drummer Questlove (Ahmir Thompson), the notion that sampling is what determines authenticity in hip-hop can be questioned. Though Questlove frequently admits that sampling is highly important to hip-hop, he notes that many of the earliest and some of the most successful hip-hop recordings use studio instrumentalists performing “samples” of hit breaks and grooves. He also notes the ability of producers to sample is severely limited by the amount of money required to license many well-known samples. When performing and recording with The Roots, Questlove has sought to recreate the sound and rhythmic character of sampled drums through various studio techniques and playing in a funk-based, relatively invariable fashion. Examples of this can be found on “Dynamite” and “Double Trouble” from Illadelph Halflife. The Roots have also utilized beatboxers Scratch and Rahzel, who can imitate the sounds of samples and record scratching in their beatboxing. Such efforts to mimic sampled sounds on “traditional” instruments demonstrate both the importance of sampling for hip-hop and the desire to explore other avenues of music making while staying true to hip-hop’s essence.

Works: De La Soul: Transmitting Live from Mars (868); Biz Markie: Alone Again (868); Afrika Bambaataa: Planet Rock (874); Grandmaster Flash: The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel (874); Sugar Hill Gang: Rapper’s Delight (874); Yes: Owner of a Lonely Heart (876); Common: Like Water for Chocolate (876); The Roots: Concerto of the Desperado (880).

Sources: Jim McGuinn and Gene Clark (songwriters) and The Turtles (performers): You Showed Me (868); Gilbert O’Sullivan: Alone Again (Naturally) (868); Kraftwerk: Trans-Europe Express (874); Funk Inc.: Kool is Back (876); Lionel Bart: Theme from From Russia with Love (880).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Marti, Christoph. "Zur Kompositionstechnik von Igor Strawinsky. Das 'Petit concert' aus der Histoire du soldat." Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 38 (May 1981): 93-109.

The musical material of Stravinsky's "Petit concert" from the Histoire du soldat consists only of quotations from the remaining movements of the piece. The beginning vertically combines two motives from the "Music to Scene 1" that are developed according to parameters inherent in the musical material, especially the major second or ninth. Stravinsky derived it from the space between the g and a strings of the violin that in the story is the actual reason for the "Petit concert." This development leads to new ideas that, once they are firmly established, turn out to be quotations themselves. Stravinsky quotes from movements with about the same tempo and uses consistent rhythmic patterns in order to achieve an optimal integration.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Martin, George W. Opera at the Bandstand: Then and Now. Plymouth, UK: Scarecrow Press, 2014.

Throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, opera selections have had an important place in the repertoire for concert bands, but the recent trend in concert bands away from playing opera transcriptions has been detrimental to the popularity of opera in America. In the 1830s, opera tunes became a dominant genre of popular music thanks to performances by military, civic, and professional concert bands, which represented a significant portion of the music consumed by the public throughout the 1800s. The first celebrity bandleader was Patrick Sarsfield Gilmore, who gained national fame in 1872 organizing music for the National Peace Jubilee after the Civil War. Through the late nineteenth century, Gilmore organized a private band with varied programs that included operatic transcriptions. Taking Gilmore’s place in the public spotlight around the turn of the century was John Philip Sousa, who also programmed a variety of music including modern opera repertoire like Richard Wagner. After Sousa’s death in 1932, nationally touring bands of that scale became a thing of the past, especially with the rise of radio and sound recording. While a few professional bands, like the Goldman Band, remained through the mid-twentieth century, performing a traditional mix of music including operatic repertoire, collegiate bands began to replace them as the dominant concert band force. Collegiate bands, especially those modelled on Frederick Fennell’s Eastman Wind Ensemble, began programming more original works for band and distanced themselves from operatic transcriptions. Without the widespread performance of opera by bands, its popularity in American declined.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Matthews, David. "First Performances: Britten's Third Quartet." Tempo, no. 125 (June 1978): 21-24.

Britten's Third Quartet uses material from Death in Venice, his last opera. Like Mahler with his late works and Aschenbach in the opera, Britten's inspiration "returned only under the shadow of death," and a preoccupation with life, death, peace, and beauty may be observed in the quartet. The final movement, "Passacaglia," subtitled "La Serenissima," is prefaced by five quotations from Death in Venice. The first quotation is the Barcarolle, which, in the opera, is "a transformation of the chorus's repeated calls of 'Serenissima'"; the final quotation is the love motive from the end of Act I (Aschenbach's confession of love for Tadzio, "I love you"). E Major, associated in Death in Venice with Aschenbach's quest for ideal beauty, is also used for the Passacaglia.

Works: Britten: String Quartet No. 3.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Nikola D. Strader

[+] Maultsby, Portia K. “The Use and Performance of Hymnody, Spirituals, and Gospels in the Black Church.” Hymnology Annual: An International Forum on the Hymn and Worship 2 (1992): 11-26.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Mavrodin, Alice. "Variations, Fugue, and Envoi on a Theme of Handel." Trans. Tempo, no. 133/134 (September 1980): 61-67.

Igor Markevitch's Variazioni e fuge su un tema di Haendel, his final composition, synthesizes his personal language with the canon of pianistic tradition and the tradition of variations. Markevitch deliberately separates the core body of his variations from both the unaltered presentation of the borrowed theme and from the coda. Throughout the variations, he suggests the use both of the piano as a heroic instrument in itself and as a miniature orchestra. Although Markevitch's Variazioni e fuge su un tema di Haendel is both the climax and the end of his compositional oeuvre, it serves as an appropriate segue to his later editorial work.

Works: Igor Markevitch: Variazioni e fuge su un tema di Haendel (61).

Sources: Handel: Keyboard Suite No. 5 in E Major (61).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Virginia Whealton

[+] Maxson, William L. "A Study of Modality and Folk Song in the Choral Music of Ralph Vaughan Williams." M.M. thesis, Indiana University, 1957.

English folk songs and the modality inherent in them influenced Vaughan Williams's choral works in the areas of rhythm, tempo, meter, modality, melody, harmony, ornamentation, tonality, texture and form. Chapters IV ("Music Based on a Folk Song Idiom") and V ("Choral Works Based Directly on Folk Songs") contain information on Vaughan Williams's use of borrowed materials.

Works: Vaughan Williams: Fantasia on the "Old 104th" Psalm Tune (40), The Dark-Eyed Sailor (50), The Spring Time of the Year (51), Just as the Tide was Flowing (52), The Lover's Ghost (53), Wassail Song (54), A Sea Symphony (63).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Rob Lamborn

[+] Mayer, Harry. "Het citaat in de Nederlandse muziek." Mens en Melodie 25 (December 1970): 131-34.

[On Schat and Andriessen among others.]

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Mayer-Serra, Otto. "Falla's Musical Nationalism." The Musical Quarterly 29 (January 1943): 1-17.

Falla is distinguished for having brought Spanish music into the 20th century through his move away from the romantic-impressionistic tradition, in which folk elements are merely stylized, to a neo-classic musical language in which folk elements serve as the basis for composition. Falla's innovations include developments in rhythm, harmony and form. Each of these, "internal rhythm," "Harmonic resonance," and modification of classical schemes, is discussed in reference to his Harpsichord Concerto, which treats a 15th-century Castilian folksong, De los alamos vengo.

Works: Falla: Harpsichord Concerto.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Amy Weller

[+] Mayer-Serra, Otto. "Silvestre Revueltas and Musical Nationalism in Mexico." The Musical Quarterly 27 (April 1941): 123-45.

Revueltas never used actual folk melodies in his music, but he evoked regional tunes such as the Tarascan son and the Michoacan corrido by modeling his melodies on their characteristic features, thus creating a Mexican nationalist music.

Works: Revueltas: Caminos (131-32), Cuauhnahuac (130), Janitzio (129-30, 133), The Wave (132-33).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Nancy Kinsey Totten

[+] Mayo, John. "Coming to Terms with the Past: Beckwith's Keyboard Practice." In Taking a Stand: Essays in Honour of John Beckwith, ed. Timothy J. McGee, 94-109. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1995.

Because of the relationship between borrowed music and compositional structure in Beckwith's Keyboard Practice (1979), an analysis of these components may illuminate the composer's intended meaning, as well as provide an analytical model for other referential compositions. Keyboard Practice, a set of variations which involves four performers who play on ten different keyboard instruments, employs quotations from an anonymous Alman, a movement from an Ordre by François Couperin, Liszt's Au bord d'une source, and Charles L. Johnson's Cum Bac' Rag. On the surface, these borrowings reflect Beckwith's view of the history of keyboard literature. The variety of instruments involved may also be read as an examination of a variety of keyboard timbres. Beckwith also comments on each borrowed composition through musical interruptions which disrupt the quotations. The 12-tone row upon which the piece is based may also be considered a reflection on the borrowed material, as it is derived from the first ten notes of the Alman, and sections of the row serve as cadential figures in reference to the other pre-existent music.

Works: Beckwith: Keyboard Practice (94-109).

Sources: Fitzwilliam Virginal Book: anonymous Alman (97-105); François Couperin: [Unidentified] Ordre (97-105); Liszt: Au bord d'une source (97-105); Charles L. Johnson: Cum Bac' Rag (98-105).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Randy Goldberg

[+] Mays, Kenneth Robert. "The Use of Hymn Tunes in the Works of Charles Ives." M.M. thesis, Indiana University, 1961.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Mazo, Margarita. "Stravinsky's Les Noces and Russian Folk Wedding Ritual." Journal of the American Musicological Society 43 (Spring 1990): 99-142.

Although Stravinsky frequently emphasizes his familiarity with the sources of folk songs and the influence of folk music upon his works, he claims to have quoted only one folk tune (Ne veselaia da kampan'itsa) in his ballet Les Noces. What characterizes Les Noces as typically Russian is not the quotation of this song, however, but the use of melodic idioms, called popevki.Popevki playing an important role in Stravinsky's ballet are listed in the appendix of the essay. According to Stravinsky, Les Noces is also a product of the Russian church, which is shown with a passage entirely derived from the Fifth Tone (glas) of the Znamennyi Chant. The main point of the article is, however, that Stravinsky's ballet is strongly influenced by the Russian folk weddings in terms of "poly-layered texture," the function of rhythmic and melodic ostinato, the recurrences of certain melodic phrases, as well as conceptual and structural ideas.

Works: Kastalsky: Kartiny narodnykh prazdnovanii na Rusi (Scenes of Folk Festivals in Old Russia) (112-14); Stravinsky: Les Noces.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Mazulo, Mark. “Remembering Pop: David Lynch and the Sound of the ‘60s.” American Music 23 (Winter 2005): 493-513.

David Lynch uses compilation scores comprising American popular songs to establish individual sound signatures in his films. He is especially attracted to pop songs released during his adolescence that make use of distinctive vocals or mixing, which create a certain peculiarity with the naiveté of a song’s message, sincerity, and compositional elements. Lynch capitalizes on the dualistic nature of these songs by deploying them as historically unproblematic and desired objects of nostalgia, in some instances using them in violent, psychologically deviant, horrifying, and self-consciously staged scenes as passageways to strangeness and the uncanny. Such a use allows audiences to reimagine the history of these songs and the culture that created and consumed them and represents a new employment of the compilation score consistent with his aesthetic of the “ridiculous sublime.” In Mulholland Drive, the pop song I’ve Told Every Little Star represents the film’s theme of duality. In Lost Highway, the use of Lou Reed’s cover of This Magic Moment rather than the well-known pop versions matches the soundscape of the film and is metacommentary on the reception of American popular song. In Twin Peaks, a newly-composed pop song disrupts the security of reality, and in Blue Velvet, pop music complicates multiple layers of diegesis, performance, and reality.

Works: David Lynch (director): soundtrack to Lost Highway (494, 502-3), soundtrack to Eraserhead (494, 499), soundtrack to Blue Velvet (507-9); David Lynch (director) and Angelo Badalamenti (composer): soundtrack to Mulholland Drive (494, 494-501), soundtrack to Twin Peaks (494, 503-6).

Sources: Bill Post and Doree Post: Sixteen Reasons (Why I Love You) (500); Oscar Hammerstein II and Jerome Kern: I’ve Told Ev’ry Little Star (500-501); Doc Pomus and Mort Shuman (songwriters) and The Drifters (performers): This Magic Moment (500-502); Doc Pomus and Mort Shuman (songwriters) and Lou Reed (performer): This Magic Moment (502-3); Bobby Vinton: Blue Velvet (507-8); Roy Orbison: In Dreams (508-9).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Film

Contributed by: Kate Altizer

[+] McBrier, Vivian Flagg. R. Nathaniel Dett: His Life and Works (1882-1943). Washington: The Associated Publishers, 1976.

R. Nathaniel Dett believed that African-American folk songs were well suited to development into high art forms, and that such development could inspire racial pride and personal dignity. He was particularly predisposed to the use of spirituals as the basis of choral compositions. His treatment of the source material included use of the entire song or only the smallest fragment; expansion, contraction, variation, and inversion of the melodic ideas; rhythmic diminution and augmentation; textual mutations and repetitions; and antiphonal and contrapuntal treatments.

Works: Dett: Listen to the Lambs (36-38), The Ordering of Moses (82-84, 143, 144), O Hear the Lambs A-Crying (134,135), Gently, Lord, O Gently Lead Us (136), Let Us Cheer The Weary Travler (137-139).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Reginald Sanders

[+] McCandless, William Edgar. "Cantus Firmus Techniques in Selected Instrumental Compositions, 1910-1960." Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University, 1974.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] mcclung, bruce d. "Life after George: The Genesis of Lady in the Dark's Circus Dream." Kurt Weill Newsletter 14, no. 2 (Fall 1996): 4-8.

Kurt Weill originally conceived the third dream sequence in Lady in the Dark as a minstrel show, but lyricist Ira Gershwin preferred Gilbert and Sullivan as a model, particularly Trial by Jury. Early drafts and the final version include many parallels and echoes in the text. Weill joined in by borrowing the Mikado's entrance song from The Mikado for the entrance of the jury.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: J. Peter Burkholder

[+] McDonald, Matthew. "Death and the Donkey: Schubert at Random in Au Hasard, Balthazar." The Musical Quarterly 90 (Fall/Winter 2007): 446-68.

The musical context of pre-existing pieces used in film scores may help one derive meaning from a score. While film director Robert Bresson completely rejected non-diegetic film music at the end of his career, Au Hasard, Balthazar represents the culmination of his admired treatment of rhythm and form in film music. He avoids postmodern irony present in films such as 2001: A Space Odyssey, choosing instead to merge the aural and visual to the point that they are dependent on each other. Fragments of the Andantino from Schubert's Piano Sonata in A Major, D. 959 are arranged in a way that adds meaning to the film. It is essential for viewers to pay attention to the meaning of these fragments both as they function within the film and according to their original function, as the images and sounds in the film transform one another.

Works: Robert Bresson (director): Sound track to Au Hasard, Balthazar.

Sources: Schubert: Piano Sonata in A Major, D. 959.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Karen Anton Stafford

[+] McFarland, Mark. "Debussy and Stravinsky: Another Look into Their Musical Relationship." Cahiers Debussy, no. 24 (2000): 79-112.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] McGinness, John. “Has Modernist Criticism Failed Charles Ives?” Music Theory Spectrum 28 (Spring 2006): 99-109.

To secure Ives’s compositional reputation against modernist criticism, revisionist scholars have adapted the untenable position that Charles Ives was a modernist composer. Such characterizations attempt to situate his music within Western European tradition and refute the categorization of Ives as an experimentalist. Two critical processes, the idea of experimentalism and the use of musical analysis, are important to understanding how Ives’ reputation was created. In post-1974 Ives scholarship, music analysis is often used as a determinant of aesthetic value. It is frequently employed to “prove” that Ives’s music is systematic and logical, and by extension is skilled and therefore valuable. This motivation also lies behind scholarship which demonstrates how Ives’s music is more “traditional” and how it relates to European art music. For example, some scholars have tried to show how Ives’s uses of musical borrowings fit into a European tradition. Such traditionalist studies seek to redefine the term “experimentalism” as it was originally conceived in the 1930s by Cowell—a type of music which deliberately sought to break with European tradition—to a term that signifies compositional uniqueness. The motivations of such analyses, which have attempted to place Ives’s musical reputation within a context of “skill and value,” should be examined. Perhaps Ives’s music, aspects of which (such as his uses of pre-existing music) intentionally undermine conventions, should not be subject to formalist analysis and scholars should instead examine the validity of evaluating Ives through a modernist lens rather than characterize his music as modernist.

Works: Ives: Tone Roads No. 1 (104), Study No. 5 (104), The Cage (104), Piano Sonata No. 2 (Concord, Mass., 1840-60) (105-6).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Kate Altizer, Chelsea Hamm, Amanda Jensen

[+] McGuinness, Rosamund. "Mahler und Brahms: Gedanken zu 'Reminiszenzen' in Mahlers Sinfonien." Melos/Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 3 (May/June 1977): 215-24.

In the wake of the Brahms/Wagner debate of the mid-nineteenth century, Mahler alludes in his music to Brahms both thematically and structurally. Due to his quotation of other composers, Mahler has often been criticized for lack of originality. Mahler took inspiration from Brahms and transformed it in his own music. Examples of this are seen in Mahler's First and Second Symphonies and their allusions to Brahms's First and Second Symphonies.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 2 (216, 219-21), Symphony No. 1 (218-19), Symphony No. 4 (222), Symphony No. 6 (222-23), Symphony No. 7 (222-23).

Sources: Brahms: Ein deutsches Requiem, Op. 45 (216, 220-21), Symphony No. 2 (217-19), Nänie, Op. 82 (220), Symphony No. 1 (221-22), Symphony No. 3 (222-23).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Susan Richardson

[+] McLean, Florence Anne. "Rachmaninov's 'Corelli-Variations': New Directions." D.M.A. document, University of British Columbia, 1990.

Rachmaninov's Corelli Variations illustrates his new compositional tendencies: economy of means, sparse texture, well-balanced structure, string-inspired figurations, elements of American jazz, and the avoidance of Romantic richness. Some of these elements are also present in the Paganini Rhapsody. Along with this main idea, the composer's borrowings in the two pieces are examined mainly in the discussion of string-influenced variations. For instance, in the Corelli Variations, the cadenza in the Intermezzo shares gypsy-style figurations with Kreisler?s La Gitane (m. 7). In the coda, the soaring melodic contour is inspired by that in the transcription of the coda of Corelli's La Folia (mm. 1-3) by Albert Spalding, Rachmaninov's friend. In the Paganini Rhapsody, the skips in triplet figuration in Var. 23 have a parallel with those in Paganini's La Clochette (mm. 76-92).

Works: Rachmaninov: Variations on a Theme of Corelli (32-34), Rhapsody for Piano and Orchestra on a Theme of Paganini, Op. 43 (52).

Sources: Paganini: Praeludium and Allegro (32); Kreisler: La Gitane (33); Albert Spalding: transcription of Corelli?s La Folia (34); Paganini: La Clochette (52).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Hyun Joo Kim

[+] McLeod, Kembrew. "Confessions of an Intellectual (Property): Danger Mouse, Mickey Mouse, Sonny Bono, and My Long and Winding Path as a Copyright Activist-Academic." Popular Music and Society 28 (February 2005): 79-93.

The electronic collage aesthetic, which originated with musique concrète and tape works such as John Cage's Imaginary Landscape No. 5 and Bill Buchanan and Dickie Goodman's The Flying Saucer, finds its modern incarnation in Danger Mouse's The Grey Album, a mash-up of Jay-Z's The Black Album and The Beatles' White Album. The current mash-up phenomenon is made possible by file-sharing software and readily available mixing programs. The Grey Album presents a legal quagmire because the samples were used without permission of EMI, prompting cease-and-desist letters to all those who circulated the album. Current laws only permit covers of songs, and sampling without permission is prohibited. Until copyright laws catch up with the collage aesthetic, the limited legality of fair use rights has the potential to stifle creativity and the free exchange of ideas.

Works: Danger Mouse (Brian Burton): The Grey Album (79-81); Freelance Hellraiser (Roy Kerr): A Stroke of Genie-us (82, 86-87); Soulwax: Smells Like Teen Booty (82, 84); Alan Copeland: Mission: Impossible Theme/Norwegian Wood (85); Negativland: U2 (88); Illegal Art: Sonny Bono is Dead (91), Deconstructing Beck (91).

Sources: The Beatles (John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, Ringo Starr): The White Album [The Beatles] (79-81); Jay-Z: The Black Album (79-81); Kurt Cobain, Dave Grohl, and Krist Novoselic (songwriters), Nirvana (performers): Smells Like Teen Spirit (82, 84); Rob Fusair, Falonte Moore, and Beyoncé Knowles (songwriters), Destiny?s Child (performers): Bootylicious (82, 84); Eminem: Without Me (84-85); Kevin Rowland, Big Jim Paterson, and Billy Adams (songwriters), Dexy's Midnight Runners (performers): Come On Eileen (84-85); U2: I Still Haven?t Found What I?m Looking For (88).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] McLeod, Ken. "'A Fifth of Beethoven': Disco, Classical Music, and the Politics of Inclusion." American Music 24 (Autumn 2006): 347-363.

For a short time in the 1970s, disco provided a place in which various cultures could coexist on the dance floor, and such diversity is reflected in the music, such as in Walter Murphy's A Fifth of Beethoven and David Shire's A Night on Disco Mountain. Murphy's A Fifth of Beethoven is primarily based on the first theme area of Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 and opens with a quotation from the opening of the first movement. This opening motive is set against a 4/4 disco pattern of electric bass, acoustic drum set, and clavinet playing composed material. Recalling the French horn bridge to the second theme area, Murphy alternates C and Eb whole notes, marking the beginning of the B section, but, rather than following sonata form, Murphy keeps A Fifth of Beethoven firmly in C minor throughout. By not modulating and by using static harmonies and a persistent rhythmic drive, A Fifth of Beethoven exemplifies the "inclusive homogeneity" that was a marker of disco style. Shire's A Night on Disco Mountain, like its Mussorgsky source, employs a wide range of sources for its orchestration, including a wah-wah electric guitar. The combination of sounds serves as a reflection of the diversity on the disco dance floor. While this was a short-lived phenomenon, disco borrowings of classical music served to exemplify the pluralism of disco.

Works: Walter Murphy: A Fifth of Beethoven (349-57, 260-61); David Shire: A Night on Disco Mountain (349-51, 357-58, 360-61).

Sources: Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 in C Minor (351-56); Mussorgsky: Night on Bald Mountain (349-51, 357-58, 360-61).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Kerry O'Brien

[+] McLeod, Ken. "Bohemian Rhapsodies: Operatic Influences on Rock Music." Popular Music 20 (May 2001): 189-203.

Although opera and rock music are seemingly situated on different sides of a cultural, stylistic, and aesthetic divide, rock and pop songs of the 1970s and later have occasionally appropriated some style characteristics from opera. Although many rock works are considered "rock operas" and some classical works were written by rock musicians, none of these works owes much to the stylistic norms of the other genre. On the other hand, a work like Queen's Bohemian Rhapsody (from the 1974 album A Night at the Opera) does incorporate many operatic characteristics, such as a cappella vocals, lamenting ballads, sarcastic recitatives, distorted operatic phraseology, underworld motifs, and so forth. These characteristics are not instances of direct borrowing of any operatic source, but are rather more general features of the style, integrated and exaggerated as a parody. Punk rock artists in the 1980s like Nina Hagen, Klaus Nomi, and Malcolm McLaren incorporated opera more directly, with more reverence for the genre, and with the intention of promoting female and homosexual voices. Hagen incorporated expressionist operatic influences and coloratura technique into her music. Nomi appropriated entire operatic arias into his eclectic music, including Handel's aria "Total Eclipse" from Samson, not as a parody but rather with a camp aesthetic. McLaren created dance-rock versions of grand opera, including "Un bel dì" from Madama Butterfly and the "The Flower Duet" from Délibe's Lakmé.

Works: Freddie Mercury (songwriter), Queen (performers): Bohemian Rhapsody (192-194); Nina Hagen: New York, New York (196); Kristian Hoffman (songwriter), Klaus Nomi (performer): Total Eclipse (197-98); Purcell (composer), Klaus Nomi (arranger/performer): The Cold Song (197); Saint-Saëns (composer), Klaus Nomi (arranger/performer): Samson and Delilah (Aria) (197); Malcolm McLaren: Madame Butterfly (198-99).

Sources: David Bowie: Fashion (196); Purcell: King Arthur (197); Saint-Saëns: Samson et Dalila (197); Handel: Samson (197-98); Puccini: Madama Butterfly (198-99); Délibe: Lakmé (199).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Mark Chilla

[+] McQuinn, Julie. “Listening Again to Barber’s Adagio for Strings as Film Music.” American Music 27 (Winter 2009): 461-99.

Scholars cannot assume that Samuel Barber’s Adagio for Strings has a stable meaning in film and must examine the multiplicity of meanings and ambiguities created by its use in film. In four films the Adagio transgresses boundaries of filmic diegesis and narrative into ambiguous meanings and spaces. The audience is required to contend with the Adagio in Oliver Stone’s Platoon because it stands out not only from the brutality of the film but also from the composed score and the diegesis of the movie. André Téchiné’s Les roseaux sauvages uses the Adagio with subtlety and restraint at dramatic moments of external rupture among characters, and the piece also functions as an indication of the internal world of the characters, or metadiegesis. In George Miller’s Lorenzo’s Oil the Adagio is one piece among many borrowed classical compositions used in the film, and it is the only one that represents hopelessness and deep anguish. The soundscape established in David Lynch’s The Elephant Man, composed of both underscoring by John Morris and diegetic sound, is violent, and the single instance of the Adagio in the film occurs during the ending sequence involving the diseased protagonist’s resignation and suicide. The Adagio is a mindscreen reflecting the metadiegesis of the protagonist and its connection to forces in the universe beyond human control.

Works: Oliver Stone (director): soundtrack to Platoon (461, 464-74, 493); David Lynch (director): soundtrack to The Elephant Man (461, 464-65, 480-81, 486-93); Jean-Pierre Jeunet (director): soundtrack to Amélie (464); Liam Lynch (director): soundtrack to Tenacious D (464); Andy Ackerman (director): soundtrack to Seinfeld (464-65); André Téchiné (director): soundtrack to Les roseaux sauvages (464-66, 474-80, 493); George Miller (director): soundtrack to Lorenzo’s Oil (465, 480-86, 492-93).

Sources: Samuel Barber: Adagio for Strings, Op. 11.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kate Altizer

[+] Meckna, Michael. "Sacred and Secular America: Virgil Thomson's Symphony on a Hymn Tune." American Music 8 (Winter 1990): 465-76.

Virgil Thomson's Symphony on a Hymn Tune is based upon at least two hymn tunes: How Firm a Foundation and Jesus Loves Me. Thomson highlights the similarities of the two tunes and at the finale, they coalesce into For He's a Jolly Good Fellow. Thomson juxtaposed the clear A-major tonality of the hymns with newly composed passages in E-flat major, highlighting a dissonant tritone relationship. This procedure conveys a musical clash that symbolizes "dark forces at work in the New World."

Works: Thomson: Symphony on a Hymn Tune.

Sources: Bradbury: Jesus Loves Me (467-68, 470-73); Traditional: How Firm a Foundation (467-69, 471-73), For He's a Jolly Good Fellow (467, 473-74).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Eytan Uslan

[+] Médicis, François de. "Tristan dans La Mer: Le crépuscule wagnérien noyé dans le zénith debussyste?" Acta Musicologica 79 (2007): 195-251.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Meintjes, Louise. "Paul Simon's Graceland, South Africa, and the Mediation of Musical Meaning." Ethnomusicology 34 (1990): 37-73.

Paul Simon's Graceland is an excellent example of both artistic and stylistic collaboration. Simon and Ladysmith Black Mambazo navigate through traditional South African and American popular styles in a constantly changing compositional process. Three songs from this album, "Gumboots," "The Boy in the Bubble," and "That Was Your Mother," are particularly interesting because they are cover versions of African popular songs. Simon credits the authors of the first two songs, but neglects to do so for the third. The differences in crediting represent the complex issues of collaboration on an international scale.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa

[+] Messing, Scott. “Who Wrote Liszt’s Grande paraphrase of Schubert’s Marche militaire?” The Journal of the American Liszt Society 65 (2014): 5-22.

The Grand paraphrase de concert of Franz Schubert’s Marche militaire, attributed to Franz Liszt and published by the Kunkel Brothers of St. Louis, Missouri in 1907, is actually the work of Charles Kunkel, who attached Liszt’s name to his own arrangement to bolster his company’s reputation. An early potential explanation of the piece posits that Liszt composed the Grand paraphrase before Carl Tausig’s well-known 1869 arrangement of Marche militaire and subsequently withdrew the work in favor of his student’s arrangement, but this hypothesis does not hold up chronologically. Kunkel, who arrived in St. Louis from Germany in 1868, was a relatively successful musician, composer, and businessman, but was known to play fast and loose with authorship and attribution at his publishing house. A close comparison between the Kunkel edition and Tausig’s arrangement of Marche militaire reveals that the former is a derivative of the latter. The structural similarities suggest that Kunkel copied Tausig’s arrangement, making changes and alterations along the way but keeping the basic structure. When Kundel’s edition appeared in 1907, it did not dislodge the popular Tausig arrangement, and the only extant copy comes from the US Copyright Office, suggesting a limited circulation. The same year, Kundel erroneously attached Liszt’s name to a transcription of Wagner’s Feuerzauber, a piece that Liszt never transcribed. Over a decade earlier, Kundel had also erroneously credited the same transcription to Franz Bendel. Given this history of unscrupulous publishing practices, it is likely that Kunkel created a musical counterfeit with the deceased Liszt and Tausig unable to contest.

Works: Charles Kunkel (arranger), Franz Liszt (attributed): Marche militaire. (Franz Schubert). Grand paraphrase de concert (10-15)

Sources: Carl Tausig (arranger): Marche militaire, Op. 51, No. 1 by Franz Schubert (10-15); Franz Schubert: March militaire No. 1 in D major, Op. 51, No. 1, D. 733 (10-15)

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Messing, Scott. Neoclassicism in Music: From the Genesis of the Concept through the Schoenberg/Stravinsky Polemic. Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press, 1996.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Metz, Günther. "Das Webern-Zitat in Hindemiths Pittsburgh Symphony." Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 42 (July 1985): 200-12.

In the 3rd movement (Ostinato) of Hindemith's Pittsburgh Symphony, an abrupt tempo/character change occurs, which eventually arrives at a più tranquillo. At this point, there is a quotation from Webern's Symphony, Op. 21. Hindemith makes several alterations: a nearly doubled metronome marking, an octave (higher) displacement, dynamics, and instrumentation. The intervals themselves are also often reversed or omitted.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Moskovitz

[+] Metzer, David. "'We Boys': Childhood in the Music of Charles Ives." 19th-Century Music 21 (Summer 1997): 77-95.

The desire to return to one's childhood or the adult's recollection of a lost youth figure prominently as themes in the music and texts of Charles Ives. The composer's view of an innocent childhood fit into a larger American cultural trend in the first decades of the twentieth century as realized through nostalgic or sentimental ballads and regression fantasies acted out in literature and film of that time. By distorting borrowed melodies, Ives heightens distance between past and present, increasing the sense of nostalgia. The tune The Old Oaken Bucket is deeply embedded in Tom Sails Away, and its original lyrics also depict memories of childhood. The fragmented and sometimes cloudy quotations of The Beautiful River during the third movement of Ives's Fourth Violin Sonata suggest an impossible union between the boys and men of the hymn's lyrics. The melody of The Beautiful River materializes throughout the movement, but Ives prevents the melody from emerging in its entirety, thus suggesting the vagueness of memory and the distance between generations.

Works: Charles Ives: Tom Sails Away (81-87), Violin Sonata No. 4 (87-91).

Sources: George M. Cohan: Over There (84, 87); David T. Shaw, Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean (84, 87); Samuel Woodworth and George Kiallmark: The Old Oaken Bucket (Araby's Daughter) (84-87); Anonymous: Taps; George Ives: Fugue in B-flat Major (87); Robert Lowry: The Beautiful River (88-89).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Danielle Nelson, Amanda Sewell, Alexis Witt

[+] Metzer, David. "Musical Decay: Luciano Berio's 'Rendering' and John Cage's 'Europera 5.'" Journal of the Royal Musical Association 125 (2000): 93-114.

In Luciano Berio's Rendering and John Cage's Europera 5, creation of new music through the "restoration" and "reproduction" of old materials offers more than just a way of holding onto the past. Both compositions examine the decay and loss intrinsic to past materials which makes that past less accessible. In Rendering, based on Schubert's sketches toward a tenth symphony, Berio incorporates his own music with sections of Schubert's unfinished symphony, sometimes filling in the gaps in Schubert's sketches, while at other times dismantling and reconfiguring the material to make it sound incomplete. Berio restores Schubert's symphony not in the traditional sense, but rather to a fragmented state which suggests the deterioration of the past. Europera 5 similarly pieces together fragments of past operas to suggest that the concept of opera has deteriorated. Cage's nostalgia mediates a sense of loss through presentation of these fragments as disjointed, antique, and irrecoverable.

Works: Berio: Rendering (95-103, 108-113), Chemins (96), Sinfonia (96, 113); Cage: Europera 5 (95, 103-113), Europera 1 &2 (103-104).

Sources: Mahler: Symphony No. 2 in C Minor (96, 113) Schubert: Symphony No. 10 (96-103, 108-113); Cage: Truckera (104).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Brent C. Reidy

[+] Metzer, David. "Sampling and Thievery." Chapter 5 in Quotation and Cultural Meaning in Twentieth-Century Music, 160-87. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Sampling constitutes a form of creative theft that should be seen within the history of musical borrowing. Sampling is mainly associated with digital technology beginning around 1980, and it is used in two main ways: to sample performance sounds, such as a cymbal crash, or to sample more extended sounds. One group that exemplifies creative theft is Negativland. who sampled the lead singer of U2 singing I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For and turned the singer into a whining voice. The artist Scanner travels the airwaves sampling personal phone calls. John Oswald sampled Michael Jackson's voice in BAD to create Oswald's own DAB. Oswald removed all markers of Jackson's voice until it no longer sounded like the artist, and, in so doing, used Jackson's own medium against him. This new form of musical borrowing, creative theft, is appropriate for our media-saturated environment.

Works: Puff Daddy and Faith Evans: I'll Be Missing You (160); Wyclef Jean: We Trying to Stay Alive (160); Janet Jackson: Got 'til it's Gone (160); Negativland: U2 (162, 166-67, 169-70); John Oswald: Plexure (171), Plunderphonic (177), DAB (178-81); Scanner: Sulphur (175); Tape-Beatles: Music with Sound (181-83).

Sources: Sting (songwriter), The Police (performers): Every Breath You Take (160); Bee Gees (Barry Gibb, Robin Gibb, and Maurice Gibb): Stayin' Alive (160); Joni Mitchell: Big Yellow Taxi (160, 163-64); U2: I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For (167); Buck Ram (songwriter), Dolly Parton (performer): The Great Pretender (177); Michael Jackson: BAD (178-81).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Kerry O'Brien

[+] Metzer, David. "Shadow Play: The Spiritual in Duke Ellington's 'Black and Tan Fantasy.'" Black Music Research Journal 17, no. 2 (Fall 1997): 137-58.

The inclusion of an African-American spiritual in Ellington's Black and Tan Fantasy follows the ideas set forth by many writers during the Harlem Renaissance. Ellington takes the Renaissance ideals a step further by integrating the spiritual with blues, urban jazz, call-and-response, and even a quotation of Chopin's funeral march. Bubber Miley, cornetist and co-composer in the Ellington band, bases the opening motive of the fantasy on a spiritual he heard his mother singing while he was a child. However, the spiritual is not truly African-American in its origins. A friend of Miley pointed out that the spiritual is derived from "The Holy City," a sacred song in the style of a spiritual but by the white composer Stephen Adams. This white sacred tune is transformed through Miley's performance practice of bending the pitches, growling, and vocal ya-yas. These issues moved the spiritual away from Du Bois's ideas of the "sorrow song" with lush, pleasant, and Europeanized harmonies and toward Hurston's ideas of the spiritual, which strives for the unrefined sounds of the "real Negro singer." Black and Tan Fantasy was not the only jazz composition to draw upon "The Holy City." King Oliver and His Creole Jazz Band incorporated the sacred work into a twelve-bar blues, and Johnny Dodds responds to the text and music of "The Holy City" in his composition "Weary City."

Works: Ellington/Miley: Black and Tan Fantasy (137-58); Oliver: Chimes Blues (151); Dodds: Weary City (151-53).

Sources: Adams: The Holy City (137-58); Chopin: Piano Sonata No. 2 in B flat Minor (140).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Altizer

[+] Metzer, David. "The Promise of the Past: Rochberg, Berio, and Stockhausen." In Quotation and Cultural Meaning in Twentieth-Century Music, 108-59. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Composers who rejected serialism used quotation in their collage works as a source of promise and new possibilities. Rochberg seeks to use the music of the past in the form of ars combinatoria in Music for the Magic Theater, thus renewing both the past and present. Berio tries to create a bond between the past, present and a utopian future in the third movement of Sinfonia. In Hymnen, Stockhausen uses the medium of electroacoustic music in order to encompass global dimensions and develop a "sonic purity." By creating links between elements where none had previously existed, each composer responds differently to the use of quotation in the quest for utopia.

Works: Berio: Sinfonia (109-13, 128-39); Rochberg: Music for the Magic Theater (110-28), Third Symphony (125-28); Stockhausen: Hymnen (110-13, 139-59).

Sources: Mozart: Adagio from Divertimento No. 15, K. 287 (121-25); Mahler: Symphony No. 9 in D Major (123-25), Symphony No. 1 in D Major (Titan) (126), Symphony No. 2 in C Minor (Resurrection) (126, 129-39); Varèse: Déserts (123); Beethoven: String Quartet No. 13 in B-flat Major, Op. 130 (124-25), Missa Solemnis (126), Symphony No. 3 in E-flat Major, Op. 55 (126-28), Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67 (126), Symphony No. 9 in D Minor, Op. 125 (126); Schütz: Saul, was verfolgst du mich (126); J. S. Bach: Chorale Prelude on Durch Adams Fall, BWV 637 (126); Ives: The Unanswered Question (126-27); Richard Strauss: Der Rosenkavalier (136); Boulez: Don (136-38); Webern: Cantata, Op. 31 (137).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Metzer, David. “Black and White: Quotations in Duke Ellington’s ‘Black and Tan Fantasy.’” In Quotation and Cultural Meaning in Twentieth-Century Music, 47-68. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Duke Ellington and Bubber Miley’s 1927 composition Black and Tan Fantasy exhibits a variety of contrasting idioms, adopting stylistic elements from blues and jazz, as well as quotations from a well-known spiritual and one from Chopin’s second piano sonata. The concept of “signifying,” put forth by Henry Louis Gates Jr., illuminates a fundamental strategy for quotation in jazz: repetition and revision. The intersection of these strategies in Black and Tan Fantasy is expressed both on the level of quotation and on deeper levels within the borrowed material of the piece. For example, the spiritual Hosanna, quoted in the opening phrases, is in turn a revision of Stephen Adams’s The Holy City. The tensions between old and new, black and white, and secular and sacred that result from Ellington and Miley’s juxtaposition of styles and sentiments generate sophisticated instances of ironic play. This ironic play can subsequently be seen as participating in the ongoing tradition of troping in African American art-culture, as described by Gates.

Works: Duke Ellington and Bubber Miley: Black and Tan Fantasy; King Oliver and his Creole Jazz Band: Chimes Blues (62-63); Johnny Dodd: Weary City (62-63); Felix Arndt: Desecration Rag (63-64).

Sources: Anonymous (Spiritual): Hosanna (51-52); Chopin: Piano Sonata No. 2 in B-flat Minor, Op. 35 (51-53, 63-68); Stephen Adams: The Holy City (51-53, 58-67).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Molly Covington

[+] Metzer, David. “Repeated Borrowing: The Case of ‘Es Ist Genug.’” Journal of the American Musicological Society 71 (Fall 2018): 703-48.

Repeated borrowing, or the use of one piece of music in several other pieces that often are in dialogue with one another, is a practice that is best understood by drawing from several approaches to analyzing the use of music from one work in another. Burkholder’s field of musical borrowing, theories of allusion, conceptions of intertextuality, and topic theory all contribute different meanings to repeated borrowing, as demonstrated by the case of borrowings of the chorale Es ist genug in several nontonal works. Borrowing tends to proliferate; the more prolific it becomes, the more referential it becomes; and the more a piece of music is referenced by other works, the broader the meanings attached to it become. For instance, the chorale Es ist genug, written by Johann Rudolph Ahle, first appeared in a 1662 collection of sacred music. Bach’s setting of the chorale in his 1723 cantata O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort adds the religious meaning of overcoming the fear of death. Berg quotes Bach’s setting of Ahle’s melody in his Violin Concerto, both in the row (part of the work’s internal structure) and as a quotation of the chorale itself. Berg develops a tension between the row-derived Klagegesang and the tonal chorale and, like Bach’s cantata, depicts anxiety and consolation relating to death. Adorno reads the chorale quotation as appealing to an extramusical force: the historical weight of a Bach chorale. In only looking at extramusical meaning, he misses the chorale’s presence in the internal structure of the concerto. Zimmermann’s Ich wandte mich und sah an alles Unrecht, das geschah unter der Sonne: Ekklesiastiche Aktion is a much more explicitly intertextual work than Berg’s concerto, and the quotation of Es ist genug acts as a quotation of Berg’s quotation, keeping the “death” meaning but dropping the consolation of the chorale setting. Even though Del Tredici’s quotation of Es ist genug in Pop-Pourri most directly calls to mind Bach, it continues Berg and Zimmermann’s tradition of using the chorale to contemplate death—in Del Tredici’s case, the Lewis Carrollian absurdity of death. Rouse’s Iscariot is more enigmatic in its musical borrowing, but the history of Es ist genug quotations suggests a reading centered on death. When viewed as a case of repeated borrowing, the musical tension between Bach’s tonal chorale setting and Berg’s (or Zimmermann’s, Del Tredici’s, or Rouse’s) nontonal system is not a feature of each work on its own, but a running theme in Es ist genug borrowing. By tracing repeated borrowing through these pieces, we can uncover larger stylistic and historical developments that may otherwise be hidden.

Works: Johann Sebastian Bach: O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort, BWV 60 (714-15); Alban Berg: Violin Concerto (715-25); Bernd Alois Zimmermann: Ich wandte mich und sah an alles Unrecht, das geschah unter der Sonne: Ekklesiastiche Aktion (725-30); David Del Tredici: Pop-Pourri (730-36); Christopher Rouse: Iscariot (736-39)

Sources: Johann Rudolph Ahle: Es ist genug (713); Johann Sebastian Bach: O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort, BWV 60 (715-25, 730-36, 736-39); Alban Berg: Violin Concerto (725-30)

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Metzer, David. Quotation and Cultural Meaning in the Twentieth-Century Music. New Perspectives in Music History and Criticism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

See annotations for individual chapters.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz, Popular

[+] Meyer, Felix. "Adaptation--Transformation--Rekomposition: Zu einigen Liedbearbeitungen von Charles Ives." Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 60, no. 2 (2003): 115-35.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Meyer, Felix. "The Art of Speaking Extravagantly": Eine vergleichende Studie der "Concord Sonata" und der "Essays Before a Sonata" von Charles Ives. Berne and Stuttgart: Paul Haupt, 1991.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Meyer, John A. "Beethoven and Bartók--A Structural Parallel." The Music Review 31 (November 1970): 315-21.

Bartók owed and admitted a direct allegiance to Beethoven, especially in the area of progressive form as a technique of composition. The second movement of Beethoven's G Major Piano Concerto is a model for the second movements of Bartók's Second and Third Piano Concertos in two main ways: (1) the principle of opposition between two rivals rather than integration of two partners is seen in sections of dialogue alternating between solo instrument and orchestra accentuated by differences in texture, thematic material, and the treatment of thematic material; and (2) piano and orchestra seem to follow completely logical development independent of each other, but the separate thematic complexes have the same basic roots. Mention is made of the relation between the third movement of Beethoven's Quartet in A Minor, Op. 132, and Bartók's Third Piano Concerto, suggested to be a last tribute to his three great masters: Beethoven in forms and methods of construction, Debussy in the impressionism of the night music, and Bach in the polyphonic episodes of the finale.

Works: Bartók: Piano Concerto No. 2, Piano Concerto No. 3; Franck: Symphonic Variations (320), Quintet in F Minor for Piano and Strings (320).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Jean Pang

[+] Micznik, Vera. "Meaning in Gustav Mahler's Music: A Historical and Analytical Study Focusing on the Ninth Symphony." Ph.D. diss., State University of New York at Stony Brook, 1989.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Middleton, Jason, and Roger Beebe. "The Racial Politics of Hybridity and 'Neo-Eclecticism' in Contemporary Popular Music." Popular Music 21 (May 2002): 159-72.

Producers of popular music at the turn of the twenty-first century developed hybrid music forms which combine rock music with styles and sounds of its competitors, particularly hip-hop. For example, groups such as Limp Bizkit graft the sound of record scratching and rapping into a rock band context, although record scratching is used as a sound in and of itself rather than in the service of sampling or other hip-hop musical devices. Additionally, music videos of these hybrid groups integrate visual components of both rock and rap videos. These groups assert their authenticity through textual, aural, and visual signifiers of a low socioeconomic status, which supposedly signals an allegiance with blacks.

Works: Limp Bizkit: Nookie (163, 167); Eminem: Guilty Conscience (163-64); Kid Rock: Cowboy (164-65); Dexter Holland (songwriter), The Offspring (performers): Pretty Fly (For a White Guy) (165-66).

Sources: N.W.A.: Straight Outta Compton (164-65).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Middleton, Richard. "Work-in(g)-Practice: Configurations of the Popular Music Intertext." In The Musical Work: Reality or Invention?, ed. Michael Talbot, 59-87. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2000.

Popular music, as practice, differs from classical music, as a repertoire of iconic objects, in that the former places less emphasis on authorial attribution, involves greater collaboration between musicians, has blurred the distinction between "performance" and "composition," and overall features widespread use of borrowing procedures. "Intertextuality" is the best term that encompasses the borrowing practices of popular music. "Remixes" are one type of borrowing procedure, in which old songs are digitally re-worked in a new context. Bill Laswell creates remixes of the music of Miles Davis and Bob Marley. In the Davis remix, Laswell streamlines 38 minutes of music into fifteen, clarifies the instrumentation and textures through digital technology, reorders seamlessly connected sections, and highlights the similarities between all included source materials. Through his creative process, Laswell emerges more as a composer of something new, rather than a "remixer" of something old. In addition, the artist presents a remix of Marley's songs, but removes all of his prominent vocals. The result is not reggae, but rather a new "ambient gospel" genre. In part, these modern borrowing procedures in popular music have precedent in Western music history and are part of a long-established vernacular tradition. Other influences in popular music practice include multi-voiced repetition, best characterized as African-American "Signifyin(g)," which opposes the traditional Western concept of the singular "composer's voice." A semiotic dialogical theory can address these issues in popular music intertextuality. A final issue to consider is the opposition that emerges between intertextual musical performance and popular music recording, which preserves a specific version of a given song at its moment in time and highlights solo individualism. Remixes and cover songs highlight this tension; to accommodate this, one's analytical model must account for an "originating moment," the version of a song that is to be the measure for all others that re-create it.

Works: Bill Laswell: Panthalassa: The Remixes (62-67), Dreams of Freedom: Ambient Translations of Bob Marley in Dub (62, 67-71); Bob Marley: One Love (People Get Ready) (71); Grandmaster Flash: The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel (79-80); Richard Ashcroft [Verve]: Bittersweet Symphony (82); Paul Anka: My Way as performed by Elvis Presley (82-83), Sid Vicious (83).

Sources: Joe Zawinul: In a Silent Way as performed by Miles Davis (63-67), Miles Davis: Shhh/Peaceful (63-67), It's About That Time (63-67); Bob Marley: One Love (People Get Ready) (67-69), Exodus (69-71); Curtis Mayfield: People Get Ready (71); Bernard Edwards and Nile Rodgers [Chic]: Good Times (79); John Deacon [Queen]: Another One Bites the Dust (79-80); Debbie Harry and Chris Stein [Blondie]: Rapture (79-80); Grandmaster Flash: Birthday Party (79); Sugarhill Gang: 8th Wonder (79); Spoonie Gee (Gabriel Jackson): Monster Jam (79); Mick Jagger and Keith Richards [Rolling Stones]: The Last Time (82); Paul Anka: My Way as performed by Frank Sinatra (82-83).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Victoria Malawey

[+] Mihajlov, Mihail. “Esteticeskij fenomen Poceluja fei [The aesthetic phenomenon of Le Baiser de la Fée].” Sovetskaja muzyka 8 (August 1982): 95-102.

Often compared to Pulcinella, Stravinsky’s The Fairy’s Kiss adapts Tchaikovsky’s music to create a unique artistic vision. Stravinsky’s approach to the Tchaikovsky homage in this ballet could be grouped into three categories: overt quotation, hidden quotation, and imitation of Tchaikovsky’s overall mood. There are eighteen citations from Tchaikovsky. Some works like the Lullaby or the Feuillet d’album are adapted without much change from their original, while other pieces like Dumka are quoted in a less obvious manner, fragmented and hidden in the texture. Stravinsky is therefore trying to give an impression of Tchaikovsky’s style, rather than to signal a specific allusion. To enhance his homage, Stravinsky borrows Tchaikovsky’s subtle stylistic gestures, which form an intricate network of associations. As a result, Stravinsky is able to create three distinct layers in his ballet: his own music, his treatment of adapted material, and the synthesis of Tchaikovsky imitation and his own compositional language.

Works: Stravinsky: The Fairy’s Kiss (95–102).

Sources: Tchaikovsky: Feuillet d’album No. 3, Op. 19 (97), Au Village, Op. 40 (97), “The Harmonica Player” from Album pour enfants, Op. 39 (97), I bol’no i sladko, Op. 6, No. 3 (97), None but the Lonely Heart, Op. 6, No. 6 (98), Lullaby, Op. 54, No. 10 (97–100), Dumka, Op. 59 (98), Symphony No. 5, Op. 64 (98), Overture to Cherevichki (98–100), Serenade, Op. 63 (97–100).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Maria Fokina

[+] Milewski, Barbara, and Bret Werb. “From ‘Madagaskar’ to Sachsenhausen: Singing about ‘Race’ in a Nazi Camp.” Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry 16 (November 2003): 269-78.

Inmates in concentration camps often provided new lyrics to well-known melodies, and in several cases the new lyrics parodied the subject matter of the original piece. Aleksander Kulisiewicz’s lyrics to Heil, Sachsenhausen offer a satiric narrative of the Sachsenhausen camp experience, mocking the Nazi racial purity laws with lyrics in both Polish and German. Through his parody of Mieczyslaw Miksne’s Madagaskar, Kulisiewicz also compares the Germany’s treatment of Poles to Poland’s treatment of the Jews. It is apparent that Kulisiewicz, who only heard Madagaskar for the first time in the camp, was unaware that Miksne, through his satirical song, expressed a desire to go to Madagascar because he believed that the natives would be more civilized that the Poles who planned to send the Jews there. The psychological effects of the parody can still be noted, however, as Kulisiewicz’s lyrics also mock an oppressor.

Works: Aleksander Kulisiewicz: Heil, Sachsenhausen (270), Jüdischer Todessang (278).

Sources: Mieczysław Miksne: Madagaskar (270).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Cynthia Dretel, Matthew G. Leone

[+] Miley, Mike. “‘I Put a Spell on You’: Affiliating (Mis)Identifications and Toxic Masculinity in David Lynch’s Lost Highway.” Music and the Moving Image 13 (Fall 2020): 36-48.

The compilation soundtrack of David Lynch’s 1997 film Lost Highway, particularly its use of cover songs, works together with the film’s narrative and imagery to destabilize the viewer’s experience in support of the film’s depiction of toxic masculinity. Three cover songs appear at crucial points in Lost Highway: Lou Reed’s cover of This Magic Moment, made popular by The Drifters; Marilyn Manson’s cover of I Put a Spell on You by Screamin’ Jay Hawkins; and This Mortal Coil’s cover of Song to the Siren by Tim Buckley and Larry Beckett. Each cover is a generic reset, transforming a familiar song into an aggressive alt-rock genre. The generic resets mirror the narrative transformation of the main characters into film-noir, masculine-wish-fulfillment doppelgängers as well as the visual indulgence in macho rock iconography. The disruptive effect of the audience misidentifying the cover songs highlights the menace and violence in this masculine fantasy. The scene featuring I Put a Spell on You exemplifies this effect; Marilyn Manson’s industrial rock cover scores a scene of a noir-fantasy striptease at gunpoint, with the discomforting music emphasizing the scene’s coercive violence. Lou Reed’s distortion-heavy cover of This Magic Moment accompanies another fantasy sequence, subverting its borderline-cliché love-at-first-sight imagery. This Mortal Coil’s goth version of Song to the Siren appears three times during the film: it first plays faintly during an awkward, failed sex scene in reality; next it appears as the film’s perspective turns to the noir fantasy; and finally, it plays loudly during the triumphant fantasy sex scene, which ends in an abrupt transformation back into reality. The three appearances of the song mark the psychosexual narrative throughline of a sexually frustrated man driven to a fantasy of being a young, virile stud, only to have the fantasy come crashing down in the end. The fact that it is a cover song literalizes the idea of destabilized masculine identity. Thus, the film’s abrasive alternative soundtrack is not merely a nod to the youth market, but integral to the film’s deconstruction of toxic masculinity.

Works: David Lynch (director): Compilation score to Lost Highway (37-45); Lou Reed (performer): This Magic Moment (37-39); Marilyn Manson (performer): I Put a Spell on You (38-39); This Mortal Coil (performer): Song to the Siren (38-39)

Sources: Doc Pomus and Mort Shuman: This Magic Moment (37-39); Screamin’ Jay Hawkins: I Put a Spell on You (38-39); Tim Buckley and Larry Beckett: Song to the Siren (38-39); Lou Reed (performer): This Magic Moment (42-44); Marilyn Manson (performer): I Put a Spell on You (41-42); This Mortal Coil (performer): Song to the Siren (44-45)

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular, Film

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Miller, Carl. "Meditations on Benjamin Britten's Nocturnal." Guitar Review 42 (Fall 1977): 15-16.

The Nocturnal after John Dowland, Op. 70, for solo guitar can be described as a set of variations on Come Heavy Sleep, a song for voice and lute from John Dowland's First Book of Songs (London, 1597). The "theme" appears at the end, rather than the beginning of the composition. The composition is in nine sections, the final section of which is a transcription of the Dowland song. The eight preceding variations consist of "bits and pieces" of the song, subjected to various techniques such as abbreviation, transposition, inversion, and other forms of manipulation. All of the variations are somber in character; the overall effect of the composition is macabre, sparse and anxious, with the exception of the final section, which is calm and peaceful.

Works: Britten: Nocturnal after John Dowland (15-16).

Sources: Dowland: Come Heavy Sleep (15-16).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Scott Grieb

[+] Miller, Leta E. "Lou Harrison and the Aesthetics of Revision, Alteration, and Self-Borrowing." Twentieth-Century Music 2 (March 2005): 79-107.

Lou Harrison's later style is defined in part by his propensity to revise, rework, and borrow from his own compositions. In Harrison's Suite for Symphonic Strings (1960), the first piece in which borrowed from himself, he incorporated works that were written both before and after his most significant stylistic shift, resulting in the juxtaposition of strikingly contrasting styles. Such polystylism even carried over to works that did not borrow any pre-existing music, such as in his Symphony on G. Self-borrowing allowed the composer to restrict his compositional options and focus on novel reworkings and new combinations. The resulting polystylism was a direct result of Harrison's revisions and self-borrowings and became a hallmark of the composer's style.

Works: Lou Harrison: Suite for Symphonic Strings (86-91), Third Symphony (94-100).

Sources: Lou Harrison: Double Fugue (87-88, 90), Triphony (87-88, 91), Fugue for David Tudor (87), Almanac of the Seasons (87), Nocturne (87, 91, 93), Chorale for Spring (88-89), Largo ostinato (94, 96-98, 100-102), Reel to Henry Cowell (96), Waltz for Hinrichsen (96), Estampie for Summerfield (96), Political Primer (96).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Kerry O'Brien

[+] Miller, Leta. “Beneath the Hybrid Surface: Baban as a Tool for Self-Definition in the Music of Chen Yi.” American Music 37 (Fall 2019): 330-57.

Chinese American composer Chen Yi incorporates elements of traditional Chinese music on the surface level and in the underlying structure of her work to create a unique fusion of styles as exemplified by her use of the Chinese mother-tune Baban. In traditional Chinese music, Baban is classified as a type of qupai, a particular group of named melodies used as the basis for numerous variations. Chen’s 1992 Piano Concerto incorporates Baban in several ways. The melody is quoted in the opening phrase, the rhythmic pattern is frequently articulated by several instruments, and the structural proportions of the piece correspond to the underlying structure of Baban. Since the Piano Concerto, Chen has used Baban in various forms in at least twenty-one pieces. Some of these pieces borrow all or part of the Baban melody. In others Chen creates rhythmic figures based on the Baban rhythmic form. During her brief experimentation with serialism, Chen combined elements of Baban with twelve-tone techniques. While Chen uses many other signifiers of Chinese traditional music in her compositions, Baban holds a special position as a spiritual connection to Chinese history. By utilizing Baban in multiple ways—as a tune, as a rhythmic plan, and as a structure—Chen creates a cross-cultural identity embracing traditional Chinese and Western art music.

Works: Chen Yi: Piano Concerto (336-40), The Golden Flute (340-43), From the Path of Beauty (343-44), Qi (345-46), Chinese Myths Cantata (345-47), Song in Winter (345-48), Si Ji (345-48), Sparkle (349), The Soulful and the Perpetual (349-51), Three Dances from China South (349-52)

Sources: Traditional: Baban (333-52)

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Mitchell, Donald. "An Afterword on Britten's 'Pagodas': The Balinese Sources." Tempo, no. 152 (March 1985): 7-11.

The Prince of the Pagodas is based both on transcriptions that Britten made during his trip to Bali in 1956 and on "Kapi Radja," which he came to know from a recording. Unbeknownst to Britten, "Kapi Radja" was itself based on Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Reginald Sanders

[+] Mitchell, Donald. "What Do We Know about Britten Now?" In The Britten Companion, ed. Christopher Palmer, 21-45. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

The influences of Schoenberg, Mahler, Shostakovich, and far Eastern music are among those influences on which perspectives have changed since 1952. Schoenberg provided the influence, much more apparent after 1952, of serial principles, although not of serial techniques, on Britten, evident in such works as The Turn of the Screw, Cantata Academica, A Midsummer Night's Dream, Song and Proverbs of William Blake, Death in Venice, and Owen Wingrave. Mahler's influence, particularly of Das Lied von der Erde, is emphasized in the orchestral song-cycle Our Hunting Fathers. Shostakovich is acknowledged as an influence on Russian Funeral, the Piano Concerto, Op. 13, and Our Hunting Fathers. These three composers, however, are viewed mainly as influences on Britten's compositional principles (Schoenberg, as "a way of thinking"; Mahler, through "shared technical principles"; and Shostakovich, by satire and parody) rather than on his style, although stylistic similarities are present as well. The influence of the music of the Far East first appeared in the ballet The Prince of the Pagodas and the first church parable, Curlew River. The ballet evokes the sound of a Balinese gamelan, while Curlew River is based on the Japanese Noh play Sumidagawa. Britten's earliest opera Paul Bunyan enhibits similarities to Balinese music as well, which may have been suggested while Britten was in New York through his familiarity with the ethnomusicologist Colin McPhee and McPhee's two-piano transcriptions of Balinese music, Balinese Ceremonial Music.

Works: Britten: Sinfonietta, Op. 1 (25), The Turn of the Screw (26), Cantata Academica (26), A Midsummer Night's Dream (26), Songs and Proverbs of William Blake (26), Death in Venice (26, 30, 36, 43, 35), Owen Wingrave (26), Paul Bunyan (28-30, 41-44), Sinfonia da Requiem (31), Our Hunting Fathers (31, 35-36), Russian Funeral (34), Piano Concerto, Op. 13 (34), Variations on a Theme of Frank Bridge (38), The Prince of the Pagodas (39, 42), Curlew River (39).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Nikola D. Strader

[+] Mitchell, Donald. Gustav Mahler: The Wunderhorn Years: Chronicles and Commentaries. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1976.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Mittler, Barbara. “Chinese Music in the 1980s: The Aesthetics of Eclecticism.” In China Avant-Garde: Counter-Currents in Art and Culture, ed. Jochen Noth, Wolfger Pöhlmann, and Kai Reschke, 80-88. Hong Kong, New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

The concept of “New Music” in China during the 1980s demands to be reinterpreted, as it is not the musical style itself, but the act of introducing Western classical tradition to China that is new. Chinese composers in the 1980s adopted an eclectic stance in their use of musical borrowing. They often treated Western art music as a supermarket, choosing whatever musical elements suited their taste to combine with Chinese musical idioms, resulting in works that sound like Rachmaninoff, Mozart, or Ligeti. Before the 1980s, such compositional attempts are characterized by pentatonic romanticism, which does not reflect true synthesis of both musico-cultural idioms. The most eclectic Chinese composer is Tan Dun, whose works represent a diverse web of sounds from all over the world. None of the compositions in the 1980s applies the same borrowing approach. This eclectic form of musical borrowing prevents one from identifying the specific sources of borrowing, since the music reflects an integrative approach to influences from both Western and Chinese musical traditions and repertoires. These composers and their works fall under the category of “New Wave Music,” a term coined by Wang Anguo in 1986 in Musicology in China for Chinese composers who had just adopted modern Western compositional techniques into their own musical styles while departing from the romantic pentatonicism dominant until the mid-1970s. Alexander Goehr’s invitation to teach modern compositional techniques in the Central Conservatory in Beijing in 1980 influenced many Chinese composers to adopt a more modern stance in their compositions.

Works: Xiang Min: Piano Quartet (84); Tan Dun: Snow in June (88).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Jingyi Zhang

[+] Miyakawa, Felicia M. “Turntablature: Notation, Legitimization, and the Art of the Hip-Hop DJ.” American Music 25 (Spring 2007): 81-105.

Hip-hop DJs take previously recorded material in the form of vinyl LPs and reorganize and alter the recorded sounds to create new music. As DJ techniques and routines have grown increasingly complex, DJs such as DJ A-Trak and DJ Radar and others such as filmmaker John Carluccio have created methods of notating DJs’ musical and technical choices. By examining three forms of scratch notation developed by hip-hop DJs (including the widely-used Turntablist Transcription Methodology, or TTM), various uses for notation can be shown, ranging from idiosyncratic memory-aid to symbolic justification for “art” and “work” status. These uses are linked to those practiced throughout the history of Western art music.

Works: Grandmaster Flash: The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel (90-91); DJ Radar: Antimatter (94), Concerto for Turntable (96-97).

Sources: DJ Babu: Super Duck Breaks (88); DJ Q-Bert: Toasted Marshmallow Feet Breaks (88); Chic: Good Times (91); Queen: Another One Bites the Dust (91).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular

Contributed by: Nathan Landes

[+] Miyashita, Kazuko. “Foster’s Songs in Japan.” American Music 30 (Fall 2012): 308-25.

Since the late nineteenth century, Stephen Foster’s songs have been widely known in Japan and hold a familiar place in Japanese musical education. Foster’s music was first introduced to Japanese Shogunate officials in 1853 by American sailors aboard U.S. commodore Matthew C. Perry’s fleet, which demanded the opening of Japanese ports. During the modernization of Japanese education beginning in the 1870s, many Western tunes were incorporated into the music curriculum as uncredited Shoka (formally Mombusho Shoka, or official songs for the school curriculum) with new Japanese texts. Shuji Izawa, director of the Institute of Music, based this new music curriculum on Luther Whiting Mason’s “Music Charts,” which Izawa studied during an 1875 trip to the United States. Several Foster songs, including Old Folks at Home, Massa’s in de Cold Ground, and My Old Kentucky Home, were adapted into educational Shoka as early as 1888. Some Foster songs were also adapted as hymns in early-twentieth-century Japanese hymnals. Before Foster’s music was banned during World War II (along with other Western composers), it was also very popular on children’s radio programs. Because Foster’s music was adopted into Japanese musical culture largely disconnected from Foster himself, there is little understanding of Foster’s biography or his place in American history. Recent Japanese music textbooks have emphasized Foster’s biography in service of a cross-cultural music curriculum.

Works: Tateki Owada: Aware no Shojo (313-14); Anonymous: Zouka no Waza (313), Kitaguni no Yuki (313), Yasashiki Kokoro (313); Yoshikiyo Katou: Haru Kaze (313-14); Kazuma Yoshimaru: Yube no Kane (313); Kokei Hayashi: Shakura Chiru (313); Takashi Iba: Wakare (313)

Sources: Stephen Foster: Old Folks at Home (313-14), Massa’s in de Cold Ground (313-14), Old Black Joe (313), My Old Kentucky Home (313)

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Monson, Ingrid. "Doubleness and Jazz Improvisation: Irony, Parody, and Ethnomusicology." Critical Inquiry 20 (Winter 1994): 283-313.

Jazz musicians--particularly African-American musicians--draw upon many sources of knowledge from multiple traditions, and their borrowings are characterized by a sophisticated familiarity with practices from traditions to which they may not traditionally have been thought to belong, as well as a virtuosic and playful tendency to transform the materials they borrow to ironic effect. John Coltrane's position within the world of improvised African-American music did not prevent him from appreciating certain elements of European-American musical theater song in My Favorite Things as sung by Mary Martin. Furthermore, his transformed version of Martin's simple delivery of the Rodgers and Hammerstein tune demonstrates a confidence that African-American musical aesthetics could improve European-American music. Roland Kirk's Rip, Rig, and Panic countered assumptions that he would be unfamiliar with Western art music by citing multiple influences from Edgard Varèse, but did so in an irreverent way that implies multiple meanings and motivations. Not all borrowings must be intercultural or even inter-generic: Jaki Byard's Bass-ment Blues makes ironic references to other styles within the jazz tradition. Intermusical relationships can be ambiguous and still communicate: intention does not necessarily need to line up perfectly with perception. A listener has some liberty to interpret a communicative gesture, although each side should be working with a certain amount of shared knowledge and experience.

Works: Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II (songwriters), John Coltrane (performer): My Favorite Things (292-99); Roland Kirk: Rip, Rig, and Panic (300-302); Jaki Byard: Bass-ment Blues (302-5); Ralph Peterson, Jr.: Princess (306-8).

Sources: Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II (songwriters), Mary Martin (performer): My Favorite Things (292-99); Edgard Varèse: Poème électronique (300), Ionisation (300).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Paul Killinger

[+] Monson, Ingrid. "Intermusicality." In Saying Something: Jazz Improvisation and Interaction, 97-132. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1996.

In Jazz, quotations of, transformations of, or allusions to existing music are part of a tradition of irony and signifying in African-American music. Most of these quotations, transformations, and allusions are found within improvisations. Allusions to other pieces can function as homage, irony, criticism, or artistic improvement on the original. The success of quotations and allusions depends on the listener's familiarity with the repertoire in question.

Works: Roland Kirk, Rip, Rig, and Panic (121-23).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa

[+] Moore, Christopher Lee. "Music in France and the Popular Front (1934-1938): Politics, Aesthetics and Reception." PhD diss., McGill University, 2007.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Morehouse, Christopher. "Ivesian Borrowing, Imagery, and Place in Eric Stokes's The Continental Harp and Band Report: An American Miscellany (1975)." DMA diss., University of Cincinnati, 2005.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Morgan, Robert P. "Charles Ives und die europäische Tradition." In Bericht über das Internationale Symposion "Charles Ives und die amerikanische Musiktradition bis zur Gegenwart," Köln 1988, ed. Klaus Wolfgang Niemöller, Manuel Gervink, and Paul Terse, 17-36. Kölner Beiträge zur Musikforschung 164. Regensburg: Gustav Bosse Verlag, 1990. Republished in an expanded English version as "Charles Ives and the European Tradition," in Ives Studies, ed. Philip Lambert, 3-26. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Ives's music reflects the musical situation of its time as well as the music of his contemporaries. He was the earliest composer to engage the musical legacy of previous centuries, tonality and form, as an issue unto itself. His closest predecessor was Mahler, with whom he shared an interest in combining the very simple or even banal with the extremely complex, and an interest in using popular materials that are transformed, deformed, and fragmented in their application. Among his contemporaries, Ives most resembles Schoenberg in his willingness to conclude works in an atmosphere of tonal uncertainty, but he rejects Schoenberg's evolutionary vision, which sees atonality as an historical necessity, representing an impermeable barrier between the old and the new. Ives explores the issue of tonality as a dead language, not by excluding tonality from his music, but by including tonal fragments, or "ruins," in an atonal context. Detailed analysis of the song "The Things Our Fathers Loved" demonstrates how Ives used tonal melodies recollected from his youth explicitly in order to associate tonality itself with a lost past.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David Lieberman

[+] Morgan, Robert P. "Ives and Mahler: Mutual Responses at the End of an Era." 19th-Century Music 2 (July 1978): 72-81.

Despite the apparent differences in their styles, there are general similarities between Ives's music and Mahler's, such as tonal and diatonic conservatism, use of physical space in musical conception, handling of permeable form, and manipulation of borrowed material. Ives tends toward direct quotation, whereas Mahler usually recreates standard types, but their similarity lies in maintaining the recognizability of borrowed material while placing it in completely new contexts.

Works: Mahler: Symphony No. 1 (75, 78), Symphony No. 3 (75); Ives: Symphony No. 4, "Hawthorne" from Concord Sonata,The Celestial Railroad, Violin Sonata No. 4 (78-79).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Fredrick Tarrant

[+] Morton, Jeffrey Thomas. "Considering In Heinrich's Shoes by Edwin London: Recomposition as an Experiment in Dramaturgy." DMA diss., University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 2004.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Morton, Lawrence. "Footnotes to Stravinsky Studies: Le Sacre du printemps." Tempo, no. 128 (March 1979): 9-16.

In his Memories and Commentaries (with Robert Craft), Stravinsky asserted having borrowed only one folk tune from a Lithuanian anthology for his opening bassoon melody of The Rite of Spring. An investigation of this Lithuanian source (Anton Juszkiewicz, Litauische Volks-Weisen, Cracow, 1900) reveals that Stravinsky, consciously or unconsciously, used many more folksongs (or significant sections thereof). The pitches usually correspond exactly, whereas rhythms are changed and grace-notes added. In all the examples cited, Stravinsky transposed the original and sometimes only raised or lowered a single note.

Works: Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring.

Sources: Anton Juszkiewicz, Litauische Volks-Weisen: Nos. 34, 113, 142, 157, 249, 271, 314, 359, 539, 641, 787, and 1785.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Morton, Lawrence. "Stravinsky and Tchaikovsky: Le Baiser de la Fée." The Musical Quarterly 48 (July 1962): 313-26.

Stravinsky's ballet Le Baiser de la Fée is based upon thematic material borrowed from Tchaikovsky and upon music written in the manner of Tchaikovsky. Fourteen works by Tchaikovsky served as major sources of material while several others were possible sources referred to in passing in the music. The search for sources is often difficult because of the nature of the piece; even Stravinsky cannot always tell what music was by Tchaikovsky and what music was by him but written in the manner of Tchaikovsky. In the end, the ballet is more Stravinsky's than it is Tchaikovsky's.

Works: Stravinsky: Le Baiser de la Fée.

Sources: Tchaikovsky: Berceuse de la tempête, Op. 54, No. 10 (315-16), Soir d'hiver, Op. 54, No. 7 (316-17), Humoresque, Op. 10, No. 2 (317-18), Rêverie du soir, Op. 19, No. 1 (318-19), Le Paysan joue à l'accordéon, Op. 39, No. 12 (319), Au village, Op. 40 (319-20), Natha-Valse, Op. 51, No. 4 (319), Tant triste, tant douce, Op. 6, No. 1 (320), Symphony No. 5 (320-22), Scherzo humoristique, Op. 19, No. 2 (322), Feuillet d'album, Op. 19, No. 3 (322), Sleeping Beauty (323), Serenada, Op. 63, No. 6 (323), Polka peu dansante, Op. 51, No. 2 (323-24), Ah! qui brûla d'amour, Op. 6, No. 6 (324).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Moses, Oral L. "The Nineteenth-Century Spiritual Text: A Source for Modern Gospel." In Feel the Spirit: Studies in Nineteenth-Century Afro-American Music, ed. George R. Keck and Sherrill V. Martin, 49-60. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1988.

African-American spirituals are one important textual source for contemporary gospel music. Gospel music addresses similar themes of hardship, struggle, and perseverance, all of which are prevalent in spiritual texts. At least three different twentieth-century gospel versions of the spiritual The Old Ship of Zion have been recorded by performers such as Wings Over Jordan and Modern Gospel. Although gospel performers sometimes change or omit words of a spiritual in gospel arrangements, the importance of the text and its ability to express the oral tradition of African American music remain in the foreground. An appendix lists examples of the various ways in which spiritual texts are borrowed for gospel songs, including chorus only, borrowed incipit, substitution of words, and chorus and stanza borrowed.

Works: Anonymous: Oh, Get Away, Jordan (51-52); Wings Over Jordan (performer): Old Ship of Zion (54-55); Thomas A. Dorsey: Old Ship of Zion (54-55); Modern Gospel (performers): Old Ship of Zion (54-55).

Sources: Anonymous: Oh, Give Way, Jordan (50-51); Anybody Here (52); Jacob?s Ladder (52-53); Keep Your Lamps Trimmed and Burning (52-53); Rise and Shine (52-53); Old Ship of Zion (54-55).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Amanda Sewell

[+] Mosher, Harold F. Jr. "The Lyrics of American Pop Music: A New Poetry." In American Popular Music: Readings from the Popular Press, ed. Timothy Scheurer. Vol. 2, The Age of Rock, 144-50. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University, 1990.

Mimetic songs are a trend in popular music, and the lyrics of these songs follow in the tradition of classical poetry. These songs have meanings, expressed "by simple implication, ambiguity, irony, symbolism, surrealistic devices, or by dramatic means." Paul Simon's songs provide rich examples of meaning, and they draw upon multiple voices, often one newly-composed and one borrowed from pre-existing material. A dramatic opposition and multiple meanings are created between two voices in both Seven O'Clock News/Silent Night and Scarborough Fair/Canticle. Humor and satire is found in At the Zoo.Mrs. Robinson offers a satirical or ironic view of the suburban housewife and includes a mocking reference to Jesus Loves Me This I Know.

Works: Paul Simon: America (146-47), Seven O'Clock News/Silent Night (147), Scarborough Fair/Canticle (147-48), At the Zoo (148), Mrs. Robinson (148-49), A Hazy Shade of Winter (149).

Sources: Franz Gruber: Silent Night (147); Traditional: Scarborough Fair (147); William B. Bradbury: Jesus Loves Me This I Know (149).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Victoria Malawey

[+] Motzkus, Peter. “Simpsons, Inc. (?!): A Very Short Fascicle on Music’s Dramaturgy and Use in Adult Animation Series.” Kieler Beiträge Zur Filmmusikforschung 15 (December 2020): 65-114.

Adult animation series The Simpsons, South Park, and Family Guy share several common categories of musical usage. Since the earliest animated short films in the 1920s, music has been integral to dramaturgy and storytelling in animation. Later, animated sitcoms like The Flintstones and The Jetsons used music in more limited, but no less important ways. While The Simpsons, South Park, and Family Guy have developed in different directions, they all use music to spoof American culture and society. The Simpsons tends to use current music references and recomposed soundalikes while Family Guy tends to use older music in its original form. South Park uses music less often, but musical pop culture of Generations X and Y is still a core component of the show. The use of songs in adult animation can be categorized as recitativo, songs that underscore or forward the plot, and aria, action stopping musical numbers. An example of recitativo in Family Guy can be seen in a scene where Lois prepares for a boxing match and the camera cuts to Peter singing Eye of the Tiger ringside, parodying the Rocky film franchise. The aria category of song use is exemplified by another Family Guy scene that cuts away to the entire music video for David Bowie and Mick Jagger’s Dancing in the Street, diverting entirely from the plot of the episode. The opening sequences of each show also demonstrate the importance of music in their respective narrative and comedic identities. Each show occasionally parodies other television opening themes, as South Park does in its multi-episode parody of Game of Thrones, transforming Ramin Djawadi’s opening title music into A Chorus of Wieners. Each show has also done music-centric episodes where characters join a band, for instance, or the episode itself is structured like a mini musical. With these three series becoming major influences in their medium, music has once again become the backbone of animation.

Works: Carl W. Stalling: soundtrack to The Skeleton Dance (71-72); Alf Clausen: soundtrack to The Simpsons (80, 83); Ron Jones and Walter Murphy: soundtrack to Family Guy (89-91); Adam Berry, Scott Nickoley, and Jamie Dunlap: soundtrack to South Park (84-85, 98-100).

Sources: Edvard Grieg: Trolltog, Op. 54, No. 3 (71-72); Bernard Herrmann: soundtrack to Cape Fear (80); Hans Zimmer: soundtrack to Inception (83); Erick Wolfgang Korngold: soundtrack to The Sea Hawk (84); Zach Hemsey: Mind Heist (84-85); Mozart: Eine kleine Nachtmusik (85-6); Survivor: Eye of the Tiger (89-90); William Stevenson (songwriter), David Bowie and Mick Jagger (performers): Dancing In The Street (91); Ramin Djawadi: soundtrack to Game of Thrones (98-100).

Index Classifications: 1900s, 2000s, Popular, Film

Contributed by: Matthew Van Vleet

[+] Moulin, Jane Freeman. "What's Mine is Yours?: Cultural Borrowing in a Pacific Context." Contemporary Pacific 8 (Spring 1996): 128-53.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Mueller, Richard Elmer. "Imitation and Stylization in the Balinese Music of Colin McPhee." Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1983.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Mueller, Richard. "Bali, Tabuh-Tabuhan, and Colin McPhee's Method of Intercultural Composition." Journal of Musicological Research 10 (March 1991): 127-75; 11 (May 1991): 67-92.

In composing Tabuh-Tabuhan, Colin McPhee aimed to integrate Balinese music into the Western symphonic idiom such that it would appeal to Western audiences without losing its distinctiveness. By using authentic Balinese series of notes such as the pèlog and the jejogan incorporated with other motives (ganderangan and rindik), McPhee created a structure unique to both Balinese and Western traditions. McPhee also wanted to "re-create" Balinese music for a Western audience who could not hear this music performed on its original instruments. To this end, he incorporated the overtones of the different-sized gongs of the gamelan instruments into the orchestral texture, achieving the sounds he heard without their original creators.

Works: Colin McPhee: Tabuh-Tabuhan (127-75, 67-92).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Marc Geelhoed

[+] Mumper, D. Robert. "The First Piano Sonata of Charles Ives." D.M.A. document, Indiana University, 1971.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Murphy, John P. “Jazz Improvisation: The Joy of Influence.” The Black Perspective in Music 18, no. 1 (1990): 7-19.

One of the central questions in jazz research is the relationship of a specific jazz musician to his or her jazz predecessors. Harold Bloom’s anxiety-based model of influence, despite its current popularity across the humanities, is not an effective starting point in the ethnomusicological discourse surrounding quotation or allusion in jazz. Alternatively, Henry Louise Gates Jr.’s model of “Signifyin(g)” offers a better tool for understanding jazz musicians’ relationship to their precursors, as well as the ways they can generate meaning from this tension. Gates’s model is better for two reasons. First, it directly addresses jazz music and folk improvisation in addition to literary traditions whereas Bloom’s model focuses on literature. Second, it reflects the vernacular, communal nature of African American art versus the refinement and monolithic originality idealized by nineteenth-century authors. In other words, the influence of predecessors is felt joyfully rather than anxiously in jazz improvisation, and musical quotations tend to reflect homage. In the context of “Signifyin(g),” Joe Henderson’s quotation of a motive from Charlie Parker’s Buzzy in a chorus of his 1965 recording If, or in his 1981 recording of Freddie Hubbard’s Bird Like, generates a joyful dialogue between the performer and an audience or ensemble who would recognize the reference, rather than an anxious dialogue between the performer and his predecessor. Repetition, interpretation, and transformation rest on the assumption of a communal language which accurately reflects the nature of mainstream jazz improvisation more broadly.

Works: Joe Henderson: If (10-11, 13); Joe Henderson (performer) and Freddie Hubbard (composer and performer): Bird Like (10-17).

Sources: Charlie Parker: Buzzy (10-17).

Index Classifications: General, 1900s, Jazz

Contributed by: Felicia Miyakawa, Molly Covington, Matthew G. Leone

[+] Myers, Betty Dustin. "The Orchestral Music of Charles Ives." M.M. thesis, Indiana University, 1951.

Index Classifications: 1900s

[+] Nadeau, Roland. "The Crisis of Tonality: What is Avant-Garde?" Music Educators Journal 47, no. 7 (March 1981): 37-41.

The idea of the avant-garde has been misinterpreted as the music of the atonalists and experimentalists. These styles of music actually became the standard of Western art music in the early twentieth century because of the support found in academia. The composers still writing in the tonal idiom and looking back to the past for support should be seen more as the avant-garde. These composers, such as Stravinsky, Copland, Prokofiev, Milhaud, and Bernstein were creating new music firmly founded in the tonal traditions of the 1700s and 1800s. The future of tonal music, although impossible to predict, may be rooted in assimilation and dissemination of non-Western music. Though composers like Chavez, Bartók, Villa-Lobos, and Messiaen have borrowed from non-Western music sources in their compositions, the total integration of other musical traditions has yet to be accomplished.

Works: Liebermann: Concerto for Jazzband and Orchestra (40); Stockhausen: Gruppen (41); Tippett: The Knot Garden (41); Stockhausen: Hymnen (41); Rochberg: String Quartet No. 3 (41); Bernstein: Mass (41); Berio: Sinfonia (41).

Sources: Mahler: Symphony No. 2, Resurrection (41).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Matthew Altizer

[+] Nectoux, Jean-Michel. "Works Renounced, Themes Rediscovered: Eléments pour une thématique fauréenne." 19th-Century Music 2 (March 1979): 231-44.

In his late works, Fauré returns to themes of his earlier works. These ideas can be placed in distinct groups such that each forms a sort of musical chain of references. There are three main groups or chains: (1) the Lydia Group which originates in an early song of the same title; (2) the Soir Group which originates in the song of 1894; and (3) the Ulysse Group which is named after the character in the opera Penelope. Nectoux traces these referential chains as the various ideas return in later works and in different guises. Numerous works are mentioned and discussed. The self-borrowings are not evidence of a lack of melodic inspiration since the ideas are always transformed and re-worked. Rather, these references to his earlier works in the late works are "similar in function to the memories of his youth with which his last letters are full"; they relate to the Romantic representation of memory. The chains of references also reveal a unique continuity in his work. "Fauré's output is highly unified."

Works: Fauré: La Bonne Chanson (232), Prométhée (232), Sonata for Violin, Op. 13 (232), Piano Quartet, Op. 15 (232), Elégie (232), Chanson d'Ève (236), Violin Concerto, Op. 14 (237), Symphony in F (or Orchestral Suite), Op. 20 (237), Symphony in D Minor, Op. 40 (237).

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: David C. Birchler

[+] Nelson, Mark D. "Beyond Mimesis: Transcendentalism and Processes of Analogy in Charles Ives' The Fourth of July." Perspectives of New Music 22 (Fall/Winter 1983-Spring/Summer 1984): 353-84.

Ives's Fourth of July is characterized by polymeter, polytonality, dense textures, and quotations from popular and folk tunes. It is a fully integrated work whose multiple layerings and quotations had deep philosophical implications for the composer. Ives, the Transcendentalist, was able to perceive a unity among superficial and discordant events. In this work, he creates analogies to four types of events: acoustical (music of parades, church services, and so on); natural phenomena (violin glissando passage representing smoke); psychological phenomena; and non-programmatic musical unity.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Sergio Bezerra

[+] Nelson, Robert U. "Stravinsky's Concept of Variations." In Stravinsky: A New Appraisal of His Work, ed. Paul Henry Lang, 61-73. New York: W. W. Norton, 1963.

Despite Stravinsky's claim that his goal was to remain faithful to "the theme as a melody," the degree of relationship to the original melody varies widely in his variation works. While the melody itself is generally recognizable, his treatment of other musical elements is nearly unlimited in its freedom and flexibility. Though his variation works are dominated by free variation techniques, there are examples of clear influence from variation practices dating from the sixteenth century through the nineteenth century. Stravinsky's use of variations frequently creates sharp contrasts of mood within a piece, while maintaining cohesion through the use of repetitive figuration and ostinato figures. Considered as a group, Stravinsky's variations are clearly linked to the traditions of the past while making use of progressive compositional techniques.

Works: Stravinsky: Pulcinella (61), Octet for Wind Instruments (61-63, 64, 69, 70, 71), Concerto for Two Pianos (61-63, 68-69, 70, 71), Jeu de cartes (61-63, 65-66, 71-72), Danses concertantes (61-62, 63, 65, 66-67, 70-71, 72), Sonata for Two Pianos (61-62, 63, 65, 68, 70-71, 72), Ebony Concerto (61-62, 63, 65, 66-67, 72), Septet (61-62, 63, 64-65, 70, 72).

Sources: Haydn: Variations in F minor, Hob. XVII:6 (63); Byrd: John come kisse me now (64); Scheidt: Christe, qui lux es et dies (64); J. S. Bach: Von Himmel hoch, da komm' ich her, BWV 606 (65), Christ, der du bist der helle Tag, BWV 766 (67); Ebner: Variations on an Air (69); Beethoven: Thirty-Three Variations on a Waltz by Diabelli,Op. 120 (71); Schumann: 12 Etudes Symphoniques, Op. 13 (71).

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Sherri Winks

[+] Nelson, Robert U. The Technique of Variation: A Study of the Instrumental Variation from Antonio de Cabézon to Max Reger. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1948; 2nd ed., 1962.

Variations, which often use borrowed material, fall into the following seven historical categories: (1) Renaissance and Baroque variations on secular songs, dances, and arias; (2) Renaissance and Baroque variations on plainchant and chorales; (3) the Baroque basso ostinato variation; (4) the ornamental variation of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; (5) the nineteenth-century character variation; (6) the nineteenth-century basso ostinato variation; and (7) the free variation of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Variations also fall into two basic plans, structural and free. Variations in categories (1) through (6) above followed the older structural plan, in which basic relationships of parts, sections, and phrases in the theme were preserved in the variations. By the early twentieth century, variations were constructed in two ways: following the structural plan and following the newer free plan, in which basic relationships of sections and phrases in the theme were disregarded. Generally, the most conspicuous elements of themes most emphatically demand change. Rhythm is the most conspicuous element, and thus must be varied the most. The melodic subject is second most conspicuous. The harmonico-structural frame is least conspicuous, was historically generally retained, and therefore may be considered as the substance of the theme. All variations are committed to the task of securing unity within a manifold. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries there was a growing trend toward the use of original themes. Renaissance and Baroque themes were frequently borrowed from dances and secular songs. In the ornamental variation, borrowed themes continued to include the dance piece and the popular song and also included the operatic excerpt. In the nineteenth-century character variation, neither the secular song nor the operatic aria were important sources of borrowed themes. Instead, composers used instrumental works (such as suites and sonatas) and instrumentally conceived themes from members of their own circles. Despite the trend toward the use of original themes, borrowed themes, including folk songs, still persisted in the free variation.

Index Classifications: General, 1500s, 1600s, 1700s, 1800s, 1900s

Contributed by: Daniel Bertram

[+] Newlin, Dika. "Arnold Schoenberg's Debt to Mahler." Chord and Discord 2 (1948): 21-26.

Many features of Schoenberg's music cannot be understood without Mahler. Schoenberg, however, usually goes beyond his predecessor. The clarity of each voice in the orchestral texture is clearly based on Mahler and the concept of beginning a piece tonally and ending atonally is derived from Mahler's way of starting a work in one key and finishing it in another.

Works: Schoenberg: String Quartet No. 2, Gurre-Lieder.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: Andreas Giger

[+] Newlin, Dika. "Later Works of Ernest Bloch." The Musical Quarterly 33 (October 1947): 443-59.

Newlin surveys selected Bloch works from 1921 to 1947. Jewish characteristics, such as melodies incorporating the augmented second, appear not only in explicitly Jewish works, but also in works without overt programmatic significance, such as the Violin Concerto. The America symphony, which eschews Jewish characteristics, quotes extensively from various American musics, but "the stringing together of so many unrelated ideas" has interfered with Bloch's inspiration. The Avodath Hakodesh effectively combines "universal with 'racial' traits," including a lengthy quotation from liturgical chant.

Works: Bloch: Avodath Hakodesh (Sacred Service), America, an Epic Rhapsody in Three Movements.

Index Classifications: 1900s

Contributed by: David Lieberman

[+] Newlin, Dika. "Music for the Flickering Image: American Film Scores." Music Educators Journal 64, no. 114 (September 1977): 24-35.

Film music serves many purposes in supporting the visual media by setting the mood, location, or time-period, suggesting a principal ethnic group, reinforcing action, offering contrary information, and drawing attention away from undesirable visual images. Film scores borrow from well-known pre-existing music to suggest location, time, and ethnic groups. In John Cromwell's Of Human Bondage, the music switches from "La Marseillaise" to "British Grenadiers" to signal the main character's change in location. Film score composers allude stylistically to ethnic folk music idioms to suggest a particular group of people. These idioms are often spuriously employed through the repetitious use of a particular convention, such as a pentatonic scale, gongs, and temple bells to signify Chinese traditional music, or heavy drumbeats and chanting for Native American music. Film music composers often model compositions on stylistic conventions of a given period in Western art music. Max Steiner's score for The Informer, set in Ireland during the 1920s, borrowed the Irish traditional tune, "The Minstrel Boy," Miklos Rozsa's score for Ivanhoe reflects the film's setting through the music of French troubadours, and Elmer Bernstein's score for The Ten Commandments draws on the unique timbre of the ram's horn during the Exodus scene. Bernard Herrmann's score for The 7th Voyage of Sinbad did not directly borrow the corresponding ethnic idiomatic music, but implied its use through the borrowing of Rimsky-Korsakov's Scheherazade. Early American film scores were often modeled on or borrowed directly from late nineteenth-century European composers, as Joseph Carl Breil's score for the 1915 Birth of a Nation used Richard Wagner's "The Ride of the Valkyries." Aaron Copland and Virgil Thomson influenced the move towards sparse orchestration in later American film score composers by incorporating American folksongs. Jazz and popular music became frequent sources of borrowing in the 1940s, as did rock music from the 1950s through the 1970s in films as in Rock Around the Clock,Don't Knock the Rock, and The Twist.American Graffiti used rock music as background for stories of the turbulence and uncertainty of the period. Film score composers are now employing both rich symphonic scoring along with the "musical potpourri" of the silent film era.

Works: Max Steiner: score to Of Human Bondage (27), score to The Informer (28); Miklos Rozsa: score to Ivanhoe (28); Bernard Herrmann: score to The 7th Voyage of Sinbad (28); George Lucas, et al.: score to American Graffiti (32).

Sources: Rimsky-Korsakov: Scheherazade (28); Richard Wagner: "Ride of the Valkyries" from Die Walküre (29); Jimmy DeKnight and Max Freedman: Rock Around the Clock as performed by Bill Haley and the Comets (32).

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: Kathleen Widden

[+] Newman, Philip Edward. "The Songs of Charles Ives." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Iowa, 1967.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Newsom, Jon. "'A Sound Idea': Music for Animated Films." The Quarterly Journal of the Library of Congress (Summer 1984): 279-308.

The use and adaptation of existing music in animated films involved more than mere selective quotation. While small segments and entire movements of "classical" pieces from the 18th to the early 20th centuries were sometimes animated, composers were most often required to be adept at altering the formal structure of an existing work to accommodate the requirements of the animated film. In the lighter, more eclectic style of animated shorts, scores like those by Scott Bradley exhibit characteristics of Stravinsky, including octatonicism, tonally disjunct melody figurations, and orchestration. In major animated films such as those of Disney, Tchaikovsky's ballet music was similarly adapted. Significantly, the forms in which these existing works were used represented the first exposure to these pieces for many spectators of these animated films.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Film

Contributed by: David Oliver

[+] Nicholls, David. American Experimental Music, 1890-1940. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Index Classifications: 1800s, 1900s

[+] Nicholson, Sara. "Keep Going: The Use of Classical Music Samples in Mono's 'Hello Cleveland!'" ECHO: A Music-Centered Journal 4 (Spring 2002) [http://www.echo.ucla.edu/volume4-issue1/nicholson/nicholson1.html].

The duo Mono's 1997 album Formica Blues samples a variety of sources. For instance, the tenth track of the album, Hello Cleveland, samples works from Berio, Webern, Schoenberg, and Berg, which are combined with Mono's composed ambient setting. Depending on the listener, one would hear this track in two different ways. To a listener unfamiliar with classical music or with these particular source pieces, it might sound like a collection of undifferentiated "classical" sources. But to one more familiar with classical music and the tradition of borrowing, the song is full of potential meaning. However, when Mono provides the listener with such an abundance of sources, the knowing listener is left with a similar result as the unknowing listener: no single, unified narrative.

Works: Mono [Martin Virgo and Siobhan de Maré]: Formica Blues, Hello Cleveland.

Sources: Burt Bacharach: Walk on By; John Barry: Ipcress File; Miles Davis and Gil Evans: The Pan Piper; Berg: Lulu Suite; Schoenberg: Five Orchestral Pieces, Op. 16; Berio: Sinfonia; Webern: Six Pieces for Orchestra, Op. 6.

Index Classifications: 1900s, Popular

Contributed by: Kerry O'Brien

[+] Nicolosi, Robert J. "T. S. Eliot and Music: